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Section 4.4 Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay
Objectives Explain relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and change
Review Recall chemical reactions –Are new substances formed? –Were atoms affected/changed? Chemical reactions only involve electrons Nucleus is NOT affected in CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Nuclear Reactions DO change the nucleus Atoms of one element change into atoms of another
Radioactivity Substance spontaneously emits radiation Rays and particles are called radiation Atoms change into other elements
Unstable Systems Radioactivity occurs when an atom’s nucleus is unstable Unstable systems gain stability by losing energy
Radioactive Decay Unstable nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation spontaneously Radiates until stable New atom forms
Types of Radiation Alpha Beta Gamma
Alpha Radiation Deflects toward a negative charge Alpha particles 2 protons & 2 neutrons 4 2 He or Blocked by only a thin sheet of paper
Nuclear Equation Ra Rn He Radium Radon
Beta Radiation Deflect toward positive charge Beta particles, Electron (-1 charge) Aluminum blocks beta radiation 14 6 C 14 7 N
Gamma Radiation High energy radiation No mass No charge Most dangerous Accompany or particles Account for energy lost CANNOT form new atom on its own 0 0
Characteristics of Radiation Types RadiationSymbolMass (amu) Charge Alpha 42+ Beta 1/ Gamma 00
Practice Co Ni + ____ Am ____ He
Practice Solution Complete the following nuclear reactions: Co Ni Am Np He
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What will be discussed in this chapter? fundamental particles of the atom Types of forces holding up the atom and its particles together Nuclear stability.
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