# Electrical Measuring Instruments Galvanometer Can be calibrated to measure current (or voltage) Example: Full-scale deflection I fs =1 mA, internal coil.

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Electrical Measuring Instruments Galvanometer Can be calibrated to measure current (or voltage) Example: Full-scale deflection I fs =1 mA, internal coil resistance R c =20 

For max current reading I a of 50mA For max voltage reading V v =10V

Charging a Capacitor (instantaneous application of Kirchhoff’s rules to non-steady-state situation) Use lower case v, i, q to denote time-varying voltage, current and charge Initial current Final conditions, i=0

Time-constant When time is small, capacitor charges quickly. For that either resistance or capacitance must be small (in either case current flows “easier”)

Discharging a capacitor

Power distribution systems Everything is connected in parallel V=120 V (US and Canada) V=220-240 V (Europe, Asia)

Circuit Overloads and Short Circuits Circuit breaker Fuse

Utility power (kW*h)

Magnetism First observation ~2500 years ago in fragments of magnetized iron ore Previously, interaction was thought in terms of magnetic poles The pole that points North on the magnetic field of the Earth is called north pole When points South – south pole By analogy with electric field bar magnet sets up a magnetic field in a space around it Earth itself is a magnet. Compass needle aligns itself along the earth’s magnetic field

Earth as a magnet

Magnetic Poles vs Electric Charge The interaction between magnetic poles is similar to the Coulomb interaction of electric charges BUT magnetic poles always come in pairs (N and S), nobody has observed yet a single pole (monopole). Despite numerous searches, no evidence of magnetic charges exist. In other words, there are no particles which create a radial magnetic field in the way an electric charge creates a radial field.

Magnetic Field Lorentz force acting on charge q moving with velocity v in electric field E and magnetic field B Electric charges produce electric fields E and, when move, magnetic fields B In turn, charged particles experience forces in those fields: For now we will concentrate on how magnetic force affects moving charged particles and current-carrying conductors… Like electric field, magnetic field is a vector field, B

Magnetic Forces on Moving Charges Force F is perpendicular to the plane of v and B and numerically equal to Direction of F is specified as follows

The right hand rule is a useful mnemonic for visualizing the direction of a magnetic force as given by the Lorentz force law. The diagrams above are two of the forms used to visualize the force on a moving positive charge. The force is in the opposite direction for a negative charge moving in the direction shown. One fact to keep in mind is that the magnetic force is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the charge velocity, but that leaves two possibilities. The right hand rule just helps you pin down which of the two directions applies.

Measuring Magnetic Fields with Test Charges Total force with both electric and magnetic fields acting on the charge q Example: Magnetic force on a proton Beam of protons moves at v=300000 m/s through a uniform field B=2.0 T at an angle 30 degrees relative to the field direction Alternative rule – direction of right-hand-thread screw would advance when turned in the same direction as rotation of vector v toward B for a positive charge Magnetic field does NO work; only the direction of the velocity changes, not its magnitude! - Which direction does the charge deflect? a)Up b)Down c)It keeps going straight

Application: The Mass Spectrometer An atom or molecule is ionized by knocking one or more electrons off to give a positive ion. This is true even for things which you would normally expect to form negative ions (chlorine, for example) or never form ions at all (argon, for example). Mass spectrometers always work with positive ions. The ions are accelerated so that they all have the same kinetic energy. The ions are then deflected by a magnetic field according to their masses. The lighter they are, the more they are deflected. The amount of deflection also depends on the number of positive charges on the ion - in other words, on how many electrons were knocked off in the first stage. The more the ion is charged, the more it gets deflected. The beam of ions passing through the machine is detected electrically.

TEGA ovens The Phoenix Mass Spectrometer Scoop dumping martian soil into a TEGA oven

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