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Human Anatomy, BIOSC 47 Welcome to the Spring 2013 Semester! Dr. Sonya Schuh-Huerta, Ph.D. ~Dr. S Leonardo da Vinci, 1485.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Anatomy, BIOSC 47 Welcome to the Spring 2013 Semester! Dr. Sonya Schuh-Huerta, Ph.D. ~Dr. S Leonardo da Vinci, 1485."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Anatomy, BIOSC 47 Welcome to the Spring 2013 Semester! Dr. Sonya Schuh-Huerta, Ph.D. ~Dr. S Leonardo da Vinci, 1485

2 Who am I?… Research Scientist at Stanford & Part-time Assoc. Prof. at Mission College Earned my Ph.D. in Physiology & Biophysics from the Univ. of Washington (Seattle); before that HSU; before that UCR; before that – a small community college in Southern California… My research is on human development, reproductive biology and genetics, fertility, & stem cell biology I love teaching! I expect a lot from myself & from my students – this class will be challenging, but we’ll also have a lot of fun! One word of advise – hard work is more important than intelligence, innate ability, or anything else. With hard-work & perseverance you can truly conquer any goal. On a personal note – I have 3 kids, 1 husband, 2 dogs, & 2 cats..

3 What is Anatomy? Anatomy –The study of the structure of the body Physiology –The study of body function Anatomy & Physiology are closely related & you need to understand a bit about both as you are learning them

4 Introduction to the Human Body Lecture 1, Ch 1

5 –Developmental Anatomy –Embryology –Pathological Anatomy (Pathology) –Radiographic Anatomy –Functional Morphology Anatomical terminology –Based on ancient Greek or Latin –Provides standard nomenclature worldwide Branches of anatomy –Gross Anatomy –Microscopic Anatomy (Histology) –Surface Anatomy Overview of Anatomy

6 The Hierarchy of Structural Organization Chemical level – atoms form molecules Cellular level – cells and their functional subunits Tissue level – a group of cells performing a common function Organ level – a group of different types of tissues working together

7 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Cardiovascular system Organelle Molecule Atoms Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue The Hierarchy of Structural Organization

8 The Body’s 11 Organ Systems & Their Major Functions OVERVIEW

9 Integumentary System Forms external body covering Protects deeper tissues from injury Synthesizes vitamin D Site of cutaneous receptors -pain, pressure, etc. & sweat & oil glands Nails Skin Hair

10 Skeletal System Protects & supports body organs Provides a framework for muscles Blood cells formed within bones Stores minerals (calcium) Bones Joint

11 Muscular System Allows manipulation of environment Locomotion Facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat Skeletal muscles

12 Nervous System Fast-acting control system Controls many body functions Responds to internal & external changes Brain Nerves Spinal cord

13 Endocrine System Involved in many processes; glands secrete hormones that regulate: –Growth –Reproduction –Metabolism –Circadian rhythms Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary

14 Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood –Carries O 2 & CO 2 –Carries nutrients & wastes Heart pumps blood through blood vessels Heart Blood vessels

15 Lymphatic vessels Red bone marrow Thoracic duct Thymus Spleen Lymph nodes Lymphatic / Immune System Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels Disposes of debris Houses white blood cells Mounts attack against foreign substances in the body

16 Respiratory System Keeps blood supplied w/ O 2 Removes CO 2 Gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs (alveoli in lungs) Nasal cavity Bronchus Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lung

17 Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units Indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces Also secretes hormones involved in appetite & metabolism Liver Oral cavity Esophagus Large intestine Stomach Small intestine Rectum Anus

18 Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes as urine Regulates water, electrolyte, & acid-base balance Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra

19 Reproductive System Overall function = produce offspring Testes produce sperm & male sex hormones Ovaries produce eggs & female sex hormones Mammary glands produce milk Prostate gland Ductus deferens Penis Testis Scrotum Ovary Mammary glands (in breasts) Uterus Vagina Uterine tube

20 Scale: Length, Volume, & Weight Metric system = provides a precise system of measurement Weight (mass)  grams (g), kilograms (kg) Volume  liters (l), milliliters (ml) Length  meters (m), centimeters (cm), micrometers (  m)… -Average adult = 1.5 – 2.0 meters long -Cells & tissues are measured in  m -Avg cell diameter = 10  m -Largest cell  oocyte! (~100+  m) oocyte within follicle

21 Gross Anatomy – An Introduction Anatomical position – a common visual reference point –Person stands erect with feet together & eyes forward –Palms face anteriorly with thumbs pointed away from body Directional terminology – refers to the body in anatomical position –Standardized terms of directions are paired terms

22 Orientation & Directional Terms



25 Gross Anatomy – An Introduction Directional terms Regional terms = names of specific body areas Axial region = the main axis of the body Appendicular region = the limbs

26 Cervical (neck) (a) Anterior/Ventral Pubic (genital) Cephalic (head) Frontal Orbital Nasal Oral Mental Thoracic Axillary Sternal Mammary Abdominal Umbilical Pelvic Inguinal (groin) Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm) Antecubital Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Manus (hand) Pollex Palmar Digital Lower limb Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Patellar Crural (leg) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Tarsal (ankle) Metatarsal Digital Hallux Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum) Axial region Appendicular region Regional Terms of Gross Anatomy

27 Cervical Back (dorsal) (b) Posterior/Dorsal Scapular Vertebral Lumbar Sacral Gluteal Perineal (between anus and external genitalia Upper limb Acromial Brachial (arm) Olecranal Antebrachial (forearm) Manus (hand) Metacarpal Digital Lower limb Femoral (thigh) Popliteal Sural (calf) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Calcaneal Plantar Cephalic Otic Occipital (back of head) Appendicular region Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum) Regional Terms of Gross Anatomy

28 Body Planes and Sections Coronal (frontal) plane = Lies vertically & divides body into anterior & posterior parts Median (midsagittal) plane = Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline Transverse plane = Runs horizontally & divides body into superior & inferior parts Transverse plane Median plane (midsagittal) Frontal plane


30 An Orientation to the Human Body

31 Characteristics Common to All Vertebrates Tube-within-a-tube Bilateral symmetry Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord & vertebrae Segmentation Pharyngeal pouches

32 Basic Human Body Plan & Vertebrate Structures (b) Human embryo; 5 weeks postconception Brain Spinal cord Lung bud Notochord Muscle segments (myotomes) Digestive tube Heart Pharyngeal pouches (a) Generalized vertebrate Brain Spinal cord NotochordMuscle segments (myotomes) Digestive tube Heart Pharyngeal pouches (c) Adult human Brain Spinal cord Muscle segments (muscles between ribs) Digestive tube Heart Pharynx Vertebrae Disc between vertebrae Inner tube Dorsal hollow nerve tube Segmented outer tube Notochord

33 Body Cavities & Membranes Dorsal body cavity –Cranial cavity –Vertebral cavity Cranial cavity (contains brain Dorsal body cavity Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Diaphragm Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity

34 Body Cavities & Membranes Ventral body cavity –Thoracic cavity – divided into 3 parts Two lateral parts each containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity Mediastinum – contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac –Abdominopelvic cavity – divided into 2 parts Abdominal cavity – contains the liver, stomach, kidneys, and other organs Pelvic cavity – contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, & rectum

35 Cranial cavity Superior mediastinum Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Pleural cavity Vertebral cavity Abdomino- pelvic cavity Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Diaphragm Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (b) Anterior view Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Ventral Cavities

36 Body Cavities & Membranes Serous cavities – a slit-like space lined by a serous membrane –Pleura, pericardium, & peritoneum Parietal serosa – outer wall of the cavity Visceral serosa – inner wall of the cavity; covers the visceral organs

37 Body Cavities & Membranes Outer balloon wall (comparable to parietal serosa) Air (comparable to serous cavity) But no air in serous cavities! Inner balloon wall (comparable to visceral serosa) Model of the serous membranes & serous cavities

38 Lung Parietal pleura Ribs Pleural cavity with serous fluid Visceral pleura Diaphragm Serosae associated with the lungs: pleura Body Cavities & Membranes

39 Heart Parietal pericardium Pericardial cavity with serous fluid Visceral pericardium Serosae associated with the heart: pericardium

40 Parietal peritoneum Wall of body trunk Kidney (retroperitoneal) Peritoneal cavity (with serous fluid) Stomach Serosae associated with the abdominal viscera: peritoneum Posterior Anterior Visceral peritoneum Liver Figure 1.7c Body Cavities & Membranes

41 Abdominal Regions & Quadrants Abdominal regions divide abdomen into 9 regions Abdominal quadrants divide abdomen into 4 quadrants –Right upper & left upper quadrants –Right lower & left lower quadrants

42 Abdominal Regions Epigastric region Umbilical region Right lumbar region Left lumbar region Right hypochondriac region Left hypochondriac region Hypogastric (pubic) region Right iliac (inguinal) region Left iliac (inguinal) region (a) 9 regions delineated by 4 planes Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon of large intestine Small intestine Appendix Cecum Diaphragm Stomach Descending colon of large intestine Transverse colon of large intestine Initial part of sigmoid colon Urinary bladder (b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs Spleen

43 Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) (c) The 4 abdominopelvic quadrants Abdominal Quadrants

44 Microscopic Anatomy Microscopy – examining small structures through a microscope Antonie van Leeuwenhoek  1 st discovered & examined cells (“animalcules”) with homemade microscopes in mid-1600s -Light microscopy = illuminates tissue with a beam of light (lower magnification) -Transmission electron microscopy = uses beam of electrons (higher mag); specimens coated w/ heavy-metal salts, which deflect electrons to different extents

45 Microscopic Anatomy Scanning electron microscopy –Coat specimen with carbon & gold – when electron beam scans specimen, secondary electrons are emitted & detected  beautiful 3D images assembled! These images give amazing surface detail of cells & small structures. Artifacts –Minor distortions of preserved tissues –Not exactly like living tissues & organs

46 (a)Light micrograph (330  ) (b)Transmission electron micrograph, artificially colored (870  ) Cytoplasm Extracellular material Cell nuclei (c)Scanning electron micrograph, artificially colored (2900  ) Microscopic Anatomy

47 Preparing human tissue for microscopy –Specimen is fixed (preserved) & sectioned –Specimen is stained to distinguish structures Acidic stain – negatively charged dye molecules Basic stain – positively charged dye molecules

48 Clinical Anatomy – An Introduction to Medical Imaging Techniques X ray – electromagnetic waves of very short length –Best for visualizing bones and abnormal dense structures Heart (a) Radiograph of the chest(b)Mammogram (cancerous tumor at arrow) Clavicles (collarbones) Air in lungs (black) Ribs Diaphragm

49 Advanced Imaging Techniques Computed (axial) tomography (CT or CAT) = takes successive X rays around a person's full circumference –Creates detailed picture of body sections (transverse) –Great for soft tissue & bone; fast & inexpensive! Inferior vena cava RightLeft Liver Colon Stomach Aorta Spleen Left kidney Thoracic vertebra View

50 Artery supplying heart Narrowing of the artery Advanced Imaging Techniques Angiography or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging = provides an unobstructed view of small arteries –Contrast medium is injected –Used to identify blockages of arteries that supply heart or brain

51 Advanced Imaging Techniques Positron emission tomography (PET) = forms images by detecting radioactive isotopes (of sugar or water) injected into the body -Identifies regions of cellular activity & most active cells

52 Sonography (ultrasound imaging) = body is probed with pulses of high-frequency sound waves that echo off the body’s tissues –Used to determine the age & health of a developing fetus (safe, no X-rays used) Advanced Imaging Techniques

53 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) = produces high-quality images of soft tissues –Distinguishes body tissues based on relative water content (magnet detects hydrogen) –Functional MRI = measures blood oxygen, detects active regions

54 Questions…? What’s Next? Lab: Gross Anatomy Terminology Wed Lecture: Cells Wed Lab: Cells & the Microscope

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