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ประสบการณ์ในการเจรจา ต่อรองและ การจัดทำบันทึกข้อตกลง ระหว่างประเทศ เก็จพิรุณ เกาะสุวรรณ์ กรมเจรจาการค้า ระหว่างประเทศ 13 มิถุนายน 2556.

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Presentation on theme: "ประสบการณ์ในการเจรจา ต่อรองและ การจัดทำบันทึกข้อตกลง ระหว่างประเทศ เก็จพิรุณ เกาะสุวรรณ์ กรมเจรจาการค้า ระหว่างประเทศ 13 มิถุนายน 2556."— Presentation transcript:

1 ประสบการณ์ในการเจรจา ต่อรองและ การจัดทำบันทึกข้อตกลง ระหว่างประเทศ เก็จพิรุณ เกาะสุวรรณ์ กรมเจรจาการค้า ระหว่างประเทศ 13 มิถุนายน 2556

2 Outline  Major Trade Agreements in ASEAN  Negotiating Trade Agreements  Technical Terms  Experience 2

3 ASEAN Charter ASEAN Community + Declaration on AEC Blueprint ATIGA ASEAN Trade in Goods Agreement AICO ASEAN Industrial Cooperation Scheme Building Blocs of ASEAN Integration CEPT-AFTA Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme for ASEAN Free Trade Area AFAS ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services AIA Framework Agreement on the ASEAN Investment Area ASEAN Framework Agreement on the Facilitation of Goods in Transit ACIA ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement Bangkok Declaration ASEAN

4 Structure of an Agreement  Agreement Text  Schedule of Commitments / Reservation List  Annex 4

5 Type of a Trade Agreement 5  Regional Trade Agreement / Free Trade Agreement / Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement  Trade Agreement => JTC  Double Taxation Agreement  Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT)  Mutual Recognition Agreement / Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA)  etc.

6 Elements of a Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 6 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

7 Elements of a Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 7 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

8 Analyzing the Issues  Commercial Interests  Economic Impact  Policy Issues  Politics  Legal Dimension  Institutional Considerations  Public Opinion 8 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

9 Developing a Research Strategy  What information will I need to analyze all the issues I have mapped out both at home and abroad?  What sources of information are available?  What professional skills/expertise will I need to analyze all the issues?  What professional experts can I consult to fill gaps in my own knowledge and skills? 9 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

10 Elements of a Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 10 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

11 Who Are the Stakeholders  Affected Central Government Ministries and sub- central authorities  Affected Enterprises and Industry Associations  Non-Governmental Organizations with a Policy Stake  Academic Experts  The Interested General Public 11 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

12 Exploration of Stakeholder Interests (Domestic Politics)  Whose Interests are Affected by the Outcome?  What are their Interests?  How Much Influence do They Have on the Outcome?  How will they Influence the Outcome? 12 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

13 Stakeholders May be Affected in terms of  The Commercial Impact  The Policy Outcome  Bureaucratic Turf  Political Consequences  Legal Precedents  Macroeconomic Consequences 13 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

14 Consultation with Domestic Stakeholders  Can yield critical information on commercial, policy and legal issues at home and abroad  Serves to identify their interests and to manage their involvement in the domestic political process related to trade negotiating decisions  Offers insights into the interests and views of their counterparts abroad, and informal communication channels with their counterparts abroad 14 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

15 Why Consult Foreign Stakeholders  Provides information on views of players in foreign decision-making process  Provides opportunities to help shape the views and role of foreign stakeholders with similar interests  Provides broader insights into possible win-win solutions 15 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

16 Elements of any Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 16 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

17 Framing the Issue  Correctly Framing the Issue Can Facilitate Domestic and Foreign Support  In Framing the Negotiating Issue We Need to Consider  The Trade Problem  The Government Measures or Actions that Create the Trade Problem  The Legitimate Objectives of Government Served by the Measure/Action at Issue  The Interests of the Coalition Partners  Constraints on Feasible Outcomes 17 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

18 Elements of a Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 18 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

19 Negotiating Strategy Should  Frame the Issue for Negotiation  Identify of win/win solutions  Identify Potential Supporters among Domestic and Foreign Stakeholders  Outline Message to Potential Supporters  Identify Opposing Stakeholders & the Means for Reducing or Deflecting Opposition  Establish the utility, legitimacy and fairness of proposed outcome  Link Strategy & Tactics 19 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

20 Elements of a Negotiating Strategy  Negotiating Objectives & Priorities  Case for the desired outcome  Identification of the Coalitions at Home & Abroad  Means for Building Support  Link to Broader National Economic and Social Objectives  Cushion for the Losers  Steps that Will Lead from an Initial Negotiating Position to Alternative Successful Outcomes 20 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

21 Developing the Negotiating Objectives  Development of Negotiating Objectives Should Flow from the Framing of the Issue  Negotiating Objectives Should Serve as Strategic Goals that Guide the Negotiations  Negotiating Objectives Should not be so specific that they constrain alternative outcomes that satisfy home country interests 21 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

22 Making the Case for the Desired Outcome  A key element of a negotiating strategy is the development of the arguments why the desired outcome is in the interest of key stakeholders and why objections raised by opponents are surmountable  The arguments need to accommodate the needs of coalition partners and deflect objections by opponents  It is always better to address rather than ignore objections 22 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

23 Identifying Coalition Partners  Coalition building is the key to Negotiations  Out of Minorities Majorities are Built  Coalitions have to be built around common interests  Building a Coalition at Home is often essential to obtain the political support required for a Desired Negotiating Position  Building Support Among Foreign Stakeholders with Compatible Interests can favorably influence the development of Foreign Negotiating Positions  International coalitions of private stakeholders can be an important asset  For regulatory issues, support also has to be built among regulators, who have their independent channels of communications with each other 23 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

24 Building Public Support  Efforts to build public support need to be focused on the most directly affected and influential stakeholders  The choice of the method used for building public support (speeches, grass roots campaigns, white paper, media) and the choice of media (newspaper, technical publication, Television, academic articles) has to be guided by an analysis of who needs to be informed or persuaded. 24 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

25 Elements of a Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 25 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

26 Preparing the Negotiations at Home  Strategic Use of Simulating Role Reversal  Use of Charts to  identify key stake holders, their interests, and their BATNA’s  define objective criteria and relevant facts  Develop Negotiating Mandate and Initial Negotiating Position 26 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

27 Developing a Negotiating Position  The Initial Negotiating Position should serve as the initial starting point for the dialogue in a negotiation  One function of the Initial Negotiating Position is to assure home constituencies and bolster their confidence in their negotiators  Another function of the Initial Negotiating Position is to serve as a stepping stone towards an agreement. 27 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

28 Setting the Stage for the Negotiations  Consulting foreign foreign negotiators.  Agreeing on the issues that need to be addressed in the negotiations.  Establishing the negotiating agenda.  Setting the date and venue for the negotiations. 28 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

29 Elements of a Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 29 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

30 Competitive Negotiations  Focus is on bargaining over the difference between negotiating positions, with each side seeking an outcome closer to its position, which is viewed as gain for the home team and loss for foreign team  Negotiations become personalized, with the foreign negotiating position treated as the morally inferior, misguided view of the foreign negotiator  Hiding information about one’s real interests and problems is seen as a source of strength, while leakage of information to the other side is seen as a source of weakness.  Each negotiating session is a competitive contest and test of strength between the negotiators 30 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

31 Interest-Based Negotiations  Negotiating Positions are seen as a starting point for a dialogue over mutual interests  Each side seeks an outcome that can be presented as a gain for both sides  Foreign Negotiator is see as an agent for a group interest, and as a partner in the search for an outcome that can be sold to at home and abroad  Sharing information about interests and constraints is treated as the means for identifying mutually attractive outcomes  Each negotiating position is treated as a statement of a country’s interest, not a statement of who is right and who is wrong  Negotiating sessions are treated as creative challenges for identifying elements of a viable agreement 31 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

32 Interest-Based vs. Competitive Negotiations  Positions vs. Interests  Personalities vs. Group Interests  Zero-Sum vs. Positive Sum Approaches  Hiding vs. Sharing Information  Judgmental vs. Pragmatic Advocacy 32 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

33 Elements of Interest-Based Negotiations  Establishment of Personal Rapport  Exploration of Common Ground  Identification of the Interests of Parties  Development of Options  Communication of BATNA “Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement”  Use of Objective Criteria for Legitimacy 33 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

34 The People Dimension  Get to Know Your Counterparts - Likes, Dislikes, Fears, Ambitions, Goals  Develop rapport needed to obtain information, to explore options, to communicate your needs  Nurture personal link-by separating people from the issues 34 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

35 Exploration of Common Ground  Agree on the scope & purpose of the negotiating session  Agree on what should be said publicly to the press about the negotiations  Establish degree of AUTHORITY of each side to explore alternatives, make a deal  Identify Areas of Agreement 35 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

36 Interest Identification  Review of Negotiating Positions, Interests  Presentation of positions, objectives by parties  Restatement of other party's positions, interests  Use of interim draft documents to establish  points of agreement, issues still to be addressed 36 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

37 Development of Options  Record all Options Presented by Other Side and their Rationale  Do not Ignore any option presented, but Rank Order & Analyze them  Explore Potential Amendments or Combinations of Options & Alternatives  Seek to Identify Other Means by Which  They Can Satisfy Your Interests, Or  You Can Satisfy their Interests 37 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

38 Use of the B.A.T.N.A.  A Clear Understanding of each Party’s Alternative to an Agreement can Make a Negotiated Compromise Look more Attractive  Development of Objective Evidence  that Supports Your BATNA can Strengthen Your Negotiating Power  that Undermines Their BATNA can Weaken Their Negotiating Power 38 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

39 Use of Objective Criteria L egitimacy and Authority to a negotiating position can come from objective criteria developed by third parties, including-  Legal & Administrative Precedents  Industry practices and standards  Scientific Studies  Expert Testimony 39 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

40 Elements of a Negotiation  Analysis of the Issues  Exploration of Stakeholders Interests  Framing the Issue  Establishing a Negotiating Strategy  Preparing the Negotiations  Negotiating the Agreement  Implementing the Agreement 40 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

41 Implementing the Agreement  Selling the Results to the Home Constituencies  Obtaining Domestic Legislative Approval Where Required by Law  Developing Implementing Regulations  Persuading Domestic Ministries to Implement Elements under their Jurisdiction  Monitoring Implementation by Domestic Ministries  Reporting on Implementation to WTO under TPRM 41 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

42 Negotiating Success Depends on  Economic Power of Coalition  Commonly Shared Ideas of Legitimacy  Utility of Agreement to Business  Sound and Comprehensive Analysis  Identifying Reasons Why Other Party Can Gain from Negotiating Proposal  Creativity in Identifying Win/Win Solutions  Achievement of Mutually Beneficial Outcomes 42 Copyright of Geza Feketekuty

43 Formal and Informal Together Informal Formal In the plenary Anywhere else 43

44 Technical Terms 44  Goods:  HS Code (Harmonized System Code)  AHTN (ASEAN Harmonize Tariff Nomenclature)  ROO (Rules of Origin): WO, CTC, CTH, CTSH, RVC  Services:  Negative List VS Positive List  Unbound / None  Horizontal Commitments/Specific Commitments

45 หลักการขององค์การการค้า โลก  การไม่เลือกปฏิบัติ MFN (Most-favored-nation) การประติบัติเยี่ยงชาติที่ ได้รับอนุเคราะห์ยิ่ง National Treatment การประติบัติเยี่ยงคนชาติ  การเปิดให้การค้าเป็นไปอย่างเสรียิ่งขึ้น  ความโปร่งใสและการปฏิบัติตามพันธกรณีเพื่อให้เกิด ความแน่นอนทางการตลาด  ส่งเสริมให้การแข่งขันเป็นไปอย่างยุติธรรม  ส่งเสริมการพัฒนาและการปฏิรูปทางเศรษฐกิจ 45


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