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Welcome to the Spring 2013 Semester!

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1 Welcome to the Spring 2013 Semester!
Human Anatomy, BIOSC 47 Welcome to the Spring 2013 Semester! Dr. Sonya Schuh-Huerta, Ph.D. ~Dr. S Leonardo da Vinci, 1485

2 Who am I?… Research Scientist at Stanford & Part-time Assoc. Prof. at Mission College Earned my Ph.D. in Physiology & Biophysics from the Univ. of Washington (Seattle); before that HSU; before that UCR; before that – a small community college in Southern California… My research is on human development, reproductive biology and genetics, fertility, & stem cell biology I love teaching! I expect a lot from myself & from my students – this class will be challenging, but we’ll also have a lot of fun! One word of advise – hard work is more important than intelligence, innate ability, or anything else. With hard-work & perseverance you can truly conquer any goal. On a personal note – I have 3 kids, 1 husband, 2 dogs, & 2 cats..

3 What is Anatomy? Anatomy Physiology
The study of the structure of the body Physiology The study of body function Anatomy & Physiology are closely related & you need to understand a bit about both as you are learning them

4 Introduction to the Human Body Lecture 1, Ch 1

5 Overview of Anatomy Branches of anatomy Anatomical terminology
Gross Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy (Histology) Surface Anatomy Developmental Anatomy Embryology Pathological Anatomy (Pathology) Radiographic Anatomy Functional Morphology Anatomical terminology Based on ancient Greek or Latin Provides standard nomenclature worldwide

6 The Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Chemical level – atoms form molecules Cellular level – cells and their functional subunits Tissue level – a group of cells performing a common function Organ level – a group of different types of tissues working together

7 The Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Atoms Molecule Organelle Smooth muscle cell 1 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascular system 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Heart Blood vessel (organ) Blood vessels Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelial tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely.

8 The Body’s 11 Organ Systems & Their Major Functions

9 Integumentary System Forms external body covering
Protects deeper tissues from injury Synthesizes vitamin D Site of cutaneous receptors -pain, pressure, etc. & sweat & oil glands Hair Nails Skin

10 Skeletal System Protects & supports body organs
Provides a framework for muscles Blood cells formed within bones Stores minerals (calcium) Bones Joint

11 Muscular System Allows manipulation of environment Locomotion
Facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat Skeletal muscles

12 Nervous System Fast-acting control system Controls many body functions
Responds to internal & external changes Brain Nerves Spinal cord

13 Endocrine System Involved in many processes; glands secrete hormones
that regulate: Growth Reproduction Metabolism Circadian rhythms Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary

14 Cardiovascular System
Blood vessels transport blood Carries O2 & CO2 Carries nutrients & wastes Heart pumps blood through blood vessels Heart Blood vessels

15 Lymphatic / Immune System
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels Disposes of debris Houses white blood cells Mounts attack against foreign substances in the body Red bone marrow Thymus Lymphatic vessels Thoracic duct Spleen Lymph nodes

16 Respiratory System Keeps blood supplied w/ O2 Removes CO2
Gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs (alveoli in lungs) Nasal cavity Pharynx Bronchus Larynx Trachea Lung

17 Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units
Indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces Also secretes hormones involved in appetite & metabolism Oral cavity Esophagus Liver Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus

18 Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes as urine
Regulates water, electrolyte, & acid-base balance Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra

19 Reproductive System Overall function = produce offspring
Testes produce sperm & male sex hormones Ovaries produce eggs & female sex hormones Mammary glands produce milk Mammary glands (in breasts) Prostate gland Ovary Penis Testis Ductus deferens Uterine tube Scrotum Uterus Vagina

20 Scale: Length, Volume, & Weight
Metric system = provides a precise system of measurement Weight (mass)  grams (g), kilograms (kg) Volume  liters (l), milliliters (ml) Length  meters (m), centimeters (cm), micrometers (mm)… -Average adult = 1.5 – 2.0 meters long -Cells & tissues are measured in mm -Avg cell diameter = 10 mm -Largest cell  oocyte! (~100+ mm) oocyte within follicle

21 Gross Anatomy – An Introduction
Anatomical position – a common visual reference point Person stands erect with feet together & eyes forward Palms face anteriorly with thumbs pointed away from body Directional terminology – refers to the body in anatomical position Standardized terms of directions are paired terms

22 Orientation & Directional Terms

23 Orientation & Directional Terms

24 Orientation & Directional Terms

25 Gross Anatomy – An Introduction
Directional terms Regional terms = names of specific body areas Axial region = the main axis of the body Appendicular region = the limbs

26 Regional Terms of Gross Anatomy
Axial region Appendicular region Cephalic (head) Frontal Upper limb Orbital Nasal Acromial Oral Brachial (arm) Mental Antecubital Cervical (neck) Antebrachial (forearm) Thoracic Axillary Carpal (wrist) Sternal Mammary Manus (hand) Abdominal Pollex Umbilical Pelvic Palmar Digital Inguinal (groin) Lower limb Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Patellar Pubic (genital) Crural (leg) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Thorax Tarsal (ankle) Abdomen Back (Dorsum) Metatarsal Digital Hallux (a) Anterior/Ventral

27 Regional Terms of Gross Anatomy
Appendicular region Cephalic Otic Occipital (back of head) Upper limb Acromial Cervical Brachial (arm) Back (dorsal) Olecranal Scapular Antebrachial (forearm) Vertebral Lumbar Manus (hand) Sacral Metacarpal Gluteal Digital Perineal (between anus and external genitalia Lower limb Femoral (thigh) Popliteal Sural (calf) Fibular or peroneal Thorax Pedal (foot) Abdomen Calcaneal Back (Dorsum) Plantar (b) Posterior/Dorsal

28 Body Planes and Sections
Coronal (frontal) plane = Lies vertically & divides body into anterior & posterior parts Median (midsagittal) plane = Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline Transverse plane = Runs horizontally & divides body into superior & inferior parts Frontal plane Median plane (midsagittal) Transverse plane


30 An Orientation to the Human Body

31 Characteristics Common to All Vertebrates
Tube-within-a-tube Bilateral symmetry Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord & vertebrae Segmentation Pharyngeal pouches

32 Basic Human Body Plan & Vertebrate Structures
Notochord Muscle segments (myotomes) Brain Spinal cord Brain Pharynx Muscle segments (muscles between ribs) Pharyngeal pouches Heart Digestive tube (a) Generalized vertebrate Spinal cord Lung bud Pharyngeal pouches Heart Vertebrae Spinal cord Disc between vertebrae Notochord Digestive tube Muscle segments (myotomes) (c) Adult human Digestive tube Brain Heart Inner tube Segmented outer tube (b) Human embryo; 5 weeks postconception Dorsal hollow nerve tube Notochord

33 Body Cavities & Membranes
Cranial cavity (contains brain Dorsal body cavity Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Dorsal body cavity Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity (a) Lateral view

34 Body Cavities & Membranes
Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity – divided into 3 parts Two lateral parts each containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity Mediastinum – contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac Abdominopelvic cavity – divided into 2 parts Abdominal cavity – contains the liver, stomach, kidneys, and other organs Pelvic cavity – contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, & rectum

35 Ventral Cavities Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Superior mediastinum
Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Vertebral cavity Superior mediastinum Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Diaphragm Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Abdomino- pelvic cavity Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) (b) Anterior view

36 Body Cavities & Membranes
Serous cavities – a slit-like space lined by a serous membrane Pleura, pericardium, & peritoneum Parietal serosa – outer wall of the cavity Visceral serosa – inner wall of the cavity; covers the visceral organs

37 Body Cavities & Membranes
Outer balloon wall (comparable to parietal serosa) Air (comparable to serous cavity) But no air in serous cavities! Inner balloon wall (comparable to visceral serosa) Model of the serous membranes & serous cavities

38 Body Cavities & Membranes
Lung Ribs Parietal pleura Pleural cavity with serous fluid Visceral pleura Diaphragm Serosae associated with the lungs: pleura

39 Body Cavities & Membranes
Heart Parietal pericardium Pericardial cavity with serous fluid Visceral pericardium Serosae associated with the heart: pericardium

40 Body Cavities & Membranes
Anterior Visceral peritoneum Peritoneal cavity (with serous fluid) Liver Stomach Parietal peritoneum Kidney (retroperitoneal) Wall of body trunk Posterior Serosae associated with the abdominal viscera: peritoneum Figure 1.7c

41 Abdominal Regions & Quadrants
Abdominal regions divide abdomen into 9 regions Abdominal quadrants divide abdomen into 4 quadrants Right upper & left upper quadrants Right lower & left lower quadrants

42 Abdominal Regions Epigastric region Umbilical Right lumbar Left
hypochondriac Hypogastric (pubic) Right iliac (inguinal) Left iliac (a) 9 regions delineated by 4 planes Liver Diaphragm Spleen Gallbladder Stomach Ascending colon of large intestine Transverse colon of large intestine Small intestine Descending colon of large intestine Cecum Initial part of sigmoid colon Appendix Urinary bladder (b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs

43 Abdominal Quadrants Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant
(LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) (c) The 4 abdominopelvic quadrants

44 Microscopic Anatomy Microscopy – examining small structures through a microscope Antonie van Leeuwenhoek  1st discovered & examined cells (“animalcules”) with homemade microscopes in mid-1600s -Light microscopy = illuminates tissue with a beam of light (lower magnification) -Transmission electron microscopy = uses beam of electrons (higher mag); specimens coated w/ heavy-metal salts, which deflect electrons to different extents

45 Microscopic Anatomy Scanning electron microscopy Artifacts
Coat specimen with carbon & gold – when electron beam scans specimen, secondary electrons are emitted & detected beautiful 3D images assembled! These images give amazing surface detail of cells & small structures. Artifacts Minor distortions of preserved tissues Not exactly like living tissues & organs

46 Microscopic Anatomy Cytoplasm Cell nuclei Extracellular material
(a) Light micrograph (330) (c) Scanning electron micrograph, artificially colored (2900) (b) Transmission electron micrograph, artificially colored (870)

47 Microscopic Anatomy Preparing human tissue for microscopy
Specimen is fixed (preserved) & sectioned Specimen is stained to distinguish structures Acidic stain – negatively charged dye molecules Basic stain – positively charged dye molecules

48 Clinical Anatomy – An Introduction to Medical Imaging Techniques
X ray – electromagnetic waves of very short length Best for visualizing bones and abnormal dense structures Clavicles (collarbones) Ribs Air in lungs (black) Heart Diaphragm (a) Radiograph of the chest (b) Mammogram (cancerous tumor at arrow)

49 Advanced Imaging Techniques
Computed (axial) tomography (CT or CAT) = takes successive X rays around a person's full circumference Creates detailed picture of body sections (transverse) Great for soft tissue & bone; fast & inexpensive! Right Left Liver Stomach Colon View Inferior vena cava Aorta Spleen Left kidney Thoracic vertebra

50 Advanced Imaging Techniques
Angiography or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging = provides an unobstructed view of small arteries Contrast medium is injected Used to identify blockages of arteries that supply heart or brain Artery supplying heart Narrowing of the artery

51 Advanced Imaging Techniques
Positron emission tomography (PET) = forms images by detecting radioactive isotopes (of sugar or water) injected into the body -Identifies regions of cellular activity & most active cells

52 Advanced Imaging Techniques
Sonography (ultrasound imaging) = body is probed with pulses of high-frequency sound waves that echo off the body’s tissues Used to determine the age & health of a developing fetus (safe, no X-rays used)

53 Advanced Imaging Techniques
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) = produces high-quality images of soft tissues Distinguishes body tissues based on relative water content (magnet detects hydrogen) Functional MRI = measures blood oxygen, detects active regions

54 Questions…. What’s Next
Questions…? What’s Next? Lab: Gross Anatomy Terminology Wed Lecture: Cells Wed Lab: Cells & the Microscope

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