Airplanes are transportation devices which are designed to move people and cargo from one place to another.move Airplanes come in many different shapes and sizes depending on the mission of the aircraft.different
For any airplane to fly, the weight of the airplane, including the fuel, the passengers, and the cargo must be lifted,weight The wings generate most of the lift to hold the plane in the air.wingslift To generate lift, the airplane must be pushed through the air. The jet engines, which are located beneath the wings, provide the thrust to push the airplane forward through the air.jet enginesthrust The air resists the motion in the form of aerodynamic drag.drag
To control and maneuver the aircraft, smaller wings are located at the tail of the plane.control The tail usually has a fixed horizontal piece (called the horizontal stabilizer) and a fixed vertical piece (called the vertical stabilizer). The stabilizers' job is to provide stability for the aircraft, to keep it flying straight. The vertical stabilizer keeps the nose of the plane from swinging from side to side, while the horizontal stabilizer prevents an up-and-down motion of the nose.
On the Wright brother's first aircraft, the horizontal stabilizer was placed in front of the wings. Such a configuration is called a canard after the French word for "duck". stabilizer
At the rear of the wings and stabilizers are small moving sections that are attached to the fixed sections by hinges. Changing the rear portion of a wing will change the amount of force that the wing produces. Changing the rear portion The ability to change forces gives us a means of controlling and maneuvering the airplane. The hinged part of the vertical stabilizer is called the rudder; rudder; it is used to deflect the tail to the left and right as viewed from the front of the fuselage.
The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the elevator;elevator; it is used to deflect the tail up and down. The outboard hinged part of the wing is called the aileron; aileron; it is used to roll the wings from side to side. Most airliners can also be rolled from side to side by using the spoilers.spoilers. Spoilers are small plates that are used to disrupt the flow over the wing and to change the amount of force by decreasing the lift when the spoiler is deployed.
The wings have additional hinged, rear sections near the body that are called flaps.flaps. Flaps are deployed downward on takeoff and landing to increase the amount of force produced by the wing. On some aircraft, the front part of the wing will also deflect. Slats are used at takeoff and landing to produce additional force. The spoilers are also used during landing to slow the plane down and to counteract the flaps when the aircraft is on the ground.spoilers
The fuselage or body of the airplane, holds all the pieces together.fuselage The pilots sit in the cockpit at the front of the fuselage. Passengers and cargo are carried in the rear of the fuselage. Some aircraft carry fuel in the fuselage; others carry the fuel in the wings
As mentioned above, individual aircraft may be configured quite differently from this airliner. Fighter aircraft often have the jet engines buried inside the fuselage instead of in pods hung beneath the wings. Many fighter aircraft also combine the horizontal stabilizer and elevator into a single stabilator surfacestabilator There are many possible aircraft configurations, but any configuration must provide for the four forces needed for flightfour forces
Weight Weight is a force that is always directed toward the center of the earth. Weight The magnitude of the weight depends on the mass of all the airplane parts, plus the amount of fuel, plus any payload on board (people, baggage, freight, etc.).magnitude The weight is distributed throughout the airplane. But we can often think of it as collected and acting through a single point called the center of gravity.center of gravity.
Lift To overcome the weight force, airplanes generate an opposing force called lift.lift Lift is generated by the motion of the airplane through the air and is an aerodynamic force. It is directed perpendicular to the flight direction.aerodynamic force. The magnitude of the lift depends on several factors including the shape, size, and velocity of the aircraft. Most of the lift is generated by the wings.factorsshapesizevelocity Aircraft lift acts through a single point called the center of pressure. center of pressure The center of pressure is defined just like the center of gravity, but using the pressure distribution around the body instead of the weight distribution
Drag As the airplane moves through the air, the air resists the motion of the aircraft and the resistance force is called drag.drag Drag is directed along and opposed to the flight direction. Like lift, there are many factors that affect the magnitude of the drag force including the shape of the aircraft, the "stickiness" of the air, and the velocity of the aircraft.factorsshape"stickiness" velocity Like lift, drag acts through the aircraft center of pressure
Thrust To overcome drag, airplanes use a propulsion system to generate a force called thrust. propulsion system thrust. The direction of the thrust force are parallel to the body, with thrust acting along the body centerline. The magnitude of the thrust depends on many factors associated with the propulsion system including the type of engine, the number of engines, and the throttle settingtype of enginethrottle setting
For jet engines, it is often confusing to remember that aircraft thrust is a reaction to the hot gas rushing out of the nozzle. The hot gas goes out the back, but the thrust pushes towards the front. Action reaction is explained by Newton's Third Law of MotionThird Law of Motion
Landing Gear. The function of this component requires little explanation, other than that it includes: the supporting struts, wheels, tires, and any springs or other devices to absorb shocks due to uneven terrain or landing impact. Floats and skis are components of other types of landing gear.
Flaps These are movable surfaces forming part of the wing and are mounted at or near the trailing edge, between the wing root and the ailerons. They extend and retract together and increase or decrease the effective lift of the wing by altering its camber and in some cases the area. They are controlled by the pilot.
Trim Tabs These are small ancillary aerofoil hinged to the elevators and, in some aircraft, to the ailerons and rudder. They help the pilot by reducing control pressures induced by changing flight attitudes.
Flight Controls. These consist of the control column and the rudder pedals. The control column may consist of a wheel arrangement or a straight "stick." Rotate the wheel (or move the stick) to the left, and the left aileron moves up while the right aileron moves down; Rotate the wheel (or move the stick) to the right, and the right aileron moves up while the left aileron moves down. Push the left rudder pedal, and the ruder moves to the left; push the right rudder pedal, and the rudder moves to the right. The rudder pedals may also be used to "steer" the aircraft on the ground by means of a steerable nose wheel or tail wheel; pushing the left rudder pedal turns the aircraft to the left, and vice versa.
Throttle This is the power control. To increase power, move the throttle forward; to decrease power, move the throttle back. Most throttle arrangements include a device for increasing or decreasing tension on the throttle so that the power setting does not change when your hand is removed from the throttle.
Airspeed Indicator This instrument indicates the aircraft's speed through the air. It relates only indirectly to the speed of the aircraft over the ground. It may indicate speed in miles per hour (mph) or knots (KT). Knots are nautical miles per hour
Altimeter. This is a pressure sensitive instrument which, if properly set, indicates the height at which the aircraft is flying. The customary procedure is to set the instrument so that it indicates height above mean sea level. When the aircraft is on the ground, the indication on the altimeter will be that of the elevation of the aerodrome.
Turn-and-Bank Indicator. The needle portion of this instrument indicates whether the aircraft is turning, together with the direction and rate of turn. The ball portion of the instrument is fundamentally a reference for co-ordination of controls. In all co-ordinated flight the ball will be centered in its curved glass tube.
Magnetic Compass. This is the basic reference for heading information. The compass points toward the magnetic north pole, but it is susceptible to certain errors such as oscillations in turbulence and incorrect readings during turns or when influenced by other magnetic attractions.
Heading Indicator. This gyroscopic instrument has no magnetic qualities of its own and, therefore, must be set periodically by reference to the magnetic compass. Its main asset is that it provides a stable directional reference, and (unlike the magnetic compass) is relatively free of error during turns, acceleration, and deceleration in normal flight maneuvers.
Attitude Indicator. This gyroscopic instrument is an artificial horizon. The miniature aircraft superimposed on its face enables the pilot to determine the aircraft's attitude relative to the real horizon.
Vertical Speed Indicator. This pressure sensitive instrument indicates the rate at which the aircraft is climbing or descending, in feet per minute.
Navigation Instrument VOR (Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni directional range) Receiver Display and Control Unit. This instrument permits an aircraft to track to or from a VOR ground station on any track the pilot selects.
D-VOR (Doppler VOR) ground station, co-located with DME The VOR's major advantage is that the radio signal provides a reliable line (radial) from the station which can be selected and followed by the pilot. A worldwide land-based network of "air highways", known in the US as Victor Airways (below 18,000 feet) and "jet routes" (at and above 18,000 feet), was set up linking VORs.
If a pilot wants to approach the VOR station from due east then the aircraft will have to fly due west to reach the station. The pilot will use the OBS to rotate the compass dial until the number 27 (270 degrees) aligns with the pointer (called the Primary Index) at the top of the dial. When the aircraft intercepts the 90-degree radial (due east of the VOR station) the needle will be centered and the To/From indicator will show "To".
ADF (Automatic Direction-Finder). The ADF display includes a pointer (often referred to as the "needle") that points in the direction of any suitable ground radio station tuned into the ADF receiver by the pilot. A radio direction finder (RDF) is a device for finding the direction to a radio source. Due to radio's ability to travel very long distances and "over the horizon", it makes a particularly good navigation system for aircraft that might be some distance from their destination
Communication System The air-to-ground communications system usually consists of a two-way radio operating on VHF. Although two-way, it is not simultaneous like a telephone. The pilot presses a button on the microphone to talk, and during this period all other nearby transmitters and receivers on the same frequency are jammed. The pilot must release the microphone button after the transmission to receive a reply. Transmissions must be short and to the point.
Flight Preparation It is good practice to take all the charts and publications required for the proper navigation of the flight. After releasing the aircraft tie-downs, ensure that the following actions are carried out: 1. Remove exterior flight control locks, where applicable. 2. Remove pitot tube cover. 3. Remove wheel chocks. 4. Free flight controls of any locking or securing system in the cockpit.
The pre-flight external line check, often referred to as the "walk around," determines from the pilot's point of view that the aircraft is serviceable and that it has sufficient fuel and oil for the intended flight. A recommended line check is included in most Aircraft Flight Manuals.
Your first impression of an aircraft cockpit may be that it is cramped and complex. This impression will quickly disappear as you learn the proper method of entering the cockpit and adjusting the seat and controls. Once comfortably seated, fasten the seat-belt and shoulder harness and learn how to adjust and release them. Fastening the seat-belt and shoulder harness as soon as possible after you are seated in the cockpit is a habit to acquire immediately.
Before starting the engine, make a geographic check of all items in the cockpit, and then do a prestart check. These checks are very important. For example, if the brakes are not on and secure when the engine starts, the aircraft may move forward unexpectedly. Starting the engine with the carburetor heat on can damage the carburetor heat system should the engine backfire. The battery may become discharged should you vainly attempt to start the engine with the mixture control in the idle cut-off position or with the fuel selector valve in the "off” position.