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22.3AtmosphericCirculation. WIND The atmosphere is a mixture of gases The atmosphere is a mixture of gases Wind is the movement of these gases Wind is.

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Presentation on theme: "22.3AtmosphericCirculation. WIND The atmosphere is a mixture of gases The atmosphere is a mixture of gases Wind is the movement of these gases Wind is."— Presentation transcript:

1 22.3AtmosphericCirculation

2 WIND The atmosphere is a mixture of gases The atmosphere is a mixture of gases Wind is the movement of these gases Wind is the movement of these gases Named for the direction they come from Named for the direction they come from Gases move from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure Gases move from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure H L

3 Pressure Centers and Winds  Low pressure centers are also called Cyclones (counter- clockwise*) (counter- clockwise*)  High pressure centers are also called Anticyclones (clockwise*) (clockwise*) *Rotation direction in Northern Hemisphere

4 Pressure Differences LOW Pressure LOW Pressure causes air to rise & generally takes water vapor up= causes air to rise & generally takes water vapor up= Clouds and storms Clouds and storms HIGH Pressure HIGH Pressure causes air to sink & generally keeps moisture out of the atmosphere= causes air to sink & generally keeps moisture out of the atmosphere= Clear skies & nice weather Clear skies & nice weather Winds ALWAYS move from HIGH pressure areas to LOW pressure areas!!!!!!!

5 CONVECTION Air is warmed at the surface Warm air rises Air is cooler higher in the troposphere Cold air sinks

6 Local Winds  Local winds are caused either by  topographic effects (mountains and land) OR  variations in surface composition (near water)

7 Land & Sea Breezes Coastal Areas  During the day, land heats up quicker than the water  The heated air above the land expands and rises=LOW pressure  Colder air over the water is denser= HIGH pressure  Pushes into land= SEA BREEZE

8 Land & Sea Breezes Coastal Areas Land cools faster than water Land cools faster than water The air above the water is warmer = LOW pressure The air above the water is warmer = LOW pressure Air above the land is cooler= HIGH pressure. Air above the land is cooler= HIGH pressure. Making a… Making a… LAND BREEZE

9 Land or Sea Breeze?

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11 Mountain & Valley Breezes Valley Breeze  During the day, the valley floor heats up and air above it does too  Warm air rises up the mountain  Air cools as it goes up in elevation & clouds may form

12 Mountain & Valley Breezes Mountain Breeze  After sunset the pattern reverses  As slopes cool, nearby air cools and sinks down the mountain.

13 Mountain & Valley Breezes

14 Global Winds!

15 Global Winds  Unequal heating and cooling of the atmosphere from continents and oceans creates high and low air pressures  Add in the rotation of the Earth and global wind patterns emerge

16 Non-Rotating Earth Model On a hypothetical non-rotating planet with a smooth surface of either all land or all water, two large thermally produced cells would form. On a hypothetical non-rotating planet with a smooth surface of either all land or all water, two large thermally produced cells would form.

17 Circulation on a Non-Rotating Earth Air would warm and rise at the equator and cool and sink at the poles.

18 Coriolis Effect Click on image to watch video Click on image to watch video

19 The Coriolis Effect The Coriolis Effect describes the apparent deflection of an object based on the rotation of the Earth below it.

20 The Coriolis Effect Objects appear to deflect to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere

21 Rotating Earth Model When the effect of rotation is added to the global circulation model, the two-cell convection system breaks down into many smaller cells. When the effect of rotation is added to the global circulation model, the two-cell convection system breaks down into many smaller cells.

22 Rotating Earth Model These cells lead to the formation of the global wind belts.

23 Circulation on a Rotating Earth

24 Wind Belts

25 WIND BELTS  Trade winds are two belts of winds that blow almost constantly from easterly directions  From 0 o to 30 o latititude  Warm, moist, rising air (low pressure)

26 WIND BELTS  Westerlies are the prevailing winds that blow west- to-east in the middle latitudes  From 30 o to 60 o latititude

27 Wind Direction The PREVAILING WIND is the wind that blows more often from one direction than from any other. In the United States, the WESTERLIE S consistently move weather from west to east across the continent.

28 WIND BELTS  Polar easterlies winds that blow from the polar high toward the subpolar low.  From 60 o to 90 o latitudes.  Cold and dry air masses

29 WIND-LESS BELTS  Doldrums converging trade winds at the equator (O latitude) creating calm areas  Horse latitudes diverging westerlies and trade winds (easterlies) create calm at approximately 30 latitude

30 The Jet Stream Jet streams form at boundaries between convection cells; Jet streams form at boundaries between convection cells; High speed winds High speed winds Blow in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere Blow in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

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32 Identify the Wind Belts Click on the link below to see the wind belts in action and answer some questions!

33 Global Winds Influenced by Continents The only truly continuous pressure belt is the subpolar low in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, where land masses break up the ocean surface, large seasonal temperature differences disrupt the pressure pattern.In the Northern Hemisphere, where land masses break up the ocean surface, large seasonal temperature differences disrupt the pressure pattern.

34 Energy from Wind


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