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PSY2005: APPLIED RESEARCH METHODS & ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY Lab Class 15: Interviewing Participants in Qualitative Research 1.

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Presentation on theme: "PSY2005: APPLIED RESEARCH METHODS & ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY Lab Class 15: Interviewing Participants in Qualitative Research 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 PSY2005: APPLIED RESEARCH METHODS & ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGY Lab Class 15: Interviewing Participants in Qualitative Research 1

2 Learning Outcomes  Outline the General Principles of Qualitative Research  Develop an interview procedure  Review the Life Story method for collecting data  Prepare for a Lifespan interview  Split into 2 components (you’ll work on slides 8-18, and again on 22-25) Tutor Led

3 Why should psychologists be interested in collecting interview data? 3  The self as a social being  Introspection: Private and personal thoughts that are part of our everyday experience  Social interaction: A significant part of our lives is spent talking and listening to other people (sharing knowledge, feelings, articulating memories, expressing beliefs and attitudes)  Interviews as systematic social enquiry  Interviews are a method of collecting data about the self as a social being  Interviews are more than social excavation as a shared process you take yourself in to the interview and therefore your beliefs, attitudes etc.. Hence interviews are a social interaction Tutor Led

4 The Interview 4  Interviews in Social & Psychological Research  Booth’s work on social and economic conditions in London (1886)  Freud’s clinical interviews in psychopathology (1914)  Piaget’s interviews on children’s cognitive capacities (1959)  Why interview?  The interview is the most established method in qualitative research  Types of Interviewing  Individual & Group (Focus)  Semi-structured & Exploratory  Interpreting the Interview  The Interview as excavation: unlocking the information  The interview as co-constructed: an interaction between speaker and listener that is dependent upon circumstance, time and perceptions. Tutor Led

5 A Social Constructionist Interpretation of the Interview Process 5  “Interviewing is a form of social interaction, whereby both the interviewee and the interviewer influence the data that is produced. Furthermore, interviewees are free to choose what they say and how they say it, which means that there are multiple ways to answer any one question, and at different times.” (Hugh-Jones, 2010, p.85). How is this different from Quantitative methods? How is this different from Quantitative methods? What should our expectations be with reliability and qualitative research? Why should we not be worried about this? What should our expectations be with reliability and qualitative research? Why should we not be worried about this? Tutor Led

6 The Interview as a Social Construct 6  “If you were asked about your attitude towards ASBOs, what might influence what you say? Would it matter if the person asking had themselves been given an ASBO.. Would it matter if they were asking you in your capacity as a psychology student, or if they were asking you as a young person who understands youth culture?” (Forrester, 2010, p.84.)  Given this lack of reliability, should we even bother?  Yes! Things are dependent on the social situation but this is not random chaos  There is coherence we just need to understand as much of the interactional context as possible Tutor Led

7 Semi-structured interviewing  Open-ended and closed ended questions  The art of non-directive interviewing  Generating novel questions whilst focusing upon the topic  Recognizing the effect of Social Identity on the interview  Gender, social class, ethnicity, nationality, age  The interview agenda  Small number of open-ended questions  Types of Questions Descriptive – general account Structural – identify categories and frameworks Contrast – a or b choices Evaluative - feelings Tutor Led

8 THE INTERVIEW Read through the following slides making notes as appropriate. The area of interest is the emotional experiences of growing up! 8 Tutor Led

9 The Interview Procedure: Planning  What questions are you interested in asking?  Which groups are the focus of that interest?  Is it okay to use people you know? How would this effect the social dynamic of the interview?  Carefully plan the interview, even though it is to be only semi- structured. Write down the topics and questions you might conceivably want to ask and consider various ways of arranging them.  The interview schedule: this should be a guide and you should be prepared to follow-up with many more questions (probes) Student Led

10 The Interview: Preparing the participants 10  Information sheet: If it is your first interview with the interviewee, provide an overview of your purpose, your intended uses for the interview data, and the measures you’ve taken to protect confidentiality and anonymity.  Discuss and get permission for tape recording or note-taking  Focus on developing a rapport and establishing a relaxed, comfortable climate. Be aware of your nonverbal communication: e.g., smiles, seating position, open/closed body posture, eye contact. In general, be yourself (authentic), positive about the interview, and confident.  Remind them that they have the right to withdraw without giving a reason at any time during the interview Student Led

11 The Interview: Procedure 11  Questions that focus on the topic(s) of interest should be broad, open-ended questions that allow the interviewee latitude in constructing an answer  Types of Questions:  Depends upon what we are interested in finding out?  The types of analyses we are conducting (Narrative analysis, IPA, Grounded Theory) focus on experiences and descriptions as discussed by the interviewee  Use probes (e.g., give me an example of that) to get answers but remember that sometimes silence is the best probe Student Led

12 The Interview: The Process 12  An interview is not a conversation  The other person is doing the talking and you are doing the listening  Your knowledge and your voice should be in the background  Be responsive and friendly  Make sure you show an interest  Encourage ‘astonishment’ these lead to richer data  You may be the ‘guide’ but when the other person gets excited you must be the ‘follower’  Listen well: Deep listening is a hard technique but it has its rewards, If you listen well it builds a bridge of trust  Emotions may emerge  Recalling memories may arouse feelings and emotions  It is never appropriate to push someone further than they want to go  Respect the boundaries that the Teller sets  Be grateful: Thank the person at the end of the interview Student Led

13 The Interview: The Process 13  Types of probes  Detail Probes: When did that happen? Who else was involved? Where were you during that time? What was your involvement in that situation? How did that come about? Where did it happen? How did you feel about that?  Elaboration Probes: Would you elaborate on that? Could you say some more about that? That's helpful. I'd appreciate if you could give me more detail. I'm beginning to get the picture: but some more examples might help. Student Led

14 The Interview: The Process 14  The beginning  Normally this starts with your name and the date and time of the interview  Provide a friendly introduction with a clear overview of your intentions  Provide an information sheet and an informed consent form  Outline the types of questions you intend to ask/make sure the story teller is comfortable with these  The middle  Questions are presented at the end of the slide  The end  Make it clear when you are coming near to the end of the interview  Closure questions Do you feel you have given a fair picture of yourself? Is there anything else you would like say on this topic? What are your feelings about this interview? Student Led

15 The Interview: Example Questions in a life story narrative 15  What were the most important turning points in your life?  Tell me about the happiest moments in your life?  What about the saddest points?  Who have been the most important people in your life? Notice how these are broad questions aimed to elicit experiential and descriptive responses? Notice how these are broad questions aimed to elicit experiential and descriptive responses? Notice also how they are non-leading questions designed to enable further questions (probes) to be asked. Notice also how they are non-leading questions designed to enable further questions (probes) to be asked. Notice how they are designed To elicit engagement in the Interview. To absorb the Interviewee. Notice how they are designed To elicit engagement in the Interview. To absorb the Interviewee. Student Led

16 The Interview: Ethics 16  Moral Responsibility  An interview changes the relationship between two people  Be fair, honest, open, and straightforward  What ever the circumstances the story teller always comes first: rights, interests, and sensitivities  Copyright  The story teller always owns the story  Give the final, wording changes, deletions to the story teller  Anonymity: This is right that the group must maintain Student Led

17 The Interview: The debrief 17  Think about how you will end the interview and don’t forget to double-check your recording equipment  Normally it is best to wind down on the intensity of the questions  Don’t forget to debrief the participants  Provide information about the research which can help them to understand it better (remember they are the co-author in this project!)  Provide contact details if they need more information about the research  Provide contact details of people that can help them if they have been upset by the interview (e.g. Dr. George, our MDX Dubai counsellor) Student Led

18 Things that may throw you! The Interviewee.. 18  asks you a question: Deflect the question.. ”that’s interesting”, “I’d need to think about that”, or, “let’s focus upon what is important to you”.  talks about other subjects: Bring them back… “what is the relevance to..” or “let’s return to..”  seeks advice or approval: Do not give it…” I understand but am not qualified to..” or “I appreciate the importance but I not in a position to..”  is silent: Do not fill the gap. Allow a comfortable silence and if they still do not answer move on to another question “let’s come back to that, what do you think about…”  gets upset: Interviews are often emotional so always bring tissues. Allow time, do not rush to end the interview. Ask them if they feel happy to continue or if they want to express how they feel. Be considerate of the power relations. Based on Hugh-Jones, 2010 Student Led

19 LIFE STORY ANALYSIS Interviewing people about their lives 19 Tutor Led

20 Life Stories & Narratives: Why?  “If you want to know me, then you must know my story, for my story defines who I am. And if I want to know myself, to gain insight into the meaning of my own life, then I to must come to know my own story.” (McAdams, 1993, p.11)  Human beings are very good at constructing and understand their worlds in the context of a life story narrative  “We find that when it comes to the big choices people make — should I marry this person? should I take this job? should I move across the country? — they draw on these stories implicitly, whether they know they are working from them or not,” (McAdams, 2007) Tutor Led

21 Life Story Narratives 21  As a psychology with counselling student why should I be interested in Life Story Narratives?  Research suggests that mental well being is often present in the narratives we present  People with negative problems have positive memories but they are frequently tinged with a dark side  People with a positive outlook have negative memories but they contain a positive twist  Clinicians use life stories to understand the causes, nature and prognosis for mental health problems  Read the following slides for details on Life Story Narratives remembering that you will be engaging in this process next week  Get yourselves prepared for next week. Remember! If your life story interview is good then it will make your report easier to write Tutor Led

22 Key issues to explore: Starting the interview  Opening instruction  “I would like you to begin by thinking about your life as if it were a book. Each part of your life comprises a chapter in the book… Think of this as a general table of contents for your book. Give each chapter a name and describe the overall contents of each chapter. Discuss briefly what makes for a transition from one chapter to the next … Looking back over your entire life story with chapters, episodes and characters, can you discern a central theme, message or idea that runs throughout the text? What is the major theme of your life?...” (McAdams, 1993, p ) Student Led

23 Key issues to explore  Birth and family origin  Cultural setting and traditions  Education  Work  Love and relationships  Friendships  Family life  Spirituality  Major life themes – problems and successes  Vision of the future Use probes as needed. These include: Would you give me an example? Can you elaborate on that idea? Would you explain that further? I’m not sure I understand what you’re saying. Is there anything else? (Boyce & Neale,2006) Student Led

24 Life in general: Example Questions  Everyone has a life story. Tell me about your life, in about 20 minutes or so if you can. Begin wherever you like and include whatever you wish.  What were the most important turning points in your life?  Tell me about the happiest moments in your life?  What about the saddest points?  Who have been the most important people in your life?  Who are the closest to you now?  What does your life look like from where you are now?  If you could live your life over, what would you do differently?  How do you explain what’s happened to you over your life?  If you could write the story of your life, what would the chapters be about?  How would you describe yourself when your were younger?  How would you describe yourself now?  Have you changed much over the year? How?  What is your philosophy of life? Overall what is the meaning of life to you? Student Led

25 Interview Protocols 25  The following instructions for the interviewer should be included in the protocol:  What to say to interviewees when setting up the interview;  What to say to interviewees when beginning the interview, including ensuring informed consent and confidentiality of the interviewee  What to say to interviewees in concluding the interview;  What to do during the interview (Example: Take notes? Audiotape? Both?); and  What to do following the interview (Example: Fill in notes? Check audiotape for clarity? Summarize key information for each? Submit written findings?). Student Led

26 Workbook 2 (week 15) 26  For the rest of the lab. develop an Interview Protocol (Not the interview… the process) in groups of five. No Social Loafing is allowed!  Complete the Interview Protocol formative assessment.  The document can be found in  Psy2005>lab week 15  For next week!  We will be interviewing in the psychology cubicles  Collect an interview schedule from your tutor and prepare your materials for next week  Group of Five: 1 Interviewer (rehearse the interview), 1 Interviewee (relax! Your turn comes next week), 2-3 research assistants (assist the interviewer, you will need to transcribe the interview next week)  Materials: recording materials (smart phone!) Tutor Led

27 Lectures on Interviewing 27  The following link is to a series of lectures given by Graham Gibb (University of Huddersfield). Watch them if you are interested.  PQ&list=PL93950E58215F6F53 PQ&list=PL93950E58215F6F53


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