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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Overview The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere. The coriolis effect influences atmosphere and ocean behavior. Oceanic climate patterns are related to solar energy distribution.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth’s Seasons Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted 23.5° with respect to ecliptic. –Ecliptic – plane traced by Earth’s solar orbit Seasonal changes and Earth’s rotation cause unequal solar heating of Earth’s surface.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Seasons Tilt responsible for seasons –Vernal (spring) equinox –Summer solstice –Autumnal equinox –Winter solstice
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Solar Energy on Earth Declination – angular distance of Sun from equatorial plane –Varies between 23.5° North and 23.5° South latitudes –Tropics Arctic Circle – 66.5° North latitude Antarctic Circle – 66.5° South latitude
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Distribution of Solar Energy Concentrated solar radiation at low latitudes –High angle of incidence Solar radiation more diffuse at high latitudes –Low angle of incidence
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Distribution of Solar Energy Atmosphere absorbs radiation –Thickness varies with latitude Albedo: 0–100% –Reflectivity of a surface –Average for Earth is 30% Angle of sun on sea surface
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sun Elevation and Solar Absorption
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Oceanic Heat Flow High latitudes–more heat lost than gained –Ice has high albedo –Low solar ray incidence Low latitudes–more heat gained than lost
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Heat Gained and Lost
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Properties of the Atmosphere Composition Mostly nitrogen (N 2 ) and Oxygen (O 2 ) Other gases significant for heat trapping properties
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Temperature Variation in the Atmosphere Troposphere – lowest layer of atmosphere –Where all weather occurs –Temperature decreases with altitude
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Density Variations in the Atmosphere Convection cell – rising and sinking air Warm air rises –Less dense Cool air sinks –More dense Moist air rises –Less dense Dry air sinks –More dense
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Atmospheric Pressure Thick column of air at sea level –High surface pressure equal to 1 atmosphere (14.7 pounds per square inch) Thin column of air means lower surface pressure Cool, dense air sinks –Higher surface pressure Warm, moist air rises –Lower surface pressure
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Movement of the Atmosphere Air always flows from high to low pressure. Wind – moving air
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements in the Air Example: a non- rotating Earth Air rises at equator (low pressure) Air sinks at poles (high pressure) Air flows from high to low pressure One convection cell or circulation cell
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Coriolis Effect Deflects path of moving object from viewer’s perspective –To right in Northern Hemisphere –To left in Southern Hemisphere Due to Earth’s rotation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Coriolis Effect Zero at equator Greatest at poles Change in Earth’s rotating velocity with latitude –0 km/hour at poles –More than 1600 km/hour (1000 miles/hour) at equator Greatest effect on objects that move long distances across latitudes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Coriolis Effect
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Atmospheric Circulation Circulation Cells – one in each hemisphere –Hadley Cell: 0–30 degrees latitude –Ferrel Cell: 30–60 degrees latitude –Polar Cell: 60–90 degrees latitude
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Atmospheric Circulation High pressure zones – descending air –Subtropical highs – 30 degrees latitude –Polar highs –90 degrees latitude –Clear skies Low pressure zones – rising air –Equatorial low – equator –Subpolar lows – 60 degrees latitude –Overcast skies with lots of precipitation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Three-Cell Model of Atmospheric Circulation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Wind Belts Trade winds – From subtropical highs to equator –Northeast trades in Northern Hemisphere –Southeast trades in Southern Hemisphere Prevailing westerlies – from 30–60 degrees latitude Polar easterlies – 60–90 degrees latitude
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Wind Belts Boundaries between wind belts –Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) – at equator –Horse latitudes – 30 degrees –Polar fronts – 60 degrees latitude
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Idealized Three-Cell Model More complex in reality due to –Seasonal changes –Distribution of continents and ocean –Differences in heat capacity between continents and ocean Monsoon winds
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. January Atmospheric Pressures and Winds
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Weather vs. Climate Weather – conditions of atmosphere at particular time and place Climate – long-term average of weather Ocean influences Earth’s weather and climate patterns.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Winds Cyclonic flow –Counterclockwise around a low in Northern Hemisphere –Clockwise around a low in Southern Hemisphere Anticyclonic flow –Clockwise around a low in Northern Hemisphere –Counterclockwise around a low in Southern Hemisphere
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Differential solar heating is due to different heat capacities of land and water. Sea breeze –From ocean to land Land breeze –From land to ocean Sea and Land Breezes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Storms and Air Masses Storms – disturbances with strong winds and precipitation Air masses – large volumes of air with distinct properties
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fronts Fronts – boundaries between air masses –Warm front –Cold front Storms typically develop at fronts. Jet Stream – may cause unusual weather by steering air masses.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes) Large rotating masses of low pressure Strong winds, torrential rain Classified by maximum sustained wind speed Typhoons Cyclones
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hurricane Origins Low pressure cell Winds feed water vapor – latent heat of condensation Air rises, low pressure deepens Storm develops –Winds less than 61 km/hour (38 miles/hour) – tropical depression –Winds 61–120 km/hour (38–74 miles/hour) – tropical storm –Winds above 120 km/hour (74 miles/hour) – tropical cyclone or hurricane
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hurricane Intensity
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hurricanes About 100 worldwide per year Require –Ocean water warmer than° 25°C (77°F) –Warm, moist air –The Coriolis Effect Hurricane season is June 1 – November 30
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Historical Storm Tracks
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hurricane Anatomy and Movement
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Hurricane Destruction High winds Intense rainfall Storm surge – increase in shoreline sea level
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Storm Destruction Historically destructive storms –Galveston, TX, 1900 –Andrew, 1992 –Mitch, 1998 –Katrina, 2005 –Ike, 2008
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean’s Climate Patterns Open ocean’s climate regions are parallel to latitude lines. These regions may be modified by surface ocean currents.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean’s Climate Patterns
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean’s Climate Zones Equatorial –Rising air –Weak winds –Doldrums Tropical –North and south of equatorial zone –Extend to Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn –Strong winds, little precipitation, rough seas Subtropical –High pressure, descending air –Weak winds, sluggish currents
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean’s Climate Zones Temperate –Strong westerly winds –Severe storms common Subpolar –Extensive precipitation –Summer sea ice Polar –High pressure –Sea ice most of the year
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sea Ice Formation Needle like crystals Become slush Slush becomes pancake ice Pancakes coalesce to ice floes Rate of formation depends on temperature Self-perpetuating
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sea Ice
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Iceberg Formation Icebergs break off of glaciers.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Shelf Ice Antarctica – glaciers cover continent –Edges break off
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Wind Power Uneven solar heating of Earth generates winds Turbines harness wind energy Offshore wind farms generate electricity
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Ocean Wind Energy
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. End of CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Air-Sea Interaction.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction.
CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Fig Overview Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Solar.
Air-Sea Interaction Chapter 1 Clickers Essentials of Oceanography Eleventh Edition Alan P. Trujillo Harold V. Thurman © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter.
Meteorology: the study of Earth’s atmosphere Meteor – In ancient Greek – meant “High in the air” Current meanings still apply Meteor – astronomical entity.
GCM’s Heating of the Earth Uneven Solar Energy Inputs: Earth is heated unevenly by the sun due to different angles of incidence between the horizon and.
Chapter 7: Air-Sea Interaction Fig Atmosphere and ocean one interconnected system Change in atmosphere affects ocean Change in ocean affects atmosphere.
Do Now: Analyze the following images. Why is one of the earth’s land surface a desert, another a grassland, and another a forest?
Earth's Atmosphere Troposphere- the layer closest to Earth's surface extending roughly 16 km (10 miles) above Earth. Densest – N, O, & water vapor Stratosphere-
Atmospheric Circulation Causes of Atmospheric Circulation 1) Uneven solar energy inputs 2) Rotation of the Earth Global Circulation Patterns Local Events.
Air-Sea interactions Chapter 8. SOLAR CONNECTION- Air and Sun “Others” represents the percentage of Water Vapor and Aerosols.
Welcome to Class Define radiation, convection, and conduction.
Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Composition and Properties of the Atmosphere Lower atmosphere nearly homogenous mixture of nitrogen 78.1% and oxygen.
Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes. Global Processes Determine Weather and Climate Weather- the short term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area.
Meteorology Notes Part II Atmosphere Composition and Structure Effect of Earth’s shape and tilt on weather and seasons Air Mass Types and Formation Global.
Coriolis Effect: Deflection of moving objects/large masses due to the rotation of Earth on its axis (EX: currents & missiles) –Northern Hemisphere: RIGHT.
Understanding Air Pressure. Air Pressure Is exerted in all directions: down, up, sideways Sea level pressure = 1 kilogram per square inch.
Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes. Weather – the short term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area Includes: temperature, humidity, clouds,
ATMOSPHERE Air Circulation UNIT 7 Meteorology and Climate.
Atmospheric Motion Nonrotating Earth Equator – Warming and rising of air – Rising air cools as it ascends – Surface winds blow towards equator to replace.
Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes. Contents Slides 1 – 26 Climate #27 – 47 – Terrestrial Biomes #48 – end Aquatic Biomes.
Atmosphere 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen. Water Vapor up to 4% by volume leaves atmosphere as dew, rain or snow.
Global Wind Patterns. The circulations of the atmosphere (winds) and oceans (currents) are driven by sunlight hitting the earth’s surface more directly.
Weather: The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, with respect to variables such as temperature, moisture, wind velocity and direction,
Global and Local Winds. Review of Air Air Movement Wind is the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure Wind is the movement of air caused.
Wind Causes of Wind. What causes the wind to blow? As the sun warms the Earth's surface, the atmosphere warms too. Some parts of the Earth receive direct.
Heat and Atmospheric Circulation. Solar Energy Sun is a star of average size, temp. & color Sun captured 99.9% of nebula’s matter.1% formed planets, moons,
Paper 1 Physical Core Atmosphere and Weather 1 GeographyCambridge AS level syllabus 9696.
Air Sea Interaction Distribution of Solar Energy.
Unit 2: Climate Winds and Climate. The circulation of air follows a general pattern: ◦ The equator receives the most solar energy, therefore is heated.
The Atmosphere A thin fragile shell of gases that provides all our weather and allows life on earth.
Section 1.2 The Causes of Weather Science What three things affect the distribution of solar energy that reaches the Earth? Three things that affect.
Weather Dynamics in Earth’s Atmosphere. An atmosphere is a blanket of a gases surrounding a planet. Earth’s atmosphere has distinct layers defined by.
Chapter 15: Atmosphere Section 3: Air movement Study Guide.
Introduction to Oceanography Dynamic Oceanography: Atmospheric circulation and Currents.
The General Circulation of the Atmosphere. Weather with different scales.
Wind What are winds?. Global Wind Patterns Circulation of air caused by pressure and temperature Polar regions are high pressure zones Equator is a low.
What causes winds? Uneven heating between the equatorial poles causes global winds. Since Earth is a sphere AND it is tilted on its axis, the sun’s energy.
C. 22 Section 3 Atmospheric Circulation Air near Earth’s surface generally flows from the poles toward the equator.
Solar Energy & The Greenhouse Effect The driving energy source for heating of Earth and circulation in Earth’s atmosphere is solar energy (AKA the Sun).
Air Movement (53) Areas of Earth receive different amounts of radiation from the Sun because Earth is curved.
Wind Read each slide carefully. Make sure pay attention to any diagrams. Complete the questions when finished! 3 3 Air Movement.
Weather. Weather Weather is the term used to describe the conditions that exist in a certain place for a short time.
Latitudinal effects Intensity of insolation is not the same at all latitudes Earth is roughly spherical, so insolation passing through 1 m 2 screen –Illuminates.
Meteorology / Weather Chapter 38. Standards 5 a, b 6:a, b Objectives: Student will be able to describe weather and climate. Students will be.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Atmosphere in Motion Chapter 18.
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