HiSPARC log Week commencingDay Time of max peak Value of max peak Time of min peak Value of min peakWeather Significant weather events Time of significant weather eventsSolar events Additional notes 14/01/2013Mon14:00156201:001204 About 4C and sunny some light snow Early morning Sunspot number 126 solar wind 509.3 km/sec Tue14:00151304:001291 Sunny, Clear skies Wed07:00149022:001271 Medium level of cloud some sunny spells in afternoon max temp 2 and min - 3 Sunspot number 74 solar wind 438.9km/sec Thu14:00148002:001232Cloudy Fri11:00156902:001308 Heavy Snow and cloudy about -1C5am- 10am Sunspot number 46 solar wind 396.5km/sec Sat01:00144921:001212 Cloudy, light snow Sun11:00133510:001190 grey cloud and average temp - 1C
PROJECT TEAMS Day/night – Gaby, Livvy & Tegan Temperature – Chennie, Flo & Rosanna Pressure – Darcy & Martha Moon – Fiona & Amy Latitude – Sophie & Selina Longitude – Amy, Ellie & Ellie
What is Day? The period of light between dawn and nightfall; the interval from sunrise to sunset or the 24-hour period during which the earth completes one rotation on its axis. What is night? The period of darkness between sunset and sunrise. This varies in length of time depending upon the season. DAY AND NIGHT
Cosmic rays are affected by solar flares and magnetic storms on the surface of the sun. Magnetic storms produce solar wind which then affects the cloud cover on earth. If there is less cloud cover then the temperature of earth warms, if there is more cloud cover then it reduces the temperature. Solar flares work in cycles of 11 years and are fundamentally effected by cosmic rays. For example, during the little ice age in the 17 th century temperatures dropped on average by 0.25, enough to put us in to an ice age. It is thought that there was little solar wind and reduced cosmic ray events during this time.
Typically, day counts of cosmic rays should be lower than the night counts due to the temperature of the atmosphere. However the data from the Royal High School between the 9 th June and 22 nd June showed little variation between day and night and at sunset. Between 4 am and 6 am the number of events recorded per hour averaged out at approximately 1200 hits and between 8 and 10pm the number of events recorded averaged out at about the same level. Difference between day and night events:
21 st June – summer solstice. This day had the highest number of events recorded in the time period that I looked at, averaging about 1350 events per hour, with a peak between 2 and 4 am.
TEMPERATURE How can temperature affect the number of cosmic rays we detect? An increase in temperature will make molecules move faster, which will increase the rate at which processes which depend on the speed of molecules take place. It does not affect the attraction and repulsion of charge carriers in air. We would therefore expect the number of cosmic rays detected to increase with temperature.
Scientists from the UK’s National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), working in collaboration with a major U.S.-led particle physics experiment called MINOS, have produced a study which shows the following: the number of high-energy cosmic-rays reaching a detector deep underground closely matches temperature measurements in the upper atmosphere (known as the stratosphere). cosmic-rays, known as muons are produced following the decay of other cosmic rays, known as mesons. Increasing the temperature of the atmosphere expands the atmosphere so that fewer mesons are destroyed on impact with air, leaving more to decay naturally to muons, and so the number of muons detected increases.
Does the amount of cosmic rays arriving have an effect on the temperature of the Earth? Is this because they affect cloud formation?
LATITUDE Closer to the equator there is less radiation than at higher latitudes (determined by a Dutchman called Jacob Clay). This is due to the effect of the Earth’s magnetic field. Particles with a high energy will only be slightly deflected by the Earth’s magnetic field.
Particles with lower energies are usually deflected towards the poles of the Earth – this is what causes the Northern lights (aurorae). The Sun is a major source of particles with lower energies.
Positive particles will also be deflected toward the East. This means that to an observer on the Earth’s surface there will appear to be more particles coming from the West than from the East. Are the particles that we are detecting affected by the Earth’s magnetic field or do they have too high an energy to not be affected?
LONGITUDE The longitude effect was first observed in 1935 by Robert A Millikan and H. Victor Neher. It causes the number of cosmic rays to be detected around the world at different longitudes to fluctuate. The longitude effect is linked to the position of the Earth’s magnetic centre.
The position of the Earth’s magnetic centre affects the Earth's magnetic field, which acts to deflect cosmic rays from its surface. The change in flux of the Earth’s magnetic field is therefore dependent on latitude, longitude and azimuth angle. The magnetic field lines deflect the cosmic rays towards the poles, giving rise to the aurorae.
Does the rotation of the Earth affect the deflection of particles? Positive particles will be deflected toward the East. This means that to an observer on the Earth’s surface there will appear to be more particles coming from the West than from the East. In which direction are negatively charged particles deflected?
DATES OF NOTICEABLE SPIKES IN OUR DATA Friday 14 th December - 4496 events @ 1000 hrs Thursday 20 th December - 3236 events @ 1100 hrs Tuesday 8 th January - 3240 events @ 2200 hrs Sunday 10th February - 2842 events @ 1600 hrs Thursday 7 th March - 3547 events @ 1000 hrs Wednesday 10 th April – 2629 events @ 1700 hrs
STATIONS WITH A SIMILAR LATITUDE TO ROYAL HIGH SCHOOL BATH: Bath - Beechen Cliff School (Station no 13101) Swindon – New College (Sation no 13201) Terneuzen - Sted. Scholengem. De Rede (Station no 3401) Eindhoven – Pius College Bladel (Station no 8005) Panningen – Bouwens van der Boije College (Station no 8201)