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Announcements Assignment for discussion section Assignment for discussion section read Bradshaw and Bekoff paperread Bradshaw and Bekoff paper come to.

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Presentation on theme: "Announcements Assignment for discussion section Assignment for discussion section read Bradshaw and Bekoff paperread Bradshaw and Bekoff paper come to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Announcements Assignment for discussion section Assignment for discussion section read Bradshaw and Bekoff paperread Bradshaw and Bekoff paper come to section prepared to discuss questionscome to section prepared to discuss questions Change in Kevin’s office hours Change in Kevin’s office hours Check out the website: Check out the website: www.es.ucsb.edu/classes/envs100/

2 Summary What is Ecology? What is Ecology? Ecology vs. Environmentalism Ecology vs. Environmentalism Observation and Experimentation Observation and Experimentation The Scientific Method The Scientific Method Roots of Ecology Roots of Ecology Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

3 Two-minute quiz: Ecology is (pick the best answer): 1.the study of the distribution of plant and animal species across the earth 2.the same as environmental science 3.the study of how abiotic factors determine the evolution of animals and plants 4.a method for classifying organisms 5.a relatively old science 6.the study of the relationships of living things to one another and their environment

4 Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection lineages with the most appropriate biological programming (genes) for the current conditions will leave the most descendants lineages with the most appropriate biological programming (genes) for the current conditions will leave the most descendants what is a lineage? what is a lineage? family groupfamily group coming from a common ancestorcoming from a common ancestor

5 Defining ‘evolution’ Scientific definition vs. common usage Scientific definition vs. common usage

6 Defining ‘evolution’ Scientific Definitions: All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell

7 Defining ‘evolution’ Scientific Definitions: All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell The origination of species of animals and plants… –O.E.D. The origination of species of animals and plants… –O.E.D.

8 Defining ‘evolution’ Scientific Definitions: All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell The origination of species of animals and plants… –O.E.D. The origination of species of animals and plants… –O.E.D. From a scientific point of view, evolution is just how new species come about …and evolution does not mean “getting better”

9 Defining ‘evolution’ Scientific Definitions: All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today –Neil Campbell The origination of species of animals and plants… – O.E.D. The origination of species of animals and plants… – O.E.D. Common Usage: A process of continuous change from a lower, simpler, or worse to a higher, more complex, or better state –Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary A process of continuous change from a lower, simpler, or worse to a higher, more complex, or better state –Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary

10 Humans and evolution Where does the “getting better” idea come from? Where does the “getting better” idea come from? view of humans as an evolutionary endpointview of humans as an evolutionary endpoint

11 Humans and evolution Where does the “getting better” idea come from? Where does the “getting better” idea come from? view of humans as an evolutionary endpointview of humans as an evolutionary endpoint Humans and natural selection Humans and natural selection humans are differenthumans are different the “unfit” often live to reproducethe “unfit” often live to reproduce strong culturestrong culture direct contact with nature is limiteddirect contact with nature is limited ubiquitous presenceubiquitous presence

12 Where does ecology fit in? Biological Sciences Earth Sciences Physical Sciences

13 Where does ecology fit in? Ecology Ecology is an interdisciplinary science Ecological studies are done at the interface of these 3 fields

14 Organization within Ecology Ecosystem Ecology Physiological Ecology Population Ecology Community Ecology Behavioral Ecology

15 Ecology subfields: Physiological Ecology:Physiological Ecology: the study of the diverse adaptations that enable organisms to function in their environmentthe study of the diverse adaptations that enable organisms to function in their environment

16 Ecology subfields: Behavioral Ecology:Behavioral Ecology: the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behaviorthe study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological nichesthe roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches Mimic Octopus Video Clip Mimic Octopus Video Clip Mimic Octopus Video Clip Mimic Octopus Video Clip

17 Ecology subfields: Behavioral Ecology:Behavioral Ecology: the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behaviorthe study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological nichesthe roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches does “plant behavior” exist?does “plant behavior” exist? Mimic Octopus Video Clip Mimic Octopus Video Clip Mimic Octopus Video Clip Mimic Octopus Video Clip

18 Plant behavior behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart

19 Plant behavior behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals

20 Plant behavior behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain”

21 Plant behavior behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch

22 Plant behavior behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch sometimes the responses are very slow sometimes the responses are very slow

23 Plant behavior behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch sometimes the responses are very slow sometimes the responses are very slow plants in motion plants in motion plants in motion plants in motion

24 Plant behavior behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart behavior is defined as “an observable response to environmental stimuli” –Starr and Taggart nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals nervous and endocrine systems are often at work in animals plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants have hormones and signaling pathways but no “brain” plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch plants respond to stimuli such as light, gravity, and touch sometimes the responses are very slow sometimes the responses are very slow plants in motion plants in motion plants in motion plants in motion very few people study the “why’s” very few people study the “why’s”

25 Ecology subfields: Population Ecology:Population Ecology: the study of individuals of a certain species occupying a defined area during a specific timethe study of individuals of a certain species occupying a defined area during a specific time

26 Ecology subfields: Community Ecology:Community Ecology: the study of how populations of organisms interactthe study of how populations of organisms interact

27 Ecology subfields: Ecosystem Ecology:Ecosystem Ecology: the study of interactions between organisms and their environment as an integrated systemthe study of interactions between organisms and their environment as an integrated system

28 Different types of ecologists ask different types of questions.

29 How does carbon loss from plowed soils influence global climate? How does deforestation influence the water supply to nearby towns? How does acid rain influence forest productivity? What are the biological controls over rock weathering? Endolithic ecosystem Forest ecosystem Watershed Global ecosystem Scale Question

30 Temporal Scale Length of time Length of time Type of process is important: Type of process is important: many ecological processes take decadesmany ecological processes take decades unfortunately funding usually lasts for only 3 yearsunfortunately funding usually lasts for only 3 years LTERLTERLTER biology can be nearly instantaneousbiology can be nearly instantaneous geological processes are very slowgeological processes are very slow chemistry can be fast or slowchemistry can be fast or slow enzymatic activityenzymatic activity lifetime of certain gases in the atmospherelifetime of certain gases in the atmosphere

31 Spatial Scale “Powers of Ten” Online Demo “Powers of Ten” Online Demo “Powers of Ten” Online Demo “Powers of Ten” Online Demo

32 Summary for today… Definition of ‘lineage’ and ‘evolution’ Definition of ‘lineage’ and ‘evolution’ Humans and evolution Humans and evolution Ecology as an interdisciplinary science Ecology as an interdisciplinary science Different subfields in Ecology: Different subfields in Ecology: Physiological EcologyPhysiological Ecology Behavioral EcologyBehavioral Ecology Population EcologyPopulation Ecology Community EcologyCommunity Ecology Ecosystem EcologyEcosystem Ecology Temporal and Spatial scale in ecology Temporal and Spatial scale in ecology

33 Announcements Handouts Handouts I have more copiesI have more copies You can also get them online: www.es.ucsb.edu/classes/envs100/You can also get them online: www.es.ucsb.edu/classes/envs100/ www.es.ucsb.edu/classes/envs100/ My office hours: Mondays 10:15-12:00pm My office hours: Mondays 10:15-12:00pm Panel on careers in the environment? Panel on careers in the environment? Fish and Wildlife/Fish and GameFish and Wildlife/Fish and Game Non-governmental organizationsNon-governmental organizations Consulting firms and private companiesConsulting firms and private companies EducationEducation

34 From Monday… Scientific vs. common use of the word “evolution” Scientific vs. common use of the word “evolution” Subfields of Ecology Subfields of Ecology Scale Scale

35 Two-minute quiz… Imagine that you are an ecosystem ecologist. You travel to rural Costa Rica, where several of the people you meet work on banana plantations. You visit a plantation, and then decide to incorporate a study of one into your research program. Which one of the following questions might you pursue as part of your research? Imagine that you are an ecosystem ecologist. You travel to rural Costa Rica, where several of the people you meet work on banana plantations. You visit a plantation, and then decide to incorporate a study of one into your research program. Which one of the following questions might you pursue as part of your research?

36 1. How does the fruit-eating bat population respond after a banana plantation is abandoned? 2. How many different species of ant live in a banana plantation, and how does this number compare with an equally-sized patch of rainforest? 3. How much nitrogen enters streams from a banana plantation in comparison to old growth rainforest? 4. How complex are the insect-based food webs in a pesticide-free banana plantation? 5. Which contains foliage that is more difficult to consume, a banana plant or a walking palm?

37 What is an ecosystem? All the organisms and the abiotic entities with which they interact within a given space All the organisms and the abiotic entities with which they interact within a given space The space is delineated by the person studying it The space is delineated by the person studying it Can be as large as the whole earthCan be as large as the whole earth Can be as small as a test tubeCan be as small as a test tube What determines the appropriate scale?What determines the appropriate scale?

38 What is an ecosystem process? Transfer of materials or energy from one pool to another Transfer of materials or energy from one pool to another Can involve biotic and abiotic components of the systemCan involve biotic and abiotic components of the system

39 What regulates the function of ecosystems? Feedback mechanisms Feedback mechanisms Energy flow Energy flow

40 Feedback mechanisms Positive feedback Positive feedback Negative feedback Negative feedback A B A B

41 Positive feedback Can push system to a new state Can push system to a new state Ice reflects the sun’s rays With less ice, the darker surface of land and ocean absorb more heat warming

42 Positive feedback Can push system to a new state Can push system to a new state Fertile soil Rich litter Fast decomposition Rapid nutrient release

43 Negative feedback Tends to keep a system stable Tends to keep a system stable PreyPredator

44 Energy Flow Climate: Climate: transport of energy through the earth system transport of energy through the earth system key control over distribution of earth’s ecosystems key control over distribution of earth’s ecosystems Biology: Biology: controls the transfer of energy within and between organisms controls the transfer of energy within and between organisms

45 Where does energy come from? The sun Geothermal activity

46 What happens to energy from the sun? Reflected by clouds and atmosphere Reflected by surface albedo Absorbed as heat Absorbed in photosynthesis 100 23 8 20 Absorbed by atmosphere and clouds 57 47 2

47 Energy Budget Albedo: depends on reflectivity Water: 2% Snow: 50-90% Clouds: 90% Vegetation: 5-30% Photosynthesis: 2%  chemical energy Heat: the rest (8-90%)  drives climate

48 Weather vs. Climate Weather describes short term variability Weather describes short term variability Difficult to predict Difficult to predict

49 "sensitive dependence upon initial conditions" The Butterfly Effect Link to “butterfly effect” online demo Link to “butterfly effect” online demo Link to “butterfly effect” online demo Link to “butterfly effect” online demo

50 Weather, chaos, and the butterfly effect Meteorologist Edward Lorenz, a pioneer of chaos theory, coined the famous phrase “the butterfly effect”. The work of weather, he argued, can ultimately magnify the flapping of a butterfly’s wings into a typhoon. The phrase has become shorthand for the way tiny factors working through complex systems can work huge changes in history. 'Chaotic' motion is not completely random. Although precise details of the motion cannot be predicted, patterns can be seen in the chaos.

51 Weather vs. Climate Weather describes short term variabilityWeather describes short term variability Difficult to predictDifficult to predict Climate describes typical conditions for a regionClimate describes typical conditions for a region More predictableMore predictable Heat moves airHeat moves air Depends on M.O.L.E.:Depends on M.O.L.E.: mountains oceans and lakes latitude elevation

52 Uneven Heating of Earth Greater heating at equator than poles sun’s rays hit more directly less atmosphere to penetrate Therefore net gain of energy at equator net loss of energy at poles

53 Heat Moves Air Air rises at equator and subsides at poles (vertical circulation) Atmosphere contains circulation cells at different latitudes Earth’s rotation determines wind direction horizontal circulation (Coriolis force)

54 Mountains: orographic lift

55 Ocean: surface currents

56 Ocean: deep conveyor

57 Ocean surface currents are driven by wind surface currents are driven by wind

58 Coriolis forces deflect current away from western edges of continents Coriolis forces deflect current away from western edges of continents Ocean

59 surface currents are driven by wind surface currents are driven by wind Coriolis forces deflect current away from western edges of continents Coriolis forces deflect current away from western edges of continents Formation of gyres Formation of gyres Ocean

60 surface currents are driven by wind surface currents are driven by wind Coriolis forces deflect current away from western edges of continents Coriolis forces deflect current away from western edges of continents Formation of gyres Formation of gyres 40% of latitudinal heat transfer from equator to poles occurs through the ocean 40% of latitudinal heat transfer from equator to poles occurs through the ocean surface (warm) currents move towards poles deep (cold) currents move towards equator Ocean

61 The Lake Effect If the lake is warm but the air blowing across it is cold: Water vapor rises from the warm lake, and condenses and forms rain in cold air. If the lake is cold but the air blowing across it is warm: Warm, moist air is cooled as it passes over the cold lake, and fog forms.

62 Latitude: seasons and the earth’s tilt

63 Elevation Adiabatic coolingAdiabatic cooling Katabatic windKatabatic wind pooling of cold air in valleys 10° C 25° C Air cools as pressure decreases Also: more rain at higher elevations due to orographic lift!

64 Vegetation Climate determines what plants can surviveClimate determines what plants can survive Vegetation, in turn influences climateVegetation, in turn influences climate Surface Energy BudgetSurface Energy Budget darker vegetation has lower albedodarker vegetation has lower albedo decrease from grassland  deciduous forestdecrease from grassland  deciduous forest uneven canopies create turbulence in airflowuneven canopies create turbulence in airflow WaterWater high evapotranspiration can lead to high precipitationhigh evapotranspiration can lead to high precipitation

65 Energy Flow Climate: Climate: transport of energy through the earth systemtransport of energy through the earth system Biology: Biology: controls the transfer of energy within and between organismscontrols the transfer of energy within and between organisms

66 Announcements Handouts Handouts Wagener et al. articleWagener et al. article Questions: written assignment due in your section next week (Oct. 7 th or 8 th )Questions: written assignment due in your section next week (Oct. 7 th or 8 th ) Writing guidelines will help you with the assignmentWriting guidelines will help you with the assignment You can get all of these online: www.es.ucsb.edu/classes/envs100/You can get all of these online: www.es.ucsb.edu/classes/envs100/ www.es.ucsb.edu/classes/envs100/ Women In Science & Engineering (WISE) Women In Science & Engineering (WISE) sb_wise@hotmail.comsb_wise@hotmail.com

67 Summary from Wednesday… Feedback mechanisms Feedback mechanisms PositivePositive NegativeNegative Energy Flow Energy Flow Weather vs. Climate Weather vs. Climate The butterfly effect and chaotic systems The butterfly effect and chaotic systems Uneven heating of earth drives climate Uneven heating of earth drives climate M.O.L.E. M.O.L.E. Climate and Vegetation Climate and Vegetation

68 Two-minute Quiz (by the way…these “quizzes” are just to test your knowledge) Which one of the following is true? a. Chaos and randomness are the same thing. b. The Coriolis Force is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than it is in the Southern Hemisphere. c. A small lake in northern Minnesota will have a higher albedo in the winter than it does in the summer. d. The deep ocean conveyor moves water more quickly than surface currents can. e. The climate in a certain region is primarily caused by biotic (rather than abiotic) factors.

69 Coriolis Force Coriolis Force Earth spins more quickly at equator than near poles Earth spins more quickly at equator than near poles Air moving from pole to equator begins to move more slowly relative to the surface of the earth as it nears the equator Air moving from pole to equator begins to move more slowly relative to the surface of the earth as it nears the equator Anything moving in a straight line along the north- south axis will eventually curve Anything moving in a straight line along the north- south axis will eventually curve This causes deflection of air: This causes deflection of air: to the right in the Northern Hemisphereto the right in the Northern Hemisphere to the left in the Southern Hemisphereto the left in the Southern Hemisphere Ocean water circulates: Ocean water circulates: clockwise in Northern Hemisphereclockwise in Northern Hemisphere counterclockwise in the Southern Hemispherecounterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere

70 But what about hurricanes? Coriolis is only one of the forces acting on air to cause winds Air-pressure differences draw air toward the center of the area of low pressure This pressure-gradient force is stronger than the Coriolis force The combination of the two forces leads to a counter-clockwise spin of hurricanes The combination of the two forces leads to a counter-clockwise spin of hurricanes

71 Coriolis Force along the coast Coriolis forces combined with prevailing winds pull surface water: to the right in the Northern Hemisphere to the right in the Northern Hemisphere to the left in the Southern Hemisphere to the left in the Southern Hemisphere Therefore, surface current flows away from western edges of continents Therefore, surface current flows away from western edges of continents Cold water rises from below to replace it Cold water rises from below to replace it

72 Energy Flow Climate: Climate: transport of energy through the earth systemtransport of energy through the earth system Biology: Biology: controls the transfer of energy within and between organismscontrols the transfer of energy within and between organisms

73 Plant allocation Where does the energy go?go roots stems leaves flowers fruits seeds

74 Animal allocation GrowthGrowth RespirationRespiration Heat productionHeat production endothermsendotherms ectothermsectotherms BehaviorBehavior hunting or gatheringhunting or gathering reproductionreproduction other activitiesother activities

75 Energy flow through endotherms

76 Energy flow through ectotherms

77 What limits how much energy is available in a kelp forest food web?

78 What controls primary productivity? Light Light Temperature Temperature

79 What controls primary productivity? LightLight TemperatureTemperature NutrientsNutrients Nitrogen  proteins, nucleic acidsNitrogen  proteins, nucleic acids Phosphorus  nucleic acids, ATPPhosphorus  nucleic acids, ATP OthersOthers Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, MolybdenumPotassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Molybdenum

80 What controls primary productivity? LightLight TemperatureTemperature NutrientsNutrients Nitrogen  proteins, nucleic acidsNitrogen  proteins, nucleic acids Phosphorus  nucleic acids, ATPPhosphorus  nucleic acids, ATP OthersOthers Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, MolybdenumPotassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Molybdenum


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