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THE NATION AT WAR Chapter 24. Roosevelt Foreign Policy American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century “Roosevelt Corollary”:

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Presentation on theme: "THE NATION AT WAR Chapter 24. Roosevelt Foreign Policy American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century “Roosevelt Corollary”:"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE NATION AT WAR Chapter 24

2 Roosevelt Foreign Policy American foreign policy aggressive, nationalistic since late 19th century “Roosevelt Corollary”: U.S. would ensure stability of Latin American finance (Dominican Republic) – Extension of Monroe Doctrine Colonialism drew U.S. into international affairs – Roosevelt abetted revolution to separate Panama from Colombia (Panama Canal) Japan grows in power – Russo-Japanese War (1905) – Japan claims authority in China

3 Taft and Wilson Foreign Policy Taft and Dollar Diplomacy Taft substituted economic force for military American bankers replaced Europeans in Caribbean Taft's support for U.S. economic influence in Manchuria alienated China, Japan, Russia Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy Tried to base foreign policy on moral force Wilson negotiated “cooling- off” treaties to try and settle disputes without war in Latin America – Didn’t work intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft

4 Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898–1930

5 The Neutrality Policy Wilson sympathized with England, sought U.S. neutrality Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational Suspicion that business sought war for profit Americans saw little national stake in war

6 The U-Boat Threat U.S. trade with Allies boomed, but was increasingly financed by loans from American banks – Allies owed U.S. banks $2 billion by 1917 German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning at all ships 1915: Lusitania sunk by U-Boat – Wilson demanded Germans protect passenger ships and pay for losses May, 1916: Sussex Pledge—Germany pledges to honor U.S. neutrality but balks at pledge January, 1917: Zimmerman Note April 6, 1917: War declared on Germany

7 U.S. Losses to the German Submarine Campaign, 1916–1918

8 The Great War

9 Mobilization No U.S. contingency plans for war 200,000 troops at war’s beginning Selective Service Act created draft – Conscripted 2.8 million by war’s end U.S. enters trench warfare (Western Front)

10 Propaganda The CPI (Committee of Public Information) becomes main form of encouragement to help support the war!

11 World War One Images and Music Over There, George M. Cohan sung by The American Quartet, 1917 Sheet Music Art Norman Rockwell

12 I Want You for the U.S. Army James Montgomery Flagg 1917

13 True Sons of Freedom Charles Gustrine, 1918

14 Destroy This Mad Brute H.R. Hopps, 1917

15 Over The Top For You Sidney H. Riesenberg, 1918

16 Rivets Are Bayonets Drive Them Home! J.E. Sheridan, 1918

17 Fight or Buy Bonds Howard Chandler Christy 1917

18 History Rhymes Anger toward Germans during WWI Sauerkraut became “Liberty Cabbage” Hamburgers became “Liberty Burger” Anger toward the French during the start of the war in Iraq French Fries became “Freedom Fries” French Bread became “Freedom Bread”

19 Over Here Victory on front depends on mobilization at home Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production and distribution Wartime laws to repress dissent – Espionage Act – Trading with the Enemy Act – Sedition Act – 1500 dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs 1918–1919: “Red Scare” resulted in domestic suppression of “radicals” (Bolshevik Revolution)

20 A Bureaucratic War Cooperation between government and business the norm – War Industries Board and other agencies supervised production, distribution to maximize war effort – Government seized some businesses to keep them running Business profits from wartime industry

21 Labor in the War Union membership swells Labor shortage prompts – Wage increase – Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war- related industrial work force Great Migration to northern factories – Blacks must adjust industrial work pace – Encounter Northern racism

22 Europe after The Treaty Versailles, 1919

23 The Treaty of Versailles Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for non-punitive settlement England and France balk at Fourteen Points – Want Germany disarmed and crippled – Want Germany’s colonies – Skeptical of principle of self-determination Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations

24 Rejection in the Senate Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (R-MA) led “strong reservationists” that demanded major changes, including League of Nation (Article X) – William Borah (R-ID) led “irreconcibles” who opposed the treaty on any grounds – No compromise by Wilson – Treaty fails, separate treaty made with Germany To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful Americans welcome Warren G. Harding’s “return to normalcy”


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