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Ch. 5. 5.1 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1.All elements are composed of indivisible atoms (atoms are divisible) 2.Atoms of the same element are identical 3.Atoms.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 5. 5.1 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1.All elements are composed of indivisible atoms (atoms are divisible) 2.Atoms of the same element are identical 3.Atoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 5

2 5.1 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1.All elements are composed of indivisible atoms (atoms are divisible) 2.Atoms of the same element are identical 3.Atoms of different elements can mix together in whole number ratios to form compounds 4.Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated

3 5.2 Structure of the Atom Atom: Smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element.

4 5.2 Component Particles of Elements Subatomic symbolchargemass particle Electrone--11/1840 Proton p++11 Neutronn 0 01

5 Nucleus: Protons + Neutrons electrons

6 Discovery of Particles JJ Thomson Experiment

7 Passed an electric current (electrons in motion) through gasses at low pressure Electrodes connected to high voltage electricity so that charges would separate on the two plates – Anode (+) – Cathode (-) Glowing beam traveled from cathode to anode – Indicated that electrons are negatively charged!!!!!

8 Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment Alpha particles (He atoms that have lost 2 electrons) Scientists believed + and – were evenly spaced in the atoms Expected small deflection for majority of beam Actual Results: majority passed straight through!!!! And the parts that did deflect had a large deflection Indicated that the atom is largely empty space!!!!

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10 5.3 Distinguishing between Atoms Atomic number = # protons in nucleus – Identifies an element Mass Number = # protons + # neutrons

11 Isotopes: Same number protons, but a different number of neutrons Mass number1 2 3 HHH Atomic Number Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3

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13 Isotopes: Same number protons, but a different number of neutrons Mass number1 2 3 HHH Atomic Number Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3 Journal: What is the proton number, neutron number, and mass number of Oxygen-17 and Oxygen-18?

14 Isotopes: Same number protons, but a different number of neutrons Mass number1 2 3 HHH Atomic Number Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3 Journal: What is the proton number, neutron number, and mass number of Oxygen-17 and Oxygen-18? Oxygen-17 p:8, n: 9, mass:17 Oxygen-18 p:8, n:10, mass:18

15 Journal The naturally occurring isotope of Lithium is Lithium-7. – What is the mass number of Lithium-7? – What is the atomic number of Lithium-7? – How many protons does lithium-7 contain? – How many neutrons does Lithium-7 contain?

16 Journal The naturally occurring isotope of Lithium is Lithium-7. – What is the mass number of Lithium-7? 7 – What is the atomic number of Lithium-7? 3 – How many protons does lithium-7 contain? 3 – How many neutrons does Lithium-7 contain? 4

17 Atomic Mass An average of the masses of the isotopes % abundance mass + % abundance mass of Isotope A IsotopeA Isotope B Isotope B Example: The natural abundance for boron isotopes is 19.9% 10 B ( amu) and 80.1% 11 B ( amu). Calculate the atomic weight of boron.

18 % abundance mass + % abundance mass of Isotope A IsotopeA Isotope B Isotope B Example: The natural abundance for boron isotopes is 19.9% 10 B ( amu) and 80.1% 11 B ( amu). Calculate the atomic weight of boron. (19.9%) (10.013) + (80.1%) (11.009) = 10.81

19 Journal Calculate the weight of silicon using the following information: 92.23% 28 Si ( amu) 4.67% 29 Si ( amu) 3.10 % 30 Si ( amu)

20 Calculate the weight of silicon using the following information: 92.23% 28 Si ( amu) 4.67% 29 Si ( amu) 3.10 % 30 Si ( amu) (92.23%) ( ) + (4.67%)( ) + (3.10%) ( ) = = 28.08

21 Lab Activity: Observing Chemical Reactions Black Next Time in class we will look at the Organization of the Periodic Table (Ch. 5.4)


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