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Federal Aviation Administration 1 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS Federal Aviation Administration BASIC AERODYNAMICS PART I PRESENTED.

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Presentation on theme: "Federal Aviation Administration 1 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS Federal Aviation Administration BASIC AERODYNAMICS PART I PRESENTED."— Presentation transcript:

1 Federal Aviation Administration 1 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS Federal Aviation Administration BASIC AERODYNAMICS PART I PRESENTED BY: Dennis H. Whitley FAASTeam Lead Representative NORTH FLORIDA REGION

2 Federal Aviation Administration 2 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS SHOW ME A PILOT THAT CAN’T ANSWER A CORRELATIVE QUESTION AND/OR CAN’T PERFORM A GIVEN TASK, & I’LL SHOW YOU A PILOT THAT DOESN’T UNDERSTAND WHAT HE/SHE IS TRYING TO ACCOMPLISH. MY MOTTO

3 Federal Aviation Administration 3 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS FLIGHT INSTRUCTING MUST NOT BE THE BY-PRODUCT OF BUILDING FLIGHT HOURS.

4 Federal Aviation Administration 4 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS BUILDING FLIGHT HOURS MUST BE THE BY-PRODUCT OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTING.

5 Federal Aviation Administration 5 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS SAFETY COMMITMENT VS DEDICATION

6 Federal Aviation Administration 6 NORTH FLORIDA FSDO-15 JANUARY 27, 2010 AERODYNAMICS PART I THIS DISCUSSION IS BASED ON SUBSONIC AIRCRAFT AND WILL BE “VERY BASIC” “NO FORMULAS” “VERY LITTLE MATH”

7 Federal Aviation Administration 7 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WE WILL TALK ABOUT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 4 FORCES LIFT/WEIGHT/THRUST/DRAG GROUND EFFECT TURNING TENDENCIES TRIM DEVICES AERODYNAMICS OF SPINS SLIPS/SKIDS ADVERSE YAW

8 Federal Aviation Administration 8 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WHAT IS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE?

9 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS THE WEIGHT OF ALL THE AIR UPON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.

10 Federal Aviation Administration 10 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WHAT DOES 30 hg MEANS? HOW WAS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASURED?

11 36 YARD STICK 36 INCHES TALL

12 36 YARD STICK

13 36 YARD STICK

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15 HOW WAS THE DROP OF PRESSURE WITH ALTITUDE VERIFIED?

16

17 Federal Aviation Administration 17 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS HOW WAS THE WEIGHT OF THE AIR DETERMINED?

18

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20 Federal Aviation Administration 20 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WHAT IS AN ALTIMETER? A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL GAUGE

21 FROM SOURCE HG HG HG FROM SOURCE

22 Static Port Kollsman Window

23 SEA LEVEL static port pressure hg. sea level pressure hg

24 sea level pressure hg. static port pressure hg

25 WHAT IS ALTIMETER SETTING? SEA LEVEL PRESSURE CORRECTED FOR NONSTANDARD TEMPERATURE.

26 Federal Aviation Administration 26 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WHAT IS THE MAIN REASON THAT AN AIRPLANE IS ABLE TO FLY? BECAUSE OF THE WEIGHT OF THE AIR. In other words the aerodynamic effect air has on the aircraft.

27 Federal Aviation Administration 27 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS The branch of science that deals with the forces produced by air flowing over specially shaped surfaces called airfoils. DEFINITION OF AERODYNAMICS

28 Federal Aviation Administration 28 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS IS THERE ANY THING WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE? TWO THINGS THE FLOWING OF THE RELATIVE WIND THE DIRECTION OF THE RELATIVE WIND

29 CAN WE FLY WITH A FLAT WING?

30 Federal Aviation Administration 30 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS AT CRUISE COSTANT ALTITUDE 1 ST LAW: Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. 3 RD LAW: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

31 Federal Aviation Administration 31 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

32 Federal Aviation Administration 32 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS MINIMUM MANEUVERING SPEED SLOW FLIGHT

33 Federal Aviation Administration 33 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS STALL PA-28 SERIES

34 Federal Aviation Administration 34 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF FOIL? TO PREVENT FROM BEING SUCCESSFUL TO THWART

35 AIRFOIL Any surface designed to deflect the airflow passing over it or striking it, and thereby obtaining an useful reaction AN AIRFOIL IS AN AIR DEFLECTOR

36 Federal Aviation Administration 36 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS HOW MANY AIRFOILS ARE THERE?

37 Federal Aviation Administration 37 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS AIRPLANE WING. AILERONS. SLATS LANDING FLAPS. VERTICAL STABILIZER. RUDDER. HORIZONTAL STABILIZER. ELEVATOR/STABILATOR TRIM TABS.. PROPELLER. ROTOR BLADE. FUSELAGE.FUSELAGE. FEARING.FEARING. STRUTS.STRUTS.

38 Federal Aviation Administration 38 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WHAT IS LIFT?

39 Federal Aviation Administration 39 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS A FORCE CREATED BY A DEFLECTION OF AIR AND PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL AROUND AN AIRFOIL. IS CALLED LIFT WHEN IT ACTS UPWARD. WHEN IT ACTS DOWNWARD IS CALLED NEGATIVE LIFT. WHEN IT ACTS DOWNWARD IS CALLED NEGATIVE LIFT. WHEN IT ACTS SIDEWAYS IS CALLED SIDE LIFT. WHEN IT ACTS FORWARD IS CALLED THRUST

40 Federal Aviation Administration 40 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS HOW IS LIFT CREATED? DEFLECTION -- ISSAC NEWTON AIR’S CHANGE OF DIRECTION--BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE PRESSURE DIFERENTIAL-- BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE AIR PASSING BY AN AIRFOIL

41 Federal Aviation Administration 41 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

42 Federal Aviation Administration 42 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WHAT’S WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE

43 Federal Aviation Administration 43 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

44 Federal Aviation Administration 44 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

45 Federal Aviation Administration 45 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS CAN WE FLY WITHOUT THE HELP OF BERNOULLIS?

46 Federal Aviation Administration 46 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

47 Federal Aviation Administration 47 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

48 Federal Aviation Administration 48 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS THRUST Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a proportional but opposite force on that system.

49 Federal Aviation Administration 49 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS LIFT LIFT is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a proportional but opposite force on that system. Thrust is LIFT DIRECTED FORWARD.

50 Federal Aviation Administration 50 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS THE PROPELLER’S DEFLECTION OF AIR

51 Federal Aviation Administration 51 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

52 Federal Aviation Administration 52 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS

53 Federal Aviation Administration 53 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS DRAG

54 Federal Aviation Administration 54 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS PARASITE DRAG FORM INTERFERENCE

55 Federal Aviation Administration 55 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS GROUND EFFECT COMMANDER TYSON INDUCED DRAG

56 Federal Aviation Administration 56 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS ASSUMEDANGLE OF ATTACK ASSUMED RELATIVE WIND ASSUMEDLIFT DOWNWASH STAGNATION AREA UPWASH RELATIVE WIND IS THAT RIGHT?

57 Federal Aviation Administration 57 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS STAGNATION AREAUPWASH DOWNWASH RELATIVE CURRENT

58 Federal Aviation Administration 58 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS ASSUMEDLIFT INDUCED RELATIVE WIND INDUCEDANGLE OF ATTACK INDUCEDLIFT

59 Federal Aviation Administration 59 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS INDUCED RELATIVE WIND INDUCEDANGLE OF ATTACK DOWNWASHASSUMEDLIFT INDUCEDLIFT

60 Federal Aviation Administration 60 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS ASSUMEDLIFT INDUCED RELATIVE WIND INDUCEDANGLE OF ATTACK INDUCEDLIFTDOWNWASH WING TIP VORTICES TOTAL ENDUCED DRAG

61 UPWASH MODIFIES RELATIVE WIND DOWNWASH PULLS BACK ON LIFT VECTOR WING TIP VORTICES PULLS LIFT VECTOR FURTHER BACK WINGTHREE-DIMENSIONALFLOW

62 Federal Aviation Administration 62 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS ASSUMEDLIFT INDUCED RELATIVE WIND INDUCEDANGLE OF ATTACK INDUCEDLIFTDOWNWASH WING TIP VORTICES TOTAL ENDUCED DRAG

63 Federal Aviation Administration 63 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS ASSUMEDLIFT INDUCED RELATIVE WIND INDUCEDANGLE OF ATTACK INDUCEDLIFTDOWNWASH

64 Federal Aviation Administration 64 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS ASSUMEDLIFT INDUCEDANGLE OF ATTACK INDUCEDLIFT INDUCED RELATIVE WIND

65 Federal Aviation Administration 65 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS WASHOUT

66 WHAT DOES THE STABILATOR DO?

67 WHAT DOES THE ANTI-SERVO TAB DO?

68 A B C STABILIZED UNACCELERATED CLIMB

69 IF DESCENDING IN A 60 ° BANK HOW MANY G ’S?

70 Federal Aviation Administration 70 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS DYHEADRAL

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73 Federal Aviation Administration 73 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS ADVERSE YAW

74 Federal Aviation Administration 74 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS OVERBANKING TENDENCIES

75 Federal Aviation Administration 75 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS MANEUVERING SPEED VA

76 Federal Aviation Administration 76 NORTH FLORIDA REGION OCTOBER 02, 2010 BASIC AERODYNAMICS LOAD FACTOR


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