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1 revised 1/30/07 Sustaining Reading First outcomes beyond Reading First funding Stan Paine Oregon Reading First Center and Western Region Reading First.

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Presentation on theme: "1 revised 1/30/07 Sustaining Reading First outcomes beyond Reading First funding Stan Paine Oregon Reading First Center and Western Region Reading First."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 revised 1/30/07 Sustaining Reading First outcomes beyond Reading First funding Stan Paine Oregon Reading First Center and Western Region Reading First Technical Assistance Center University of Oregon Oregon Reading First Early Reading Team Training February 27-28, 2007 (c) 2010 by the Oregon Reading First Center Center on Teaching and Learning

2 2 revised 1/30/07 Outcomes s Define and discuss sustainability in the context of RF u identify barriers to sustainability of Reading First elements and strategies for overcoming them u examine roles which educators can play at various levels of implementation (district, school) to facilitate sustainability u explore strategies for early-, mid- and late-stage implementation of a school-wide reading program s Become familiar with tools and resources for planning the sustainability of a scientifically-based reading program

3 3 revised 1/30/07 Sustaining RF: A Premise... s Those who are able to sustain the improved outcomes they have attained under Reading First will be those who: u see Reading First not as a funding stream, but as a different way of thinking about teaching and learning. u see the management of change as a systems level process

4 4 revised 1/30/07 Sustain ≠ Maintain Adapted from: Jerald, C. (September, 2005) More than maintenance: Sustaining improvement efforts over the long run. Policy brief. Washington DC: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. Maintain Adapt or Evolve Extend Attain

5 5 revised 1/30/07 Key Sustainability Questions What is it? What do we want to sustain? Is it possible? How do we know? What does it take? What are the barriers? What is the process?

6 6 revised 1/30/07 What is it? Sustainability is..... s “...the ability of a staff to maintain the core beliefs and values (culture) of a program s...and use them to guide program adaptations over time...” s ---while maintaining improved or enhanced outcomes. -adapted from Century and Levy, 2002

7 7 revised 1/30/07 What do we want to sustain? systems effective practices adaptability reading culture Improved outcomes

8 8 revised 1/30/07 Is sustainability possible? Yes! It is not only possible. It is imperative!

9 9 revised 1/30/07 Elements of a school-wide reading model w/added costs and sources of support

10 10 revised 1/30/07 Elements of a school-wide reading model w/added costs and sources of support continued

11 Program Elements SBRR Instruction and Materials (Curriculum) Differentiated Instruction and Interventions Data Analysis & Use Formative Assessment System Professional Development and Coaching Systems Variables Focused Reading Culture Sufficient Resources ($ / Time) Effective School & District Leadership / Support Improved Student Achievement RF Elements + Systems Variables = Sustained Outcomes 11

12 12 revised 1/30/07 What are the greatest barriers to sustainability? s Traditional thinking: u expiration of funding u turnover of key staff u changing priorities u other factors outside our control s Alternate view: u erosion of culture and commitment u school’s failure to focus on the variables they control

13 13 revised 1/30/07 What is the process? Stages of program implementation Adoption Implementation Adaptation Program evolves Program embedded (Sustainability) Continuation/ Discontinuation planning, training changes in context Program need

14 14 revised 1/30/07 CSR Study: Findings s Schools that sustained reforms u More continuity of leadership (leadership) u More commitment among stakeholders (culture) u The reform was an obvious feature of the structure and culture of the school (culture) u More likely that principal played a key role in bringing reform effort to the school (leadership) s School-level factors that inhibited sustainability: u The presence of competing reforms (lack of focus--leadership) u greater turnover in leadership u lack of buy-in initially and even after several years of implementation (culture) u greater misunderstanding/criticism about the reform (culture) adapted from Datnow, 2005

15 15 revised 1/30/07 Lessons learned from CSR Three key factors play the greatest roles in determining sustainability: s shared leadership (& accountability) for desired outcomes s school culture around desired outcomes s use of data to monitor, adjust and make important decisions related to outcomes

16 16 revised 1/30/07 Lessons learned from The Rand Study s National sample of federally-funded educational innovations s Studied projects in u the last two years of a 3-5 yr. funding cycle u and the first two years after funding ended s Outcomes reflected not the amount of funding, but the actions of the local staff s Key finding: mutual adaptation u sustainability was enhanced if the project adapted to the changing context of the school setting u and school staff adapted their practices in response to the project Berman and McLaughlin, 1978

17 17 revised 1/30/07 Lessons learned from PBS: What makes a difference? s administrative leadership s school-level teams s formative data system s positive data on own kids s local capacity s build sustainability from day 1 s staff input/feedback helps guide program (adaptation within a framework) -Horner, 2006

18 18 revised 1/30/07 Concerns-Based Adoption Model Component: Stages of Concern Unaware Actively engaged Component: Levels of Use OMDB Expert A model for understanding how people (e.g., teachers) respond to change initiatives

19 19 revised 1/30/07 Lessons learned from the Concerns-based adoption model s Main ideas about C-BAM: u we need to understand where people are on each continuum to help them adjust to the changes we are asking them to make u people may need a bridge (e.g. coaching, mentoring, administrative support) to transfer their learning from the training setting to the application setting (e.g. classroom) or to move from one level of the continuum to the next

20 20 revised 1/30/07 Questions to consider s Which lesson(s) from this brief sample of the work of others resonate most with you, given your role and where you are along the sustainability continuum? s How can these lessons be applied in your context?

21 21 revised 1/30/07 Tools for Sustainability Planning s Planning and Evaluation Tool for Sustainability (PET-S ) u Principal reflection/planning u School reading team planning process F Improvement requires candid review F Monitor and adjust s Sustainability Planning Worksheet u district reading team planning u district admin. planning (budget, policy)

22 22 revised 1/30/07 Whose responsibility is sustainability? s federal or state government? s district leaders? s principal? s coach? s teachers? s all of the above!

23 23 revised 1/30/07 Activity s Circles of control & circles of influence (Covey) s Look at the slides from the level at which you work. What strategies seem like they might work for you to promote sustainability actively at your level? s Look at the slides from the level “above & below” yours. How might you influence efforts to promote sustainability at those levels? s Jot down a note to yourself (in your calendar?) to follow up on these ideas (talk to someone or take other action) when you get back to your work place.

24 24 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at the district level s district administrators u align/allocate adequate resources to sustain efforts (staffing, budgets) u align district goals and in-service activities w/school priorities u manage adoption of materials to support reading goals u support district-wide formative assessment process u build calendars and schedules which support reading goals u allow job descriptions which support reading goals

25 25 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at the district level - continued s district administrators u hire, assign, support and supervise principals on RF elements u guide collaboration among regular education, Title, special education, and ELL staff in the reading improvement process u build capacity among staff for reading improvement by investing in training for all and mentoring for new teachers, assistants and principals u show up at the school to acknowledge staff efforts and ask, “How can we support you?” u provide the support needed to principals to act as instructional leaders

26 26 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at the district level - continued s superintendent and school board u consider policies and procedures to support reading goals u support hiring practices, assignment, job descriptions, mentoring and supervision which strengthen reading improvement efforts u review results of reading performance measures on an on-going basis (e.g., each 6 weeks); discuss these with district leaders and principals

27 27 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at the district level - continued s superintendent and school board u provide adequate funding to support instructional staff, materials and training needed for reading improvement u develop calendars and schedules which support reading goals u align district goals and in-service activities w/school priorities u seek support for reading improvement through community contacts u show up at the school to acknowledge staff efforts and ask, “How can we support you?”

28 28 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at the school level s principal takes lead on: u leadership activities and developing leadership in others u continuing to develop and nurture reading culture u continuing to build the knowledge and abilities of teachers u maintain communication w/school and district staff about reading u forging an alliance of all instructional staff u involving all school staff in reading improvement u overseeing use of time (calendar, schedules) u providing supervision and support for implementation

29 29 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at the school level continued s principal, coach or specialist collaborate on: u continue school-wide formative data collection u continue team process to use data to guide instruction u continue PD, follow-up and support process

30 30 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at grade levels s grade level and cross-grade team meetings u based on formative assessment data u focused on adjusting instruction as needed s grade level staff collaborate frequently u seamless system of instruction u shared accountability for student outcomes u learn from one another F periodic peer coaching F collaborative problem solving F share ideas and tasks

31 31 revised 1/30/07 Sustainability at the classroom level s teachers continue high fidelity implementation of key elements u use of time u use of curriculum u use of formative assessment and data u differentiation of instructional components s principal supervises for these elements u provides differentiated support as needed u provides positive and formative feedback

32 32 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

33 33 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to Sustainability: Leadership s turnover of leadership (principal, coach) s lack of attention to reading culture s lack of instructional leadership s the leadership is concentrated in one person s lack of support from the district for maintaining effective leadership at the school level

34 34 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for Sustainability: Leadership Addressing Staff Turnover s reading-based hiring practices (posting, recruiting, screening, interviewing, doing reference checks) *(see handout) s re-assignment of staff-- Place principals, coaches and teachers based on vision and skills which match the needs of the students in the school s cultivate leaders (planned succession (Fullan, 2005) u provide training, opportunity, support, recognition u have current leaders mentor potential leaders

35 35 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for Sustainability: Leadership Addressing reading culture and instruction s review/revise job descriptions for principal and coach s set high expectations for leaders regarding outcomes and hold them accountable s supervise and evaluate principals and coaches on the variables related to strong outcomes s provide support for leaders to meet outcomes (mentoring) s structure strong collaboration between principal & coach s establish strong building reading team

36 36 revised 1/30/07 Shifting Leadership Priorities Instructional Leader/educator with a strong focus on improving instruction and student achievement Managerial Administrator/Supervisor Political Negotiator/facilitator  Requires a shift in typical school leadership priorities. Reading First:

37 37 revised 1/30/07 Distributing leadership across multiple staff members and roles s Who are the reading leaders in your school? potential leaders? s What are the roles they play or can play to help sustain Reading First elements? s What can you do to cultivate their leadership potential? “Don’t rely on a hero. Rely on the team” -Rob Horner

38 38 revised 1/30/07 Features That Promote Sustainability of Reading First Results 1.1 Leadership

39 39 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

40 40 revised 1/30/07 Reading culture: What is it? s “How we do things here” (with respect to reading) u the materials we use u the training & support we provide u the instruction we plan and deliver u the assessments we conduct u the way we use time & other resources u the leadership we provide for reading u our shared mission, vision, beliefs, expectations, norms, values & practices around reading outcomes

41 41 revised 1/30/07 The components of reading culture student outcomes culture community engagement around reading cultivation of input/buy-in communication about the culture shared mission/vision/beliefs commitment to continuous improvement common understanding of student context common evidence-based practices shared expectations of students culture

42 42 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: Developing strong reading culture s change of leadership (principal or coach) s lack of participation by principal s staff turnover (new teachers) s changing goals/priorities at district/school level s loss of urgency for improved outcomes s “cultural drift”

43 43 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: developing strong reading culture s district level u hire and assign district leaders and principals committed to Reading First goals and student achievement u communicate with data to school board and schools s school level u develop teacher capacity to understand data and deliver instruction aligned w/each student’s needs u examine student data regularly to assure progress; adjust instruction as needed s classroom level u regularly monitor student progress u regularly meet with grade level team to adjust grouping and instruction as needed

44 44 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

45 45 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to Sustainability: Curriculum s insufficient training and follow-up support on program implementation s Insufficient attention to fidelity of implementation s insufficient differentiation of curriculum s lack of funds for replacement materials

46 46 revised 1/30/07 s additional training and follow-up as needed s supervise for fidelity to instructional plan s accountability for implementation s district, Title 1 funds, other sources for materials Strategies for Sustainability: Curriculum

47 47 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

48 48 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: instruction s “procedural drift” s inefficiencies in instruction s insufficient differentiation

49 49 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: instruction s leadership/supervision for fidelity to plans and commitments s additional training or support based on data

50 50 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

51 51 revised 1/30/07 A school district* procedure for using data to monitor student reading performance 1. school sets process of using data to improve instruction 2. data reports go to principal, literacy coach and data base 3. data teams review data, set instructional improvement goals and set PD needs 4. staff share improvement plans across grade levels and set shared PD plan 5. school repeats cycle on a schedule for steps coordinator prepares data notebook for district admn.; copy is sent to Supt.; admn. review disaggregated data by school, grade and teacher 7. district staff review data and prepare report for Supt. 8. Supt. reviews data and meets with staff to discuss, plan *LAUSD, 2002 What would a comparable process look like for your district?

52 52 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: Use of data s loss of staff time or commitment to collect data s lack of leadership for using data s insufficient knowledge on how to use data s lack of support for grade level team meetings

53 53 revised 1/30/07 Questions to consider Who is collecting progress monitoring data in your school now? If the coach is performing this function now, who will do it if/when coaching is reduced or eliminated? We must find sustainable ways of doing the things most important to student progress.

54 54 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: Use of data s Build team use of reading data into the school culture s Schedule regular administration of measures s Schedule meetings to analyze and discuss data: team, principal-coach, and principal-district s Develop in-house expertise for interpreting data and determining instructional implications s Identify Achievement gaps: between classes, between grades, and between schools s Identify which schools we can learn from and which need more support

55 55 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

56 56 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: Professional Development s new and/or competing priorities s loss of focus s loss of PD funds s lack of PD planning s lack of training for new staff s lack of transfer from training to classroom setting s lack of follow-up or on-going support

57 57 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: Professional Development s deflect/defer/combine competing priorities s provide leadership to sustain focus s use Title 1, 2A, 3, 5, and district $ to focus on the most efficient and productive training activities s differentiated PD based on data s assure that follow-up support takes place and is effective s Set up system to provide PD to new staff s provide new staff with foundational training and support in addition to new PD

58 58 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

59 59 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: Coaching s Loss of funding for coach s Diminished effectiveness of coach Hypothesis: schools with high levels of teacher turnover will find it difficult to sustain Reading First without a coach position.

60 60 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: Coaching s Identify new funding sources to keep the position or s Identify all roles and functions of the coach that are essential to sustaining RF efforts and determine how to make those roles/functions happen s Look at other coaching models s Continued supervision/support for coaching effectiveness s Identify other sources of TA and support once regional and state RF sources are no longer available s Have coach document what they do and how they set things up (e.g., at the beginning of the year) to make them work

61 61 revised 1/30/07 s Use other funding sources: Title 1Title 2a (highly qualified staff) Title 3 (ELL)Title 5 (innovative programs) district fundingSpecial education (15%) s Consider a part-time or shared coach s Assign building literacy specialist from existing FTE u provide release time; refocus job description u (e.g. Title 1, librarian, teacher w/strong reading background) s Peer coaching s Principal or district instructional leader provides “technical assistance” Reading Support Without a Full-Time Coach

62 62 revised 1/30/07 Making Choices About Coaching s Which strategy or combination of strategies for sustaining the functions of a coach might work best for you given your circumstances? s What would your first (or next) steps be in pursuing that option?

63 63 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

64 64 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: use of time s inadequate time scheduled s reversion to previous practices s competing events s School or classroom culture does not make efficient use of instructional time

65 65 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: use of time s revise schedules to assure sufficient teaching time s supervise for adherence to instructional schedule and commitment to adequate learning time for all students s provide sufficient staff and training to ensure high levels of instructional intensity s deflect/defer/delegate/integrate new priorities

66 66 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

67 67 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: Use of Recurring Resources s budget is not aligned with reading priority s staffing funds are not optimized for maximum instructional coverage s time: u not allocating adequate time for instruction u not making full use of instructional time allocated

68 68 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: Use of recurring resources s Budget: u prioritize district, state and federal dollars for the Reading First elements which require funding u make data-driven budget decisions s Staffing: u hire and assign staff to optimize support for reading outcomes s Time: u provide adequate time for planning, training, support and instruction and monitor use of time u manage competing priorities (focus on highest priorities)

69 69 revised 1/30/07 Reading First Elements and Sustainability s Leadership (organization, goals, priorities, communication) s Culture (shared vision, beliefs, practices and commitments) s SBRR curriculum (core, supplemental, intervention programs) s Instruction (differentiation, grouping, delivery) s Formative assessment/use of data for instructional planning s Professional development s Coaching s Use of time (90’+) and additional learning opportunities s Use of recurring resources s District support

70 70 revised 1/30/07 Securing District Support s Who could you talk to in your district to gain district support for Reading First? s What message would you give them? s How can you work at this over time?

71 71 revised 1/30/07 Barriers to sustainability: District support s district staff are not connected to RF s lack of buy-in or support at the district level s district decisions, priorities are not aligned with improvement efforts s district policies and procedures are unrelated to achievement s staff are hired, assigned, and supervised on the basis of things unrelated to achievement

72 72 revised 1/30/07 Strategies for sustainability: District support s communication, involvement to keep district staff informed about, engaged in Reading First s district policies, procedures and actions are aligned with improvement efforts and support achievement s staff (including principals) are hired, assigned, and supervised based on their understanding of and commitment to the instructional needs of students and the support needs of staff

73 73 revised 1/30/07 Prerequisites for Sustainability s high fidelity implementation (all elements) s distributed leadership u principalschool team u coachdistrict support s commitment to outcomes & data-based decisions s strong reading culture u shared mission, vision, norms, values u expectations, commitment, practices

74 74 revised 1/30/07 Develop & nurture the driving elements s leadership u visible, actively involved u distributed (coaching, team) u maintain the instructional support function (coaching), even if you cannot maintain the coaching position s reading culture u common ground u common practices s use of formative assessment data s increased instructional time

75 75 revised 1/30/07 Make the implementation a “systems” level change s Systems components at the district level: u instructional systems (regular and special education, Title 1a, ELL, etc.) u personnel functions (HR practices) u budget and funding practices and priorities u communications (internal and external) u evaluation (use of data to guide the system) u superintendent, cabinet and board roles (policy, procedure, expectations,culture)

76 76 revised 1/30/07 Systems change and funding Systems: All components, all staff, all funds--working together for one goal System for reading improvement regular education special education federal programs (Title) ELL programs Title ITitle III--ELL Title IIa--highly qualified staff Title V--innovative programs 15% IDEA allocation District budget Instructional System State reading funds

77 77 revised 1/30/07 Prepare for staff turnover s develop leaders internally; s assign leaders thoughtfully (to align with program needs) s use reading-based hiring practices to: u post u screen u interview u check references

78 78 revised 1/30/07 Develop capacity to sustain s curriculum u knowledge of core, supplemental, intervention programs u ability to train others to use these programs s instructional support s assessment u administering u interpreting results u determining instructional implications s leading data-based team meetings

79 79 revised 1/30/07 Use policies and procedures to connect research to practice Reading Research Reading Practice informs Reading Policy guides

80 80 revised 1/30/07 Embed effective elements in district policy/procedure Policies/administrative procedures regarding: Effective ElementTopics Governed Timecalendars, schedules Materialsprogram adoptions Hiringpostings, screening principal/coach job descriptions Staffingallocations, assignments Assessment/Evaluationtypes, frequency Data utilizationteam structure Training, supervision, supportprofessional development performance evaluations Bethel School District, Eugene, OR, July 12, 2004

81 Connect elements of Reading First to other “instructional anchors” s NCLB/AYP s Response to intervention model u (RTI--IDEA, 2004) s School-wide Title 1 programs 81

82 82 revised 1/30/07 Allocate recurring resources to support elements needing funding s federal funds s district resources u time u staffing allocation u supply allocation u professional development funds

83 83 revised 1/30/07 Create and implement a sustainability plan s Plan, monitor and adjust the strength of the continuing implementation with a planning tool and process: u Early Reading Team & school literacy plan u Planning and Evaluation Tool-Sustainability (PET-S) (school level) u Sustainability Planning Worksheet (district level)

84 84 revised 1/30/07 Summary of key ideas: s Sustainability is possible if the implementation is effective and the outcomes are the focus. s With leadership, planning, sustained focus and a “can do” culture, effective practices that improve outcomes can survive significant changes in context: turnover of key staff--even expiration of initial funding. s The greatest barrier to sustainability is not loss of funding. It is: u loss of focus u erosion of the culture and u loss of commitment upon which the initial success was built.

85 85 revised 1/30/07 Summary of key ideas: s We must optimize the resources over which we have control and align them with our mission: u other funding sources and u resources that don’t have additional costs attached F shared leadership F strong reading culture ( a “can do” culture) F smart use of time F aligning allocation of recurring resources w/priorities F use of data for continuous improvement

86 86 revised 1/30/07 References s Berman, P., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1978). Federal programs supporting educational change, Vol. VIII: Implementing and sustaining innovations. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. s Century, J. R., & Levy, A. J. (2002). Sustaining your reform: Five lessons from research. Benchmarks: The Quarterly Newsletter of the National Clearinghouse for Comprehensive School Reform, 3(3), 1-7. s Datnow, A. (2005). The sustainability of comprehensive school reform models in changing district and state contexts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 41(1), s Education Week (2006). What's a principal to do? October 20, s Fullan, M. (2005). Resiliency and sustainability: Eight elements for superintendents who want to make a difference and have the resolve to do so. School Administrator, 62(2), 16. s Horner, R. (2006). Personal communication. s Stollar, S. A., Poth, R. L., Curtis, M. J., & Cohen, R. M. (2006). Merging research and practice agendas to address reading and behavior school-wide. School Psychology Review, 35(2), s Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school- wide positive behavior support. School Psychology Review, 35(2). s U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service, Reading First Implementation Evaluation: Interim Report, Washington, D.C., s Walter, F. (January, 2001) District leaders’ guide to reallocating resources. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory

87 87 revised 1/30/07 Selected websites on implementation and sustainability of effective practices s National Reading First s What Works Clearinghouse s National Implementation Research Network s Center for Comprehensive School Reform... s Center for Promoting Research into Practice s National TA Center on Positive Behavior Support

88 88 revised 1/30/07 Other sustainability resources Comprehensive School Reform s Local systemic change s Comprehensive school reform--Virtual Conferences u u u Concerns-based Adoption Model s 


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