2Developmental Psychology: Branch of psych. that studies physical, cognitive & social change throughout the life spanConsiders the 3 big developmental ?’s:A) nature/nurture? B) stability/change?C) continuity/stages?
3Life is sexually transmitted Prenatal Development and the Newborn: Conception: As sperm enters, a barrier formsLife is sexually transmitted
4Prenatal Development & the Newborn Zygote: fertilized egg; less than ½ survive!enters a 2 wk period of rapid cell division= embryo after it attachesEmbryo: the developing human organism from 2 weeks thru 2nd monthFetus: developing human organism from 9 wks after conception birth
5Prenatal Devel. & Newborns 40 days days months months
6Prenatal Devel. & the Newborn Teratogens (“monsters??): agents, such as chemicals & viruses:reaches embryo or fetus during prenatal devel. & cause harmSci. still trying to determine how much harm… …smoking in preg. & male violent crimes?Can be drugs, diseases, radioactivity, or chemicalsFetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): physical & cognitive abnormalities in kids caused by heavy drinking during pregnancy (1/750)(See t-138, Judges quote)symptoms include mis-proportioned headThe leading cause of retardation
8Prenatal Development and the Newborn Rooting Reflextendency to open mouth, & search for nipple when touched on the cheek; aids survivalRequires “tongue, swallow, breathe…” coordinationIn Notes: Explain each reflexes as we go over it…a) grasping :b) Moro (startle):c) Babinski:(Digi. Med. Arch. #1 )
9Newborn Preferences:human voices & facesface-like images *Which below do they prefer?smell & sound of mother (see 138)
10Prenatal Development & the Newborn Habituation (boredom?)Decreasing responsiveness w/ repeated stimulationNovel (new) stimulus gets more attention, stronger responseIndicates memory & familiarity…using senses to gain knowledge & experience(Note: Stimulus: something that causes a reactionPrenatal Development & the Newborn
11Prenatal Development and the Newborn Once habituated to old stimulus, newborns preferred gazing at a new one(New experience…)
12Infancy & Childhood: Physical Devel. Maturationbiological growth processes that enable orderly (in particular order) changes in behaviorProgrammed: is like a genetic blueprintrelatively uninfluenced by experience…just happens b/c it is time…”wired in”At birth3 months15 monthsCortical Neurons
13Infancy & Childhood: Physical Development 3 month-old baby learns kicking moves a mobile--& can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997). EFFICACY! I can have effect!This helps them to learn that they can affect their world
14Neural sequence of develop.: Birth: have most brain cells you’ll ever have0 – 2: growth spurt (wiring) allowing us to walk, talk, & remember stuff3-6: networks sprout rapidly in frontal lobe: allows rational planning (If I do this, this will happen…)Into puberty: pathways for language & agility developing, “polishing up”After puberty: “pruning” process: trims out unused, strengthen those being used**Prior to 3yrs., can’t remember much at all b/c haven’t connections for itKnown as “Infantile amnesia”
15Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development Schema: Jean Piaget’s word for a concept or framework we use to organize & interpret info-“mental molds into which we pour our experiences” (neural netwks.?)EX: cats…vs. dogs; love; motherhood, etc.Piaget said 2 ways we deal w/ new experiences:Assimilation vs. Accommodation:Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas--we have a set of ideas about 1 thing EX: a doggie-dogs have 4 legs, are furry, & have a tail-so a cat = a “doggie”…pony = BIG doggie…Accommodation
16Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development Accommodation: adapting (adjusting) our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new infoEX: we learn the cat is not a doggie…but a new category—or schema—a “cat” or kittyCognition: All the mental activities associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering, & communicating-as kids have more experiences in their world, they adjust existing schemas & accommodate to bring in new schemas…& they use these to developMeta-cognition: What we know about HOW we knowPiaget: Cognition goes thru 4 major developmental stages…
17Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Develop.: (see p. 144) KNOW these!! Typical AgeRangeDescriptionof StageDevelopmentalPhenomenaBirth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotorExperiencing the world throughsenses and actions (looking,touching, mouthing)Object permanenceStranger anxietyAbout 2 to 6 yearsAbout 7 to 11 yearsAbout 12 thruadulthoodPreoperationalRepresenting thingswith words and imagesbut lacking logical reasoningPretend playEgocentrismLanguage developmentConcrete operationalThinking logically about concreteevents; grasping concrete analogiesand performing arithmetical operationsHas ConservationMathematical transformationsFormal operationalAbstract reasoningAbstract logicPotential for moral reasoning
18Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel. Sensori-motor stage: (birth- 2 yrs.) Object Permanence: Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (able to see, hear, etc.)Games: Peek-a-boo? Where’s the bunny?Develop this during Piaget’s sensorimotor stage: what ages do not? Most are getting by what age? (start p. 144)Difference betwn. Piaget’s view & present day view?-How does this show “continuity vs. stages?” (top 145)
19Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel. “Baby Math”: Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, ‘92)--Explain the 2 EX’s of “baby logic” on p. 145-How do psy. measure how kids notice something different or odd? (i.e., what is the operational definition?)1. Objects placedin case.2. Screen comesup.3. Object is removed.4. Impossible outcome:Screen drops, revealingtwo objects.4. Possible outcome:one object.
20Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel. Preoperational stage (2-6):Conservation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despitechanges in the forms of objects…EX: Tall thin glass vs. short fat glass= same amt.? Pla-dohThey don’t have at beginning…get toward end of stage…Egocentrism: the inability of the preoperational child totake another’s point of view EX: TV viewing? My brother?Abusive parents often don’t realize this & they tend to see this as “ornery” behavior
21Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Devel. Theory of Mind: “A not B”(Note: still in pre-operational stage)Just beginning to form thisPeople’s ideas about their own &others’ mental states..…about their feelings, perceptionsAlso thoughts & the behaviorthese might predict Still tend to be egocentric, but improving on this Gaining empathy; learning thoughts = feelingsWhen you show the kid these pictures &tell the story, how will they respond?
22Theory of Mind & AutismAutism: Disorder that appears in childhood & marked by deficiencies in communication, social interaction & understanding of others’ states of mindExtremely egocentric; littleor no “theory of mind” formedCan’t read emotions in othersCan’t see that others do not know what they knowEX: fig text (147)B/C of communicationlimits, deaf kids may haveproblems w/ theory of mind also
23Asperger’s Syndrome is a specific form of “high-functioning” autism Syndrome
26Cognitive Development: Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory Influential theoryDevelopment is more continuity rather than stages as Piaget believedLarger emphasis on social factorsVygotskyZone of proximal development
27Work of Lev Vygotsky ( ) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory.Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning."
29Pre-op: learning to think in symbols: EX’s? -Again: a steady, continuous process (continuity)-Private speech: Pre-op kids talking to themselves to “think things out”-allows them to process cognition…How can this help w/ math? (c-148)Concrete operations stage (7-11): now understand conservation (see “joke”)-Understand things we have experience w/-Beginning to understand math transformations:8+4=12…so what is 12 – 4? Then…4 x 6 = 24, 24 div.by 6 = ?Formal operations stage (12 +): beginning abstract thought…-can theorize & plan various possibilities(If this is true, then …)BUT…again, Piaget underestimated abilities (t-149)
30How can they use this today? Piaget: Father of cognitive psych.” What he got right & wrong: (p.149…Reflecting…)“What he…got right:“ “ ..missed…Who can use this info?How can they use this today?
31Inf. & Ch-hd.: Social Develop. (150) Stranger Anxietyfear of strangers infants commonly displaybegins about 8 mos.Purpose: keep child close to care-giver…why could this be important at this age?is cross-cultural, so…what does that indicate?AttachmentStrong emotional tie w/ another personWe attach to ppl w/ which we are comfortable, familiar…& who are responsive to needsyoung kids show by seeking closeness to the caregiver & showing distress on separation“home-base:” a secure base (safe haven)is it just those who give food? Or is it more?
32Social Development H. Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments (Harlow vid.)Preferred contact w/ comfortable cloth mother, even though feed from the nourishing wire motherHumans tend to attach to those soft, warm, who rock, pat, feed… (contact comfort)a secure baseAs we grow, attachment changes from parents to peers to partners
33Social DevelopmentMonkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken whenplaced in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.Note: ethics no longer allow such studiesATTACHMENT: secure attachment is important for later relationshipsInvolves trust & expecting responsiveness… (t-153)
34Social DevelopmentCritical Periodbest period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development (EX: lang. & Genie)“window of opportunity”…if this is missed, will not develop that aspect…either at all…or not completelyImprintingprocess by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in lifeKonrad Lorenz: studies w/ ducklings & 1st moments after hatching…he was 1st creature they saw; they attached to himwill also attach to other things that move…bouncing ball, etc.
35Attachment:Deep, caring, close, & enduring (long-lasting) emotional bond between infant &care-giver; forms in humans at about 6 mos.--used Harlow’s “wire-mom” study for this infoStranger anxiety: fear of stranger--even if mom there--is this normal?Separation anxiety: upset if mom goes away suddenly”Strange situation” experiment: Mary Ainsworth1st : mom & kid in room w/ stranger & momleaves2nd: no stranger in room when she leaves-measures levels of attachment in kids:
36Psychologists have ID’ed 4 attachment patterns: a) secure b) avoidant c) resistant d) disorganized1. Secure: need to explore, but have mom close; mom leaves, they cry, but OK when she returns; no anger; most kids (at least 70-80%) are securely attached2. Avoidant : cry when mom leaves; but avoid or ignore mom when she returns3. Resistant: not upset when she leaves, but angry & reject her when she returns4. Disorganized: often confused or act different ways; don’t always act the same, but often not angry if leaves, but avoid her when she returns; this is the least “secure” type**Most sensitive, responsive moms have securely attached kids (well over 70% of all kids)
37Fathers & children: Just a “mobile sperm banks?” ?: Elian Gonzales…Would the situation been the same if it were reversed as to mom/dad?Read & note the 3 studies on 153:a) “pregnant dads”?b) kids health & well-being & mom + dad lovec) non-married parents, separation, divorce: increases risk for social & psychological pathologies (“diseases”)”Separation from parents”: home-care vs. day-care?No major difference RE: stranger anxiety-starts 6-8 mos., peaks (+ -) 13 mos. …then declines-at that point it eases (especially if we aresecurely attached) & we can open to otherpeople…especially peers…
38Here is the link to log onto the Companion Website for Myers Psychology, 8th edition: Log on as "Students". Give yourself your own Password & User ID and include MY so that I can view quizzes if I decide to do for Ex Cr. or something....
39infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room Social DevelopmentGroups ofinfants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room(from Kagan, 1976)204060801003.55.57.59.511.513.529Percentageof infantswho criedwhen theirmothers leftAge in monthsDay careHome
40Soc. Devel.Basic Trust (Erik Erikson): a sense that the world is predictable & trustworthyformed in 1st yr. by good experiences w/ responsive caregiversDebated, but most psy. say later has effect on success in relationshipsDeprived of attachment: withdrawal-easily frightened -or v. aggressive (?)-permanent emotional scars- “unloved become unloving”--abused can be abusers-BUT…most abused do not b/c of resiliency…(tough)Disruption of attachment: v. upset, even despairing--most recover…foster kids?Day-care & attachment? If quality day-care, should be no difference ”It takes a village…”…But kids alone? NO
41“Quality day-care”: What is this? & How can you ID it?Discussion topic:Briefly discuss w/ a partner…Think about kids’ different temperaments, etc.-How could this allow a parent to do well w/ 1 kid…& not as well w/ another?
42A sense of one’s identity & personal worth Self-Concept (pp.156-7): Into notes…A sense of one’s identity & personal worthAccording to Charles Darwin, when does self-awareness begin?How psych’s test when kids can do this…Happens about when___ (age)?Fairly stable by _____ (age)Kids view of themselves affects what?So how can parents help? Soc. Devel.: Child rearing practices…
43Parenting styles: 1st 3: too hard, too soft …& just right 1) Authoritarian (aka dictatorial): parents impose rules & expect obedienceEX: “My way or hi-way!!” “Because I said so!!”2) Permissive (aka laissez faire): give in to kids, make few demands, use little punishment-No structure, no consistent rules, which kids NEEDEX: “I said NO!....Well, OK…ummm, just this once…”3) Authoritative: Both demanding but responsiveset rules, but explain reasons & encourage discussionAllow kids to make some (limited) choices to give practice… Best way…4) Newer type… Unresponsive = the worst: no attention, no caring, no involvement = resentment, anger, & often social problems
44Idea that loving, authoritative parenting style = best is confirmed by many correlational studies in more than 200 cultures worldwide …BEST chances for kids….Below
45Adolescence (p. 159)Adolescence: transition from childhood adulthood…begins w/puberty…goes to independent adult statusRITES of PASSAGE: Ceremony for a step into adulthoodHow is it differ. now than say 1850 or so?G. Stanley Hall: “strum und drung” ...& are some stresses, but _ out of _ HS seniors checked “on the whole, I am satisfied w/ myself.” See Dave Barry p. 160Puberty: period of sexual maturation when capable of reproduction--avg. ages? (b-159—some F earlier…possibly “whys”?)Primary Sex Characteristics: Body structures allowing for sexual reproduction:Gonads: ovaries—female testes--maleexternal genitalia in both
46Secondary Sex Characteristics: Non-reproductive sexual characteristicF: breast & hips M: voice quality & body hairF: Menarche (meh-NAR-key): 1st menstrual periodM: “spermarche”: 1st ejaculationAvg. ages for these: F: M: 13--Know problems & advantages for…-early maturing M’s? early maturing F’s?How does this shows interaction of heredity &environment?Adoles. brain development: Childhood: brain cells are __?__...In adoles. they begin to __?__ Use it or lose it!Frontal lobe devel. vs. emotional limbic system:How does this affect behavior…& how/when does it change?
47Adolescence1890’s:Average interval between a woman’s menarche & marriage: just over 7 yearsNow: Over 12 years!Why is this significant?10207.2 Year Interval12.5 Year IntervalAge1890, Women1995, Women
48Thru childhood, M & F are similar in height. At puberty, F surge ahead briefly (11-13), but then M overtake them at about 14.Sequence (1st 2nd…) of changes is more predictable than the timing…Onset time varies w/ kidsAdolescenceHeight incentimeters19017015013011090705024681012141618Age in yearsBoysGirls
50Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder As moraldevelopment progresses, focus of concern moves from the “how it affects ME” to the wider social world.Piaget’s formal operations allows this“Heinz’s Dilemma” 164?’sResults vary cross-culturally-Depends on collectiv.vs. individualisticsocietiesPostconventionalLevel 3rdMorality of abstractprinciples: to affirmagreed-upon rights andpersonal ethical principlesConventionalLevel 2ndMorality of law andsocial rules: to gainapproval or avoiddisapprovalPreconventionalLevel 1stMorality of self-interest:to avoid punishmentor gain concrete rewards
52Social intuition? J. Haidt, 2001: A newer theory: (Moral feeling: Read p.165)-Our mind makes “aesthetic judgments”….…pleasing, not pleasingSee ppl do a really rotten thing? feel disgust…See a really nice thing, feel “warm & fuzzy”? = which comes 1st?-Do moral emotions cause us to have moral feelings?-Do “gut-level” feelings cause us to establish moralideas of right vs. wrong?*See social intuitionalist’s dilemma: Which is OK? Both?Neither?-“Emotion areas” lit up on brain scans only w/ the“pushing” situationThis is new psych research, so it hasn’t been examined much yet…
53Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development (Stages 1–4, p. 166) Approximateage Stage Description of TaskInfancy Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants(1st year) develop a sense of basic trust.Toddler Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and(2nd year) and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities.Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks(3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feelguilty about efforts to be independent.Elementary Competence (industry)(6 years- vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying puberty) themselves to tasks, or they feelinferior.
54Gender and Identity (go back to pp 126-130) Self-concept = our understanding & evaluation of who we are. Gender = in psychology, the biologically & socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female. Aggression = physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. X Chromosome = the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child. Y Chromosome =the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
55Gender and Identity…continued… Testosterone = the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. Role = a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. Gender Role = a set of unexpected behaviors for males or for females. Gender Identity = our sense of being male or female. Gender Typing = the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. Social Learning Theory = the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
56Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Devel. (Stages 5-8) Adoles Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Devel. (Stages 5-8) Adoles. Late Adulthood:Approximateage Stage Description of TaskAdolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by(teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to20’s) form a single identity, or they becomeconfused about who they are.Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation-(20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated.Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri-(40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through familyand work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his/her life, the older adult(late 60’s & up) despair may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.
57Identity: one’s sense of self the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing, “trying on,” & integrating various roles--peer groups affect this (HS? college?) (survey, b-167, t-168)Eventually form a consistent, stable sense of self, but does change w/ situationsIntimacy: the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adoles. & early adulthoodSeparating from parents: In US, compare early vs. late adolescence: Consider conflicts: length? intensity? frequency?Compare parent vs. peer influence: EX: “drug talk”?& what is influenced mostly by peers? by parents?
58The changing parent-child relationship: 100%806040202 to to to 11Ages of child in yearsPercent w/positive, warminteractionwith parents
59How Developmental Psy’s study Human Development: Longitudinal vs How Developmental Psy’s study Human Development: Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional StudiesCross-sectional studies: test & compare grps of differing ages at the same time…EX’s:Longitudinal studies: retest same grp of ppl over long period of time… at 2yrs., later at 6, at 10, etc.Ex’s:Cohort groups: grp of ppl you share time, culture, etc., with
60Adulthood: Physical Development Menopause:the time of natural cessation of menstruation in womenAlso refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as ability to reproduce declinesMen: gradual (continuity) lessening of sperm production, then some prostate concernsF: gradual decline in fertility: ½ as likely to become pregn. w/ 1 act of intercourse than FUsually around 50; hot flashes commonMost F do not have intense emotional reactionsExpectations & attitude influence effectsMost experience positive effects…few (2%) = “regret”Sex after 60: 78% either said satisfied w/ amt., or wished for more
61Physical changes in later life: Ans. T/F quiz? (174) Worldwide life expectancy:1950: : 67But in developed countries:Sensory ability: vision: diminishes--pupil shrinks, lens less transparent, reduced amt. of light to retina, so need more light…& don’t understand when others don’tHearing: weakens--can be heredity or experience-why?Sense of smell (which strongly affects taste) weakens, which = using more flavorings like salt, etc-Muscle strength down, reaction time down, stamina down, distance perception affected
62Health:Immune system does weaken, so more susceptible to more severe illnesses like cancer, pneumonia, etcBut…have built up more antibodies thru life so resist more minor illnesses like colds, etc.Those over 65 are ____ as likely as 20-yr. olds & ____ as likely as preschoolers to suffer from respiratory flu each yr. = 1 reason older workers miss less work“Nursing homes”, etc.: only ___% of those over 65
632 Theories of aging:“Biological clock” theory of aging: if other factors eliminated, ppl still deteriorate at 85+ & die by about 110…b/c cells stop reproducing“Wear & tear” theory: We age b/c we use & misuse bodies*Dementia: substantial loss of brain cells, generally late adulthood…Up to 95, rate of mental disintegration doubles every __?_ yearsPossible causes:-series of “mini-strokes”-tumors alcoholism,-arteriosclerosis -Alzheimer’sThese bring on dementia:loss of usual mental ability (not same as senile)
64Alzheimer’s Disease: At 75 what % has Alz.? progressive, irreversible brain disordergradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language….& finally, physical functioningMajority of elderly do NOT have this…What % ?Causes: ACh loss, plaques (globs of degenerating tissue), shriveled protein filaments…brain actually shrinksp.178 Who’s at risk?? …who’s less likely?
70Adulthood: Phys. Devel. Reaction Time: FatalaccidentrateSlowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older.1210Fatal accidentsper 100 million miles8Fatal accidentsper 10,000 drivers64216202530354045505560657075 andoverAge
71Incidence of Dementia by Age What is % at...65? 75? 85? 95? Adulthood: Phys. Devel.Incidence of Dementia by AgeWhat is % at...65? 75? 85? 95?Risk of dementiaincreases in lateryearsAge Group40%302010Percentagewith dementia
72Adulthood: Cognitive Development: Aging & memory: Recall (greater decline) vs. Recognition (minimal decline)--Type of info matters: meaningful (means a lot to you & can use) = lot less decline:Can you relate this to biological psy?Aging & Intelligence: how psy. study:Cross-sectional studies: test & compare grps of differing ages at the same time…-showed great declines in intelligence in aging-for a long time this was prevailing idea…….so old were out, young were inLongitudinal studies: retest same grp of ppl over long period of time… at 2yrs., later at 6, at 10, etc.-findings: until late in life, IQ & mem. fairly stable…..& that those losses were fairly slowKNOW! Why the difference?? (b-180 – 181)…also IQ tests?
73Adult Cognitive Devel.Recalling new names introduced once, twice, or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones(Crook & West, 1990).(What kind of study does this look like—Longitudinal or Cross-sectional?)100Older age groups havepoorer performancePercentof namesrecalled9080After threeintroductions706050After twointroductions403020After oneintroductions101840506070Age group
74Adult Cog. Devel.: Recall vs. recognition: In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall (EX: essays) new information declined during early & middle adulthoodBut the ability to recognize (M-C, matching, etc.) new information did not.BUT...other factors can influence memory at other times NumberOf wordsremembered2420Number of wordsrecognized isstable with age16128Number of wordsrecalled declineswith age4203040506070Age in years
76Adulthood: Cognitive Development Cross-Sectional Studya study in which people of different ages are compared with one anotherSuggests more change b/c of grp. differencesLongitudinal Studya study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long periodSuggests more stabilityReasoningabilityscoreCross-sectional methodsuggests decline605550Longitudinal methodsuggests more stability454035253239465360677481Age in yearsCross-sectional methodLongitudinal method
77Adulthood: Cognitive Development Type of info learned: vocab., knowledge, & abilityto integrate info = little declineBut non-verbal & quick responses: don’t do as well?: What confounding variable could longitudinal studies not have taken into account (c-181)?(& it did affect data a little when taken in to acct.,)Crystallized Intelligence (181): accumulated knowledge & verbal skillstends to increase with ageFluid Intelligence: ability to reason speedily & abstractlytends to decrease …slowly to 75, then faster… ..esp. after 85
78Adulthood- Cognitive Development (t-182) Intelligence(IQ) scoreVerbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989).Verbal scores arestable with age1051009590Nonverbal scoresdecline with age85807520253545556570Verbal scoresNonverbal scoresAge group
79Ages & stages: 40’s = transition to middle adulthood Adult social development: In predictable stages?Ages & stages: 40’s = transition to middle adulthoodDo NOT MOST have “mid-life crisis” —regret—struggle..Divorce: More likely when? Suicide when?Social Clock: culturally preferred timing of social events…Marriage: (see EX’s t-183)ParenthoodRetirementB/c these vary so by cultures & eras, not much evidence for “stages”Life events & chance encounters: More important than “social clock” idea b/c these can happen at varying times for varying people…w/ some limitations-chance plays a part—b/c deflect us from 1 road to another EX: ID twins & romantic partners?
80Adulthood: Social Development Do ppl in early-forties mostly have a midlife crisis?NO for great majorityFemalesMalesNo early 40semotional crisisAge in Years24%168Emotionalinstability
81Adulthood: Social Changes Commitments: Erikson’s 2 main adulthood tasks intimacy & generativity (called different things by different researchers)…basically love & workLove: cross-cultural strong tendency toward “pair-bonding”…flirting, falling in love & marryingEvolutionary psy. see this as necessary for species-When is love strongest & more likely to last?Similar interests & values, sharing emotional & material support, “intimate self-disclosure” (?), marry after 20, well-educated…but….-in Western countries have those last 2…but 2X as likely to divorce…why might this be?--Canada & US = 1 divorce for each 2 marriages-Might living together 1st help? Actually no…(184)-but 9 out of 10 marry…& married report being happier
82Which marriages last? What factors affect this? Commitment (cont’d.)Which marriages last? What factors affect this?-“5-to-1-ratio” (?) b-184… EX: of what to do & not to do?-sharing household duties if both work?-Kids: can bring joy, but lots of stress…and they leave, so need more for a marriage to lastWork: This is what often defines us in much of adulthood-How does the Western idea of work for women differ from many other places?Well-being across the life-span: positive vs. negative feelings…regret? If anything, positive feelings increase w/ age for most…highs not as high, but lows not as low-moods more stable, not as extreme, but more enduring-more contentment & more spirituality
83Adulthood: Social Changes Multinational surveys show age differences in life satisfaction are trivial(Inglehart, 1990).When are they the highest? Lowest?What might affect these small changes…which occur in small %’s?Percentage“satisfied”with lifeas a whole80604020152535455565+Age group
84Death & dying: usually the worst is death of a spouse (F--5X more than M), especially if sudden Can last for 1+yr. intensely, & mild depression years after-way we grieve varies w/ culture, but grief is cross-cultural…and AIDS is wiping out resources of all kinds in many places, esp. Africa3 common misconceptions RE: best way to deal w/ grief:- get it out -talk it out stages (p. 187)Last of Erikson’s stages: Integrity vs. despair:We don’t deny death as we used to...we see it more as a cycle... even if we are not thrilled-but integrity allows more of a feeling that life was meaningful & worthwhile
85Adulthood: Social Changes: -loss of spouse & friends/family can affect life satisfaction…Why might it go down before the death?
89QK Review!=====================1. T/F: By the time you are about 20, your personality is set and there is not much that will change it.2. In order: How are the 3 stages of prenatal growth referred to?3. Explain the following terms:habituation maturationsecure attachment stranger anxiety4. Which psychologist studied the following?Social intuition/morality moral developmentCognitive Development psychosocial development5. Difference betwn. The following:accommodation assimilation6. The following are related to WHICH stage of cogn. devel. & HOW?conservation obj. permanence abstract thought egocentrism theory of mind separation anxiety
90QK Review! (continued...)7. Explain how the following relate to beliefs about intelligence as we age.--recall vs. recognition--crystallized vs. fluid--memory of new info vs. memory of older info8. Autism and theory of mind/socialization?