Outline: Our mind & our institutions Cognitive specialists Rationality (decisional mechanism) Cooperation (main ambit of interest) Institutions Modular mind Instinctive Co-opt instincts Maladapted mind Ecological Fill adap- tation gap
Applications to projects? 1. Ideas & beliefs 2. Career 3. Expectations 4. Women & men 5. Contracting financial services 6. Reforming public services 7. Reputation of business 8. Online universities 9. Institutional reform
Which sport is tougher? ▪ Psychologically? ▪ In which is more painful to lose? ▪ Chess, why? ▪ Because there are not referees ▪ What’s the moral?
Are smarter, better-educated individuals better at avoiding the traps of unreasonable beliefs? ▪ The power of rationalization ♦Individual examples: perhaps the most prominent, on our own performance: examples? E.g., next slide? ▪ The power of socialization ♦Social examples: collective killings (Nazi Germany) and suicides (from Numantia to Jonestwon) ♦How do we react when friends who stop believing / start thinking differently? ▪ Big risk: we all suffer it… in different areas ▪ How to cure or prevent? I.e., how to grow up from beliefs into ideas? ♦Diverse socialization: How homogenous are our groups? ♦Dilute stereotypes by knowing different persons, groups
Example ▪ How to calibrate accusations that a teacher ♦“constantly despites students”? (E.g., “crosses the line of critique into scorn, jibe, sarcasm”) ▪ Hypotheses—how to test, verify? ♦Teacher does despise students ♦Students in denial rationalize their own failures ▪ What are the effects of soft versus clear criticism? Do we prefer to be told we do well even we do not? Have we? ▪ ***** Application to course projects *****
Deflecting hard questions ▪ Proposal: ♦“Identify the particular challenges of men and women in pursuing their professional careers ” ▪ Project: ♦Emphasis on how the environment must or can be changed ▪ Triple deflection: ♦Only women ♦Changed to make our lives easier ♦Avoid hard personal questions ▪ Risk: work hard self-justifyng
Deflecting hard questions ▪ Proposal: ♦“think strategically about professional career development”, “identify challenges from the environment, assets and possible deficits in emotional intelligence or technical competencies” ▪ Project: ♦“How firms must adapt to young grads’ emotions” ♦Example: “Puppies’ rebellion” (ES) —any changes since 2007?
Trained to deflect criticism? ▪ The “best educated generation” ever: ♦myth or reality? ♦Averages and statistical distributions ♦Quantity and quality: intangibles ▪ Education = aptitude + “attitude” ♦Aptitude: knowledge, general abilities, etc. ♦“Attitude”—crucially: ability to productively accept criticism
How do we react to criticism? ▪ Defensively: taking it as personal attack ▪ Rationalization: producing excuses ♦Why do brilliant people often under-perform? Use their higher mental power to produce better excuses ▪ Advice: ♦No excuses: your default should be “the critique is right, in some way”, and you must discover that way ♦Take critiques as signals of failure, not as solutions: e.g., in correcting texts, teachers shouldn’t provide alternatives but just mark mistakes. When seen that the alternative is worse, students tempted to think there was no problem ♦Distance yourself from your work you do not like it
Do some beliefs provide an excuse for failure? ▪ Discrimination? ♦By sex, race, etc. ▪ The best educated generation ever? ▪ Socialism? ▪ Any other? ♦ ♦ ♦