Presentation on theme: "Land and Government 24 - 1 Weak kings ignored their responsibilities. They could not protect their land or property. They depended on nobles for food,"— Presentation transcript:
Land and Government Weak kings ignored their responsibilities. They could not protect their land or property. They depended on nobles for food, horses and soldiers Clergy also owned land and held power. They helped the poor and sick and advised the nobles. system of government in which power was based on land ownership (fiefs) that was tied to military service Power was based on the ownership of land.
The Clergy 1.What was the priest’s role? 2.What did they teach? 3.What did the Church’s art work show? 4.What did the Church preserve? 5.What are tithes? 6.What did tithes provide for the Church? 7.What did towns compete for? 8.What are bishops-describe them.?
The Serfs 1.Describe serf life?-through out entire clip-the good & bad 2.Describe a manor 3.What did serf women do? 4.What is the law for milling grain? 5.Describe the laws for the Lord’s hunting grounds. 6.What is poaching? Wood penny? Death tax? Mortuary?
Nobles began collecting taxes and enforcing laws. They gave peasants protection in return for their promise to work for them in the fields. Nobles were both lords and vassals. Act of Homage ( glove, stick or stone) The lord promised to protect his vassal from enemy attacks. Vassal’s duties: Help the lord in battle Make payments to the lord. Attend the lord’s court Frankish leaders gave soldiers land as a reward for their service and loyalty. Soldiers were able to get their income to buy horses and battle equipment from their fiefs. Soldiers (knights) had a base from which to rule Europe.
Feudalism A Medieval Way of Life
Drawbridge Portcullis / Gatehouse Moat Bailey Keep Curtain wall Arrow loops Great Hall Battlements The Nobility Nobles lived in wooden farmhouses surrounded by palisades. The earliest form of castles were motte and bailey castles All activities took place in one room with a high ceiling and straw-covered floor. Castles were designed as fortresses. The noble’s servants, officials and family lived there. It contained enough space to store a supply of food and water for as long as six months.
Noblemen looked after their estate, went hunting and fishing, and held court. They played chess and were entertained by minstrels singing and playing music. Noblewomen were called ladies. Their marriages were planned and her family gave the groom a dowry. They helped run the estate when the lord was away. Her main duties were to raise children, take care of the household and care for the sick with her knowledge of plants and herbs.
Knighthood Knights were armed soldiers on horseback. They followed the code of chivalry. The were expected to: Obey the lord Show bravery Respect women Honor the Church Help people Knights trained for war in tournaments. The most popular event was the joust. The cost was high: men and horses were wounded, lances, swords and suits of armor were damaged, and the noble who sponsored the event had to feed many people. Steps to knighthood: 1.At 7, a page helped knights care for their armor and destriers. 2.At 15, a squire was put under the care of a single knight and went with him to battle. 3.At a special ceremony, the young man was dubbed and pronounce a knight.
1 The knight’s iron helmet was tapered to deflect blows. Pads were worn underneath the helmet to steady it on the knight’s head. 2 The bevor was a metal plate that protected the lower part of the face that was left exposed by the helmet. 3 The cuirass, or breast and back plate provided essential protection. Straps at the waist and shoulders connected the breastplate to the back panel. 4 The mail skirt protects the knight’s groin and makes movement easier. It was a tight net of riveted metal links. 5 The knight’s shoulders, arms, and hands were protected by four different pieces of armor: The pauldron was a shoulder plate fit over the breastplate. The vambrace were arm guards that protected the upper and lower arms. The coulter were elbow guards. The gauntlet provided plate armor protection on the outside of the hand. Leather gloves were worn underneath so the knight could keep hold of his weapons. 6 A horse was the knight’s most important purchase. One might cost as much as a year’s income. The warhorse was called a destrier. Horses often wore cloth coverings decorated with the knight’s coat of arms
The Knights Castle Fortresses
The Manor Lands were divided into farming communities called manors. The noble chose officials to run his manor: The seneschal visited each fief regularly. The bailiff made sure the peasants worked hard in the fields. Manors were isolated and forced to produce food, clothing, shelter and tools by themselves. Two groups of peasants worked on the manor: The freemen were peasants who paid the noble for the right to farm land. They could move from place to place. The serfs were a noble’s property. They could not move, own property or marry without the noble’s permission. They worked long hours; spending 3 days working the lord’s land and giving him part of their own crops. They used the three-field system and heavy iron plows.