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Atmosphere and Hydrosphere SJCHS. Atmosphere Atmosphere: Layer of gases that surround the Earth Composition 78 % Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Other (Water Vapor,

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Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere and Hydrosphere SJCHS. Atmosphere Atmosphere: Layer of gases that surround the Earth Composition 78 % Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Other (Water Vapor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere and Hydrosphere SJCHS

2 Atmosphere Atmosphere: Layer of gases that surround the Earth Composition 78 % Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Other (Water Vapor, CO 2 ) Particles: dust, pollen, smoke, exhaust, pyroclastic material

3 Atmosphere Troposphere: 0- ~12 km; temperature decreases as altitude increases Heated by solar radiation; where most weather events occur

4 Atmosphere Ozone Layer: Made of O 3 Formation absorbs UV light from the sun

5 Atmosphere A major function of atmosphere is to regulate heating of Earth

6 Radiation Solar radiation: Energy that heats Earth in form of following rays: UV, visible light, infrared

7 Radiation Light can be transmitted, absorbed, reflected

8 Radiation 50 % of solar energy is absorbed by Earth ’ s surface/ocean 20% of solar energy is absorbed by atmosphere 30% is reflected to space from atmosphere, clouds, surface

9 Convection Convection: Transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid (such as air or water)

10 Convection A pocket of air (or a thermal) is heated at surface of Earth by conduction, becoming less dense Air rises, expands, and cools Cool air is more dense and will fall to Earth Convection circulation cycle repeats

11 Coriolis Effect Due to rotation counterclockwise of the Earth, objects change direction (NOT SPEED) Northern Hemisphere: Deflect right Southern Hemisphere: Deflect left

12 Cyclones Tropical Cyclone (aka hurricane or typhoon): Storms that form at low pressure areas over warm water

13 Videos: Hurricane Formation

14 Fronts Front: Boundary between air masses; where most major weather events occur

15 Fronts Warm Front: Warm air moves above cold air causing precipitation

16 Fronts Cold Front: Cold air sinks under warm air causing heavy precipitation

17 Seasons Solar energy that strikes the Earth ’ s surface directly is more intense than solar energy that strikes at an angle

18 Seasons Due to Earth ’ s spherical shape, areas at equator get more sun than areas near the poles

19 Seasons Albedo: Measurement of light reflected from a surface high albedo, more reflection, lower temperatures

20 Seasons Earth ’ s orbit is elliptical and Earth is at a tilt

21 Seasons SeasonTilt of EarthDay lengthTemperature SummerTowardsLongerWarmer WinterAwayShorterColder Northern Hemisphere (opposite for Southern Hemisphere)

22 Seasons In Northern hemisphere, objects facing south get more sunlight in mid- latitudes

23 Seasons Applications Ski runs tend to be on north side of mountains Solar panels face south

24 Convection Unequal heating, convection and the CE causes global wind patterns that affect climate on Earth

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26 Why is the sky blue? When sunlight enters the atmosphere, light can scatter (reflected in many directions)

27 Why is the sky blue? Light that is reflected is what we see (other colors absorbed)

28 Why is the sky blue? When light hits an oxygen or nitrogen (or any small molecule) shorter wavelengths of light are scattered Light will be scattered in all directions

29 Why is the sky blue? Larger particles (water vapor) scatter different wavelengths Traveling through more atmosphere scatters different wavelengths

30 Why isn’t the sky violet? Human eyes contain red, green, and blue cones that allow us to see color The brain interprets the color of sky as blue

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32 Hydrosphere Hydrosphere: Ocean (salt) and freshwater on or underneath Earth(ground water/aquifers) Freshwater is a limited resource

33 Videos: Freshwater as a limited resource and solutions Water in Africa Play Pump Water in California

34 Ocean Currents Upper ocean circulation is driven by winds Gyres: Circular motion of water Clockwise in Northern Hemisphere, Counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere

35 Ocean Currents Thermohaline/ Deep Water Circulation: Colder/ high salinity water sinks, warmer/ less salinity water rises forming a deep water current

36 Hydrosphere aswan-high-dam


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