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Presentation on theme: "PREVENTION and EDUCATION State of Georgia BASIC FIRE FIGHTER TRAINING COURSE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Prevention and Education 2 VALUE TO THE PUBLIC  Teaches people to protect themselves from everyday hazards  Reduces the risk of fire loss  Demonstrates the fire department’s concern  Provides an educational & advisory service

3 Prevention and Education 3 BENEFIT TO THE FIRE DEPARTMENT  Improves public relations  Familiarizes personnel with their response area  Familiarizes personnel with building conditions in their response area  Firefighter job satisfaction

4 Prevention and Education 4 COST EFFECTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY  Reduces amount of time citizens lose  Reduces financial loss when citizens are out of work  Reduces financial loss to business for damaged/destroyed equipment/facilities  Reduces financial loss to business for injured workers  Reduces financial loss due to insurance rate increases

5 Prevention and Education 5 DOCUMENTING YOUR PROGRAMS Information needed: Lesson title Age group Number of students Location Date & Time

6 Prevention and Education 6 DOCUMENTING YOUR PROGRAMS Prepared forms Narrative forms Computers Forms & Formats:

7 Prevention and Education 7 DOCUMENTING YOUR PROGRAMS Need for documentation Identify problems within the community Prioritize programs Justify expenses

8 Prevention and Education 8 EXAMPLES OF DOCUMENTS  Run sheets  Written reports  Copies of important letters  Public education requests  Logs of presentations delivered  Assignment forms  Formal or informal meetings to check status  Observations of presentations  Standard Operating Procedures

9 Prevention and Education 9 ORGANIZING A SCHEDULE  Set priorities for answering the mail, & stick to them  Handle each request immediately & completely  Use a standard time to handle items in the “in” box  Get rid of junk mail each day

10 Prevention and Education 10 ORGANIZING A SCHEDULE  Use charts & graphs to track progress on major, important, or complicated projects  Establish categories for files  Schedule a time for returning calls  Know your most productive time & schedule especially important work then

11 Prevention and Education 11 SCHEDULING A PROGRAM  Schedule around holidays  Find out schedules for places where you will present your program  Schedule to avoid conflicts

12 Prevention and Education 12 SOURCES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS  Georgia Fire Academy  Georgia State Fire Marshal’s Office  Georgia Firefighter’s Burn Foundation  Safe Kids of Georgia  Insurance companies  Teachers  Civic groups

13 Prevention and Education 13 COMMUNICATION

14 Prevention and Education 14 CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SPEAKER  Clear, effectual pitched, & well modulated voice  Grammatically correct speech  Eye contact with students  Good relationship with students  Style devoid of distracting mannerisms

15 Prevention and Education 15 The person who transmits the information ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Sender

16 Prevention and Education 16 When you put a message into words, you are encoding it ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Encoding

17 Prevention and Education 17 ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION  Factors that influence how educators encode messages: Knowledge, experience, commitment, & overall health and well-being Instructor attitude toward the audience Overall mood at the moment Good or bad experiences earlier in the day/week Physical environment

18 Prevention and Education 18 Messages can be verbal, written, or non-verbal ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Transmitting

19 Prevention and Education 19 The person to whom information is transmitted ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Receiver

20 Prevention and Education 20 The audience begins to interpret your message as soon as they see & hear it ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Receiving

21 Prevention and Education 21  Factors that affect audience interpretation: Overall health & well-being Attitude toward the educator Overall mood Recent good or bad experiences Physical environment General understanding of the subject of the message ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

22 Prevention and Education 22 Decoding Process of interpreting a message that has been received ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

23 Prevention and Education 23 Barriers to Communication  Short attention span  Fatigue  Boredom  Lack of Motivation  Disagreement or reluctance  Lack of understanding ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

24 Prevention and Education 24  Decoding depends on listening skills: Maintain eye contact with the message sender Imagine the sender’s upcoming points Take notes or mentally summarize key points Paraphrase important points ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

25 Prevention and Education 25 ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Questions  Check for student understanding by: Sampling Signaled responses Group choral response Individual private response

26 Prevention and Education 26 This is when the instructor & the audience decide if learning has taken place ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Feedback

27 Prevention and Education 27  Are open-ended  Do not suggest the answer  Seek information, but do not make the audience feel uninformed ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Effective Questions

28 Prevention and Education 28 ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Types of Questions  Direct  Overhead  Rhetorical  Relay

29 Prevention and Education 29 KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE  Various age & socio-economic groups  Tailor information to specific groups  Teach with central tendency Group AGroup C Group B

30 Prevention and Education 30 DEALING WITH STUDENTS

31 Prevention and Education 31 DEALING WITH STUDENTS Day Dreamer  Proximity control  Take a break  More activities  Call on by name  Ask their opinion  Ask them to recall their experiences

32 Prevention and Education 32  Try to ignore  Proximity control  Pull aside & talk with them  Get them involved with the class  Change seating  Invite supervisor DEALING WITH STUDENTS Trouble Maker

33 Prevention and Education 33  Let them assist slow learners  Ask them questions to hold interest  Determine knowledge  Extra assignments DEALING WITH STUDENTS Fast Learner

34 Prevention and Education 34  Approach outside class  Call on as part of group  Give praise  Extra assignments  Make helper  Simple questions DEALING WITH STUDENTS Shy or Timid Learner

35 Prevention and Education 35  Talk to them during break  Invite supervisor  Proximity control  Deflect questions  Peer pressure  Ask them to leave the class DEALING WITH STUDENTS Side-tracker or Staler

36 Prevention and Education 36  Pair up with a fast learner  Talk to them during break  Address their experiences  Extra assignments DEALING WITH STUDENTS Slow Learner

37 Prevention and Education 37 THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT  Room Size Is the room too big or too small for the audience?

38 Prevention and Education 38  Temperature Is the temperature comfortable & steady? THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

39 Prevention and Education 39  Adequate Lighting Essential Variable levels Switches near teaching position Low level preferable to complete darkness THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

40 Prevention and Education 40  VENTILATION  Keep fresh air moving  No smoking in indoor classes THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

41 Prevention and Education 41  Background Noise Neighboring rooms Hall Outside Heater/air conditioner THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

42 Prevention and Education 42  Acoustics Poor acoustics may be a distraction to the students because they may have difficulty picking up sounds or there may be an echo THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

43 Prevention and Education 43  Seating Comfort If chairs are uncomfortable, students will be distracted THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

44 Prevention and Education 44  Classroom Arrangement Physical arrangement of a classroom utilized by an instructor depends on the size of group The instructor should inspect the classroom before arriving for the presentation THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

45 Prevention and Education 45  Good for group discussion  Allows students & instructor good view of each other THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Fan Seating

46 Prevention and Education 46  Most restrictive  Least eye contact for participants  Maximum seating  Good for lecture & illustrated lecture  Permits instructor- student exchange  Limits discussion THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Traditional Seating

47 Prevention and Education 47  Effective teaching arrangement, but wastes some space  Students focused on instructor  Excellent for projected aids THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Chevron Seating

48 Prevention and Education 48  Diminishes central focus on instructor  Excellent student interaction  Good for demonstration THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT “U”-shaped Seating

49 Prevention and Education 49  Works well for certain types of skills instruction  Use more than one instructor  Lets instructor observe student performance THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Circular Seating

50 Prevention and Education 50  Good for interaction  Not good for group discussions  Not for sub-groups THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Conference Table Seating

51 Prevention and Education 51 LESSON PLANS

52 Prevention and Education 52 LESSON PLAN  A step-by step guide for presenting a lesson  Outlines the material to be taught & the teaching procedures to be followed  Guides how the students & educator spend their class time  Should have some flexibility

53 Prevention and Education 53 A brief descriptive title or phrase indicating the subject area or task covered in this particular lesson LESSON PLAN Topic

54 Prevention and Education 54 The depth of instruction for a specific skill and/or technical information that enables the student to meet the minimal requirements of the occupation LESSON PLAN Level of Instruction

55 Prevention and Education 55 A measurable statement of behavior required to demonstrate that learning has occurred LESSON PLAN Behavioral Objectives

56 Prevention and Education 56 A functional list of everything necessary to teach the lesson LESSON PLAN Instructional Materials Needed

57 Prevention and Education 57 Activities the instructor needs to complete before the instructor enters the classroom LESSON PLAN Pre-class Preparation

58 Prevention and Education 58 Texts, manuals, standards, or codes, on which the development of this lesson is based LESSON PLAN References

59 Prevention and Education 59 Best estimate, in minutes, hours, or both, of the time required or available to teach this session or lesson LESSON PLAN Estimated Teaching Time

60 Prevention and Education 60 Knowledge or skill required before the learner can acquire additional or more complex knowledge or skill LESSON PLAN Prerequisite

61 Prevention and Education 61  Preparation / Motivation  Presentation  Application  Evaluation LESSON PLAN 4-step Method of Instruction

62 Prevention and Education 62  How the educator prepares the student & motivates them to learn  Involves getting students’ attention & letting them know why material is important  Involves arousing curiosity &/or developing sense of personal interest of the students LESSON PLAN Preparation / Motivation

63 Prevention and Education 63  This is the actual teaching of the class (transferring facts & ideas to make the subject come alive)  Involves following the lesson plan  Use most effective teaching methods & materials for a given audience LESSON PLAN Presentation

64 Prevention and Education 64  Students use or apply what the instructor has taught by performing a task or solving a problem  Students receive supervision & guidance from the instructor LESSON PLAN Application

65 Prevention and Education 65  Find out whether educational objectives have been met  Shows whether students can perform a task on their own  Students work alone during evaluations LESSON PLAN Evaluation

66 Prevention and Education 66 METHODS OF INSTRUCTION

67 Prevention and Education 67 METHODS of INSTRUCTION Lecture  The educator talks to the audience, but allows no exchange of ideas or verbal feedback  When lecture includes demonstration, 30% of the material is retained by the student  More appropriate for adults than preschoolers

68 Prevention and Education 68  Teaching method by which students contribute to the class session by using their knowledge & experience to provide input  Discussion is most effective when students have previous knowledge and experience about the subject being taught  Provides the greatest interaction between the audience and the instructor METHODS of INSTRUCTION Discussion

69 Prevention and Education 69 Type of discussion in which a group exchanges ideas directed toward a common goal or conclusion METHODS of INSTRUCTION Guided Instruction

70 Prevention and Education 70 Discussion in which a group directs its thinking toward solving a common problem METHODS of INSTRUCTION Conference Discussion

71 Prevention and Education 71 Discussion in which a group reviews real or hypothetical events METHODS of INSTRUCTION Case Study

72 Prevention and Education 72 Discussion in which a group acts out various scenarios METHODS of INSTRUCTION Role Playing

73 Prevention and Education 73 Process of identifying as many ideas as possible without any initial evaluation, debate, agreement, or consensus METHODS of INSTRUCTION Brainstorming

74 Prevention and Education 74  Educational method in which the instructor shows the audience something  Relies heavily on teaching aids METHODS of INSTRUCTION Illustration

75 Prevention and Education 75  Teaching method in which the instructor actually performs a task, usually explaining the procedure step-by-step  Should always be used when introducing a new skill METHODS of INSTRUCTION Demonstration

76 Prevention and Education 76  Classroom method in which two or more instructors work together, combining their individual content, techniques, & material to meet a single educational objective  All instructors should use the same format for audiovisuals and handout materials METHODS of INSTRUCTION Team Teaching

77 Prevention and Education 77 AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

78 Prevention and Education 78 AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS “I hear…..I forget” “I see…..I remember” “I do…..I understand” --Confucius, 451 B.C.

79 Prevention and Education 79 TellsTells & Shows 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Shows 3 hours 3 days AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Information Retention

80 Prevention and Education 80  Based on how people learn  75% is learned visually  13% is learning gained through hearing  12% is learned from a combination of smell, taste and touch  People are sensory learners  Comprehension increases 3 times when a picture replaces words  Comprehension increases 6 times when words and pictures are used together AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Educational Materials

81 Prevention and Education 81  Print materials Brochures, posters, fact sheets, coloring books, activity sheets, educational card or board games, pre- & post-tests  Audiovisual materials Films/filmstrips, video & audio-tapes, slides, transparencies, computer simulators, flip charts, writing boards  Props Objects the audience can see, touch, smell or hear AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Educational Materials: Types

82 Prevention and Education 82 A- Appeals to the senses I - Interests the learner D- Develops understanding S- Saves time AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Characteristics

83 Prevention and Education 83  Among the most popular  Durable, inexpensive, and fast to make  Can be used in any size room  Can show text and line art  Can mark on during the presentation  Can be used in a fully lighted room  Can be rearranged to be used in other classes AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Transparencies

84 Prevention and Education 84  When creating: Make sure it’s legible Prepare ahead of time One concept per page Use bullet format Horizontal or vertical Never hand write Use overlays or markers AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Transparencies

85 Prevention and Education 85  Overhead Projector Can be used in a fully lighted room Fill screen with image Prevent keystone effect Turn off projector after image is adjusted Place transparency on OHP platform Turn projector on when you want class to see image AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Transparencies

86 Prevention and Education 86  Overhead Projector (continued) : Don’t turn your back to class when you look at image Point out items directly on transparency, not screen Give class time to take notes Cover all items except what you want class to see AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Transparencies

87 Prevention and Education 87  Overhead Projector (continued) : Turn projector off when you want class attention Never change transparency while projector is on AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Transparencies

88 Prevention and Education 88  Very popular for do-it-yourself audiovisuals  Superior in illustrating concepts, emotion, and objects  Computers have improved slide quality  Easy to rearrange  Effective with large groups  More durable than flip charts and transparencies AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS 35mm Slides

89 Prevention and Education 89  Difficult to adjust presentation length after starting  Have the slides ready to go before starting the presentation AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS 35mm Slides

90 Prevention and Education 90  When creating: Insist on excellent photography Maintain style of capitalization and punctuation Keep uncluttered Horizontal format is preferred Keep slides simple Computer programs are available AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS 35mm Slides

91 Prevention and Education 91  Slide Projector Lights must be off Know how to use the equipment Fill screen with image Give time to take notes The fan may be noisy AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS 35mm Slides

92 Prevention and Education 92  Used to record ideas at meetings, or educational materials  Inexpensive, easy to change or adapt  Effective with small groups  Can be reused a few times AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Flip Chart

93 Prevention and Education 93  When creating: Must be legible Prepare ahead of time Test markers for bleeding Pencil information that will be added during the presentation Leave a blank page between ideas Select a format for capitalization and punctuation Make sure lettering is big enough to read AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Flip Chart

94 Prevention and Education 94  When creating (continued) : Keep first page blank or use for welcome Add visual interest Keep simple Use flags or paper clips Keep covered until time to discuss AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Flip Chart

95 Prevention and Education 95  Good for spontaneous, short information  Clean board before class  Don’t talk to the board  Write/draw quickly, but legibly  Erase horizontally or vertically AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Chalkboard

96 Prevention and Education 96  Preview video tape  Check the equipment  Have tape ready to start  Prepare students to view  Review points  Follow up with discussion AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Video Tape Player

97 Prevention and Education 97  Good for one word or short phrase  Make letters consistent & straight  Create an even border around words AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Magnetic Strips

98 Prevention and Education 98  Preview film  Check equipment  Have ready to start  Prepare students to view  Review the main points  Follow up with discussion AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Film

99 Prevention and Education 99  Must be visible & audible to all  Keep covered until ready to be displayed  Tell students what to pay attention to  Have students identify main points of aid  Review, emphasizing main points of aid  Aid should support main teaching point  No vulgar or obscene aids AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS General Use

100 Prevention and Education 100 LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS

101 Prevention and Education 101 PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (3 to 5 years)

102 Prevention and Education 102 LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS Pre-school  Language & intellectual capacities are growing  Realize differences in males & females  Identify parents as role models  Certain defense behaviors are established  Motor skills develop rapidly  Imitate parental behavior  Develop emotionally by playing & acting things out

103 Prevention and Education 103  Develop a conscience at 3 to 5 years old  May use aggressive behavior to hurt others  May have several fears learned at home or day care center  Have desires to approach new goals & experiences  Playmates are increasingly important LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS Pre-school

104 Prevention and Education 104  Preschool children have little or no control over there environment  Have home escape fears  Comprehend their world through language  Relate new experiences to existing knowledge & understanding  Begin to construct complex images & more elaborate concepts about age 4 LEARNING PROFILE Preschool

105 Prevention and Education 105 ENCOURAGE / DISCOURAGE BEHAVIOR Preschool  Distract the child current behavior is quickly forgotten & exchanged for a new behavior  Tell the child what to do  Punishment use punishment if telling them what to do does not work

106 Prevention and Education 106 IDEALS Preschool  Ideals that guide people’s lives are based on prohibitions & standards learned during early childhood  In some ways a child will be like his/her parents In other ways the child will be like the heroes he/she has contact

107 Prevention and Education 107 THE FIRE & BURN PROBLEM Preschool  Ignition of clothing  Natural curiosity about fire  Hot liquids the greatest burn threat to children  Electrical burns  Contact burns  Flammable liquids  Smoke & fire gases  Physical problems

108 Prevention and Education 108 TEACHING METHODS Preschool  Follow the leader - games  Only use behaviors that will have a positive effect  Most likely to learn by seeing & doing  Confidence is gained through reinforcement, repetition, & praise  Keep teaching methods simple  Be sincere when teaching

109 Prevention and Education 109 TEACHING METHODS Preschool  Give time to digest each new concept before building on that concept  Teach one idea at a time  Use simple words with few syllables  When kids become restless, stop teaching

110 Prevention and Education 110 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN (5 to 11 years)

111 Prevention and Education 111  Physical growth tends to be steady  Realize the pleasure of work & the rewards that accompany it  Emotional development is based on influences of heredity and environment  Emotional control greatly depends on the level of maturity  Successes and failures have an large effect on how they view themselves LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS Elementary School

112 Prevention and Education 112 PUSHES THAT EFFECT DEVELOPMENT Elementary School  Social push out of the home into peer groups  Physical thrust into the world of games and work requiring neuromuscular skills  Intellectual push into the adult world

113 Prevention and Education 113 DEVELOPMENTAL TASK Elementary School  Physical skills  Self attitude  Social skills  Social roles  Academic skills  Living concepts  Values  Independence  Social attitude

114 Prevention and Education 114 LEARNING PROFILE Elementary School  Development of children’s concepts change: Simple to complex Concrete to abstract Undifferentiated to differentiated Discrete to organized Egocentric to more social concepts  An increase in their ability to communicate effectively occurs  May verbalize a concept while not understanding them  Children at this age tend to be curious

115 Prevention and Education 115 THE FIRE & BURN PROBLEM Elementary School  5 to 7 year olds exhibit curiosity & fascination with fire Positive - makes them respective to fire safety education Negative - often the cause of serious injury or death  Older elementary school-age replace their curiosity of fire, with confidence in being able to handle fire Positive - able to accept more responsibility Negative - may become too confident, and find themselves the victim of their own ignorance or careless actions

116 Prevention and Education 116 TEACHING METHODS Elementary School  Children at this age tend to be curious  To take advantage of the curiosity: All materials must be relevant, inspire awareness, and confidence Learner must be active Significant human relationship must be involved Learner must feel respected Materials & instruction must reflect & respect age & learning differences

117 Prevention and Education 117 SECONDARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN (11 to 21 years)

118 Prevention and Education 118 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Secondary School  Undergoing rapid physical change  Almost never satisfied with appearance  Growth spurts occur Girls - 8 - 15 years of age Boys - 11 - 16 years of age

119 Prevention and Education 119 EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Secondary School  Mood swings are normal

120 Prevention and Education 120 PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS Secondary School  Role-oriented instead of goal-oriented  Live for the present, it can’t happen to me attitude  May feel a sense of powerlessness  Forming more mature relationships  Preparing for career, marriage, family life  Acquiring a set of guide behaviors and problem solving skills

121 Prevention and Education 121 CHARACTERISTICS Secondary School  Peer acceptance of prime importance  Take a lot of risks  Care a lot about welfare & happiness of friends

122 Prevention and Education 122 ATTITUDES NEEDING ADULT SUPPORT Secondary School  Sense of self-worth  Sense of competence  Sense of acceptance  Sense of caring  Responsibility for others  Future vision of self

123 Prevention and Education 123 LEARNING PROFILE Secondary School  Cognitive Characteristics: Mature capacities for thinking are emerging Deal with increasingly complex problems in reasoning Less likely to be fooled by appearances They begin to think abstractly Increasingly interested in politics, religion, philosophy Develop theories, and can weigh pros and cons

124 Prevention and Education 124 LEARNING PROFILE Secondary School  How Adolescents learn: Direct experience Hypothetical projection Role models emulation Instruction and Demonstration Rehearsal Teaching to others

125 Prevention and Education 125 THE FIRE & BURN PROBLEM Secondary School  Hot liquids & grease  Flammable substances Gasoline  Clothing ignition  Utility poles or high tension wire contact  Burns associated with cars or motorcycles  Sunburn

126 Prevention and Education 126 TEACHING METHODS Secondary School  First-person case studies  Decision-making skills (hypothetical situations)  Self-assessment instruments  Experience-based discussions  Games, simulations, & role playing  Care giving activities

127 Prevention and Education 127 TEACHING METHODS Secondary School  Cautionary Notes: Avoid excessive scare and gore Avoid preaching to them Avoid glorifying fire fighters

128 Prevention and Education 128 ADULTS (21 to 60 years)

129 Prevention and Education 129 CHARACTERISTICS Adult  Assume several roles throughout the various stages of their lives: Have a certain place in their family Adopt certain roles among their peers Some marry and assume roles as spouse and/or parent Assume occupational roles or homemaker roles

130 Prevention and Education 130 LEARNING PROFILE Adult  Observe the behavior Learning takes place more readily with reinforcement  Remember observed behavior Concentrate on repetition of fire safety messages  Acquire skills for action Training & information are needed to develop the ability & skills for self-protection  Become motivated Effective learning requires motivation, describe the fire problem in terms of the individual’s needs

131 Prevention and Education 131 THE FIRE & BURN PROBLEM Adult  Cigarettes  Electricity  Portable heaters  Cooking stoves  Wood/coal stoves  Gasoline  Flammable liquids.

132 Prevention and Education 132 TEACHING METHODS Adult  Group into areas of involvement rather than age groups  Ask for volunteers, being involved with the problem solving and decision making is motivational  Create responsible action Establish a mood of responsibility Use children as incentive to learn fire safety

133 Prevention and Education 133 SENIOR ADULTS (60 + years)

134 Prevention and Education 134 CHARACTERISTICS Senior Adults  Living longer  More likely to be female, unmarried clients  Majority live in their own home  Greatest number live in urban areas  Most have low or no income  Suffer from limitations in general mobility Increases vulnerability to the fire hazards

135 Prevention and Education 135 LEARNING PROFILE Senior Adults  Minimize distractions & noise  Plan an appropriate time for presentations  Include question & answer session  Control natural light to prevent glare  Seniors need more artificial light than younger audiences  Need darker room for audio-visuals

136 Prevention and Education 136 LEARNING PROFILE Senior Adults  Like room slightly warmer than other groups  Pick a site convenient to transportation & access  Take breaks about every 30 minutes  Use comfortable tables & chairs instead of student-type chairs  Physical tasks take longer

137 Prevention and Education 137 LEARNING PROFILE Senior Adults  Orally review materials  Screen all films for suitability  Handouts should be factual, concise, & brief  Use a few simple AV aids to keep audience attention & enhance learning

138 Prevention and Education 138 THE FIRE & BURN PROBLEM Senior Adults  Smoking, sitting in an easy chair, & being under the influence of medication, alcohol, stress, or fatigue  Ignition of clothing, particularly when cooking

139 Prevention and Education 139 TEACHING METHODS Senior Adults  Communication with seniors is the same as other groups, except for possible handicaps  Smile & make eye contact  Position yourself in front of older people

140 Prevention and Education 140 LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS

141 Prevention and Education 141 LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Home Escape Plans  A plan to help improve the likelihood that each family member will escape the home in the event of a fire

142 Prevention and Education 142  Draw/sketch a floor plan of the house showing two exits from each room Primary exit Secondary exit  Ensure both exits can be opened & used by all family members LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Home Escape Plans 2 Ways Out

143 Prevention and Education 143  Whistle  Loud yell  Smoke detector alarm LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Home Escape Plans Ways to Alert Others

144 Prevention and Education 144  If in bed, roll onto the floor  Crawl low under smoke  Check doors for heat before opening  Use second exit if necessary  Identify a predetermined meeting place  Never return to a burning building  Call the fire department from a neighbor’s house Escape From a Fire LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Home Escape Plans

145 Prevention and Education 145  Each member should practice the escape plan frequently, especially with children  Both escape routes should be practiced Review and Practice Escape Plans LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Home Escape Plans

146 Prevention and Education 146  Dial 911, FD #, or “0”  Do not hang-up, until told to by dispatcher  State your name  Give nature of emergency  State location of emergency  ID cross street/landmark  Give callback number LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Calling the Fire Department

147 Prevention and Education 147  Stop immediately, don’t run  Drop to the ground or floor  Roll back & forth to extinguish the flames  Practice until proficient LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Stop, Drop, & Roll

148 Prevention and Education 148  Give early warning of fire  Provide security from fire when everyone is asleep  May prevent firefighters from having to make a rescue attempt LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors

149 Prevention and Education 149  Operates by using a small, harmless radioactive particle  Better for detecting invisible particles produced by flaming fires LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors Ionization Type

150 Prevention and Education 150  Operates using a small light source & a photo cell  Responds faster to large smoke particles such as those produced during smoldering fires LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors Photoelectric Type

151 Prevention and Education 151  Both types of detectors will detect most fires  Both types will provide adequate warning LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors

152 Prevention and Education 152  Battery powered  Household powered  Household powered with battery backup LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors Power Supply

153 Prevention and Education 153  One in each room provides the fastest detection time  Hallway outside each sleeping area  Between sleeping area & other rooms  At least one smoke detector on each floor NOTE: NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code, requires that a smoke detector be installed in each bedroom in new construction LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors Placement

154 Prevention and Education 154  Place the detector on the ceiling when possible  If ceiling mount is not possible, mount high on the wall  Do not put the detector in the corner of the ceiling & wall (dead air space)  Do not place the detector on an outside wall  Do not place the detector near a vent or return air duct opening LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors Installation

155 Prevention and Education 155  Smoke detectors without test button should be tested with smoke/aerosol product  Weekly according to manufacturer’s recommendations  Monthly with smoke/aerosol product  Change battery minimum of twice a year “Change your clock … change your smoke detector battery” LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Smoke Detectors Testing

156 Prevention and Education 156  Identify yourself & your department  Show & explain each piece of PPE  Have someone children know & trust don PPE  Friendly firefighter dons PPE & crawls  Have children listen to SCBA sound  Have kids crawl to Friendly Firefighter LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Friendly Firefighter

157 Prevention and Education 157  Most frequent kind of burn injury to young children  Can result in disfigurement, hospitalization, & sometimes death LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Scald Prevention

158 Prevention and Education 158  Constantly supervise children while they are in the kitchen or bathroom  Reduce temperature of the hot water heater to a safe level (120 0 Fahrenheit is recommended)  Do not rely on hot water heater thermostat  Let tub water run for 5 minutes, then check with a mercury thermometer LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Scald Prevention Actions

159 Prevention and Education 159  Turn on cold water first  Add hot water  When tub is almost filled, turn off the hot water  Then turn off the cold water LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Scald Prevention Filling Bathtubs

160 Prevention and Education 160  Do not put a child in the bath while the water is running  Check the water with your hand  Then put the child in the tub LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Scald Prevention Putting the Child Into the Bathtub

161 Prevention and Education 161  Always stay with the child  Some kids turn on the hot water by themselves  It only takes seconds for a small child to drown or burn themselves Children in the Bathtub LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Scald Prevention

162 Prevention and Education 162  Spur-of-the-moment  Planned by organized groups LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Fire Station Tours

163 Prevention and Education 163  Good public relations  Share fire safety information & literature LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Fire Station Tours Benefits

164 Prevention and Education 164  Assign a firefighter to meet groups & explain procedure if an alarm sounds  Present a professional image  Show equipment & the station  Provide safety information & literature LIFE SAFETY PROGRAMS Fire Station Tours Conducting the Tour

165 Prevention and Education 165 WORKING WITH THE MEDIA

166 Prevention and Education 166 WORKING WITH THE MEDIA WHY? The media can be a useful tool in getting a message across to the public

167 Prevention and Education 167  Communication The exchange of ideas and information that conveys an intended meaning in a form that is understood  Message Ideas or information that people exchange WORKING WITH THE MEDIA The Media and Communication

168 Prevention and Education 168  Medium The channel or system that a person uses to communicate the message  Mass Media Publications, broadcast, and visuals that are designed to reach large numbers of individuals and usually carry advertising The Media and Communication WORKING WITH THE MEDIA The Media and Communication

169 Prevention and Education 169  Editors look at: Timelessness Proximity Conflict WORKING WITH THE MEDIA What Makes News? Progress Consequences Uniqueness Human Interest

170 Prevention and Education 170  Hard news Has time value, must be delivered immediately or it becomes useless  Soft news Has little urgency, it can be use today, tomorrow, or next week and it hangs on human interest WORKING WITH THE MEDIA What Makes News?

171 Prevention and Education 171  Know the communities media services  Build the department’s reputation  Identify key players  Match the medium to the message WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Understanding the Media

172 Prevention and Education 172  Each has its own particular audience Ask for an overview of each media’s audience  Get to know your media WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Knowing Your Media

173 Prevention and Education 173  Provide reporters what they need  Always give accurate facts  Always keep promises  Call when you say you will  Provide all necessary details WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Building a Reputation

174 Prevention and Education 174  Make list of local media contacts name, title, duties, numbers who is the target audience deadlines, when to call, etc…  Turnover is high in the media keep in contact  Make a media kit to introduce yourself WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Identify Key Players

175 Prevention and Education 175  Radio  Television  Printed  Computers WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Forms of Media

176 Prevention and Education 176  Radio Characteristics: Provides immediate access to the public Interviews can be given over the phone Opportunity for talk show WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Radio

177 Prevention and Education 177  Works best to notify or remind uncomplicated messages Must be simple and straight to the point  Types of Public Service Announcements (PSA’s): Event notification Informational reminder  Check with the station to see if they prefer a live or written copy WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Writing Radio PSA’s

178 Prevention and Education 178  Station manager is in charge of all operations  Program director is in charge of station news and sports Most likely you will need to talk too WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Radio Station Organization

179 Prevention and Education 179  72% of the U.S. population depends on television as its primary source of news Twice as much time as the radio Eight times as much as reading a newspaper  Reach people where they live, study, work etc.  Provides information in a visual, action- oriented way WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Television

180 Prevention and Education 180  Formulate answers for possible questions that may be asked  Response to questions need to be short and to the point WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Prepare for Interviews

181 Prevention and Education 181  Common type of educational format used on television  Stations no longer required to provide a minimum amount of public affairs programming  Most departments are not equipped to create their own TV PSA’s WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Television PSA’s

182 Prevention and Education 182  News release - a short, factual description of an event or issue Write the release just as you want it read on the air, or Provide the information and let the TV create the release  Use proper guidelines when writing new release WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Television News Releases

183 Prevention and Education 183  Writer’s name, organization, address, phone number  Date  Name, number of source  Reading time in minutes  Release date  Use accepted format  Background information to a minimum  Test by reading aloud WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Reference Information

184 Prevention and Education 184  Make a story that provides information that is correct, neat, and to the point  Basic guidelines: Summarize story in the first sentence Put most important facts first Limit sentence length Make every word count Leave out technical terminology WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Print Journalism

185 Prevention and Education 185  Be prepared  Act professional  Give the same story to all news stations  Plan the points you want to make  Avoid using slang words  Never say anything not for publication  Avoid criticizing other agencies  If you do not know, admit it  Be available for follow-up questions WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Interview Guidelines

186 Prevention and Education 186  Establish department priorities  Analyze the audience  Research the marketplace  Select the right medium  Test, evaluate and critique  Prepare the department for publicity WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Develop a Plan  Define educator’s authority  Know what decisions will need prior approval  Know who will review the educator’s work  Make everyone at the department aware of what is happening

187 Prevention and Education 187  Billboards  Signboards  Hot-Air Balloons  Place Mats WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Alternative Media  Grocery Bags  Safety Trailers  Newsletters  T-Shirts, Buttons, etc

188 Prevention and Education 188  First Amendment to the Constitution Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech or the press Journalist view as the cornerstone of free speech WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Legal Issues

189 Prevention and Education 189  Sunshine Laws Address media access to records of public meetings Local, state, laws which require public notification and open attendance of governmental meetings Generally covers –Amount of notice required to hold a public meeting –If he meeting is open to the public –Requirements on meeting minutes or transcripts –Executive session rules WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Legal Issues

190 Prevention and Education 190  Freedom of Information Act Enacted in mid-1960’s and strengthened in 1974 Model for many state laws designed to make government information available to the public –10 days to respond to a request –20 days to respond to an appeal if records are denied WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Legal Issues

191 Prevention and Education 191  Libel and Slander Laws Libel is written defamation –A false attack on a person’s reputation or character Slander is oral defamation  Laws of libel and slander protect the reputation of a person WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Legal Issues

192 Prevention and Education 192  Copyright Statues Adopted in 1906, revised in 1976 to cover photocopies, videotapes, motion pictures, broadcasting, cable TV, and other technologies developed since 1906 It provides copyright owners “shall have exclusive rights” to reproduce, distribute and use of original works WORKING WITH THE MEDIA Legal Issues

193 Prevention and Education 193 FIRE PREVENTION

194 Prevention and Education 194 FIRE PREVENTION  Activities including fire safety education, the enforcement of codes & ordinances, & the engineering of fire safety designs of materials, devices, & structures

195 Prevention and Education 195  Continue to be the main source of US fire deaths  In multiple death fire (>3) under 14 age group accounts for more than half the victims FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fires

196 Prevention and Education 196 A condition that is prevalent in almost all occupancies and encourages a fire to start FIRE PREVENTION Common Fire Hazards

197 Prevention and Education 197  Poor housekeeping and improper storage of combustibles  Defective or improperly used heating, lighting, or power equipment  Improper disposal of floor cleaning compounds  Misuse of fumigation substances, and flammable or combustible liquids FIRE PREVENTION Common Fire Hazards

198 Prevention and Education 198  Fire Safety Survey Used to make citizens aware of hazards or dangerous conditions  Residential Fire Safety Survey Usually done as part of a public awareness and education program FIRE PREVENTION Fire Safety Surveys

199 Prevention and Education 199  Uniform gives a more professional appearance  Neat appearance gains respect  Good communication skills are a must when dealing with the public FIRE PREVENTION Personal Requirements

200 Prevention and Education 200  Coveralls  Safety glasses, hard hat, gloves  Approved respirator  Clipboard, survey forms, grid paper, standard plan symbols FIRE PREVENTION Survey Equipment  Pen or pencil  50’ tape measure  Flashlight  Camera with flash Equipment needed at the site to perform a fire safety survey:

201 Prevention and Education 201  Reference books  Survey report forms  Survey file  Code and inspection manuals FIRE PREVENTION Survey Equipment  Adequate records  Drawing board  Drawing scales, rulers Equipment needed at the station to perform a fire safety survey:

202 Prevention and Education 202  Three main objectives of a fire safety survey: Preventing accidental fires Improving life safety conditions Helping the owner or occupant to understand and improve existing conditions FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys

203 Prevention and Education 203  Benefits to the community Reduce loss of life and property Citizens get to know and trust their fire fighters Give citizens the feeling they are getting a complete service Increased awareness of fire problems in the home FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys

204 Prevention and Education 204  Benefits To the Fire Department Increases citizen’s support for other fire department programs Residents get to know their fire fighters Generates positive public relations and community support Best time to distribute safety literature Fire fighters gain information of building construction, occupancy conditions, and trends Street, hydrants, and water supply locations FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys

205 Prevention and Education 205  Guidelines Provide proper ID Introduce yourself and purpose of your visit Maintain courteous attitude at all times Request permission or remind of appointment Compliment when favorable conditions are found Make constructive comments regarding any hazards found Survey the basement, attic, utility room, storage rooms, kitchen, and garage Keep the survey confidential Thank the owner or occupant for allowing the survey If no one is at home leave literature FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys

206 Prevention and Education 206  Be alert for signs of the most common causes of fire: Heating appliances Cooking procedures Smoking materials Electrical distribution Electrical appliances Combustible or flammable liquids FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys

207 Prevention and Education 207 Interior survey concerns: FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys  Combustible materials  Appliances  Electrical appliances and equipment  Portable heating units  Wood stoves or fireplaces  Heating fuel  General house keeping practices  Smoke detectors  Electrical distribution panels  Gas appliances

208 Prevention and Education 208  Oil burning installations  Furnaces, hot water heaters, and vent pipes  Shop or work rooms  Accumulated waste  Flammable liquids FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys Interior survey concerns (continued) :

209 Prevention and Education 209 Outside survey concerns: FIRE PREVENTION Residential Fire Safety Surveys  Roof conditions  Chimneys and spark arrestors  Yard and porch area  Barbecues and fuel  Outside waste burners  Garages, sheds, barns, and outbuildings  Flammable liquids and gases  Lightning protection  Security devices


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