# Noise Control Practices Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun. Noise  Before We Discuss Noise Control Let ’ s Review Some Noise Concepts Noise Measurements  Noise Levels.

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Noise Control Practices Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun

Noise  Before We Discuss Noise Control Let ’ s Review Some Noise Concepts Noise Measurements  Noise Levels are Expressed as Decibels (dB)

DEVICEdBA Computer37 - 45 Refrigerator40 - 43 Cloths Dryer56 – 58 Garbage Disposal76 - 83 Vacuum Cleaner84 - 89 Leaf Blower95 - 105 Circular Saw100 - 104

1+1+1 Does Not Equal to 3  The Decibel is a Logarithmic Unit of Measure So We Can ’ t Simply Add Numbers. “Shake and Roll”  How We Perceive Noise

High Frequency Noise Power Tools, Saws, Grinders Other High RPM Equipment Sudden Release of Pressure  High Frequency Noises Deflect Easier, Are Easier to Shield, Are Easier to Insulate.

Low Frequency Noise Power Presses Pumps, Compressors Other Low RPM Equipment  Low frequency Noises Can Travel Around and Through Objects and Are Harder to Shield and Absorb

Harmful Effects  Harmful Effects of Noise Are Related to the Noise Dose Is the Noise Harmful?  Ask Yourself: How Loud, How Long, How Many Times?

Noise Dose is a Combination Intensity of Noise (how loud) Duration of Noise Exposure (how long) Frequency (how many times during the day are they exposed to such a noise)

Noise Regulated as an 8 hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) An 8 hr TWA of 90 dBA is designated as a Noise Dose of 100%

First Rule of Thumb  5 dB Halving Rule  For Each 5 dB Increase in Noise, In order to be Equivalent to the Previous Dose You Must Half the Allowable Exposure Time

Equivalent Dose of 90 dBA Over an 8 Hour TWA Period 95 dBA over 4 Hour TWA Period 100 dBA over 2 Hour TWA Period 105 dBA over 1 Hour TWA Period 110 dBA over ½ Hour TWA Period

Duration (How Long)  The 5 dB Rule Can Be Useful in Estimating Whether a Noise or an Activity Would Result in Employees Being Exposed to Noise In Excess of the PEL

Example An Employee Must Enter a Pump Room and Conduct Preventative Maintenance The Small Portable Sound Level Meter Reads 105 dBA Inside the Pump Room How Long Could the Employee Stay in the Pump Room Without Exceeding the Dose Equivalent Noise Exposure of 90 dBA over an 8 hour TWA?

Answer  Employee Noise Exposure for 1 Hour at 105 dBA Would Be the Dose Equivalent Exposure of 90 dBA for an 8 Hr TWA Administrative Controls  Likewise, Limiting Employee Exposure Time to Noise Can Help Reduce the Possibility of Hearing Loss

Watch Where You ’ re Standing  Employee Noise Exposures Often Depend on How Close They Are to the Noise Source Distance  Noise Quickly Decreases as You Move Away from the Noise Source

6 dB Double Distance Rule  Noise Will Decrease 6 dB Each Time You Double the Distance (free field, point source only)

6 dB Rule Would Not Apply

Distance From the Noise Source  Is It Possible to Move the Employee Workstation or the Noise Source?  Moving the Employee or the Noise Source Doesn’t Eliminate the Loud Noise, it Just Reduces the Employee Exposure to it!

Think Out Loud  In Moving the Source, Have You Created a Problem for Someone Else? Isolation Methods  Can You Isolate the Noise Source or The Employee From the Noise Source?

Enclosing the Employee  The Cab of Heavy Earth Moving Equipment is a Good Example. They are Insulated (and Air Conditioned).

Isolation Methods Install Barriers Between the Employee and Noise Source Enclose the Noise Source Enclose the Employee

Think Out Loud  Be Careful When Constructing Barriers or Enclosures.  Noise May be Deflected Backwards Off the Barriers or the Walls of the Enclosure Which Can Increase the Noise Intensity on the Noise Source Side.  Employees who Must Service Equipment or Conduct Work in Those Areas May Now be Exposed to Greater Noise than Before

Deflection of Sound Waves in Enclosure Creates Louder Noise

Noise Absorbing Material The Good  Noise is Absorbed, It’s Gone, It Wouldn’t Bother Anyone Anymore  High Frequency Noises are Easier to Absorb

The Bad Some Types Can be Fragile Some Types Can be Hard to Clean Some Can Be Expensive

The Ugly Some Types Can Be Very Expensive Some Types Won ’ t Hold Up to Chemicals or Moisture Some Types Can be Combustible

 Climate  Ease of installation  Durability - resistance to degradation from compression, moisture, decomposition, etc.  Ease of replacement at end of life  Cost effectiveness  Toxicity  Flammability  Environmental impact and sustainability Consideration of materials used

Brick Glass

Hardwood

Softwood

Fiberglass rigid panel

Polystyrene Cementitious foam Air-entrained concrete

Transmitting Vibration  Noise and Vibration Can Be Transmitted to Other Surfaces Which Then also Transmits Noise

Controlling Noise Generated by Vibration Sources Springs, or Isolation Material under Motors and Large Equipment Ensure Plates, Covers, Doors, and Access Panels are Securely Attached Bent or Warped Shafts on Motors and Fans Can Create Vibration Bad Bearings, Flywheels, Pulleys, Fan Blades, and Belts

By the Way  Poor Maintenance Can Be a Major Source of Noise Exposure and One Which is Often Consider Economically Feasible.

Controlling Noise Created By Released Air Muffler systems on Pneumatic Equipment When Available Reduce Air Pressure if Possible Discourage the Use of Compressed Air for Cleaning Purposes

You May Not Be The First Person To Ask  Contact the Manufacturer of the Equipment and Request Assistance in Determining Ways to Help Decrease Noise Output of the Machines

Hearing Protection  Hearing Protection is not a Noise Control Method  Hearing Protection does not Reduce Employee Noise Exposure,  It Reduces the Potential Harm Which Could Otherwise Result in an Unprotected Employee

Hearing Protectors  Like Respirators, They are Only Effective if Used Properly  Ear Plugs and Other Types of Hearing Protection Have Limitations on How Much Protection They Can Provide

Noise Management Strategy

The techniques employed for noise control can be broadly classified as:  Control at source  Control in the transmission path  Using protective equipment.

Noise Control at Source Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors:  The domestic noise coming from radio, tape recorders, television sets, mixers, washing machines, cooking operations can be minimized by their selective and judicious operation.  By usage of carpets or any absorbing material, the noise generated from felling of items in house can be minimized.

Maintenance of automobiles:  Regular servicing and tuning of vehicles will reduce the noise levels.  Fixing of silencers to automobiles, two wheelers etc., will reduce the noise levels. Control over vibrations:  The vibrations of materials may be controlled using proper foundations, rubber padding etc. to reduce the noise levels caused by vibrations.  Low voice speaking: Speaking at low voices enough for communication reduces the excess noise levels.

Prohibition on usage of loud speakers:  By not permitting the usage of loudspeakers in the habitant zones except for important meetings / functions. Selection of machinery:  Optimum selection of machinery tools or equipment reduces excess noise levels. Maintenance of machines:  Proper lubrication and maintenance of machines, vehicles etc. will reduce noise levels.  For example, it is a common experience that, many parts of a vehicle will become loose while on a rugged path of journey.

 If these loose parts are not properly fitted, they will generate noise and cause annoyance to the driver/passenger.  Similarly is the case of machines. Proper handling and regular maintenance is essential not only for noise control but also to improve the life of machine. Control in the transmission path  The change in the transmission path will increase the length of travel for the wave and get absorbed/refracted/radiated in the surrounding environment.

Installation of barriers:  Installation of barriers between noise source and receiver can attenuate the noise levels.  For a barrier to be effective, its lateral width should extend beyond the line-of-sight at least as much as the height.  The barrier may be either close to the source or receiver, subject to the condition that, R < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4279659/slides/slide_55.jpg", "name": "Installation of barriers:  Installation of barriers between noise source and receiver can attenuate the noise levels.", "description": " For a barrier to be effective, its lateral width should extend beyond the line-of-sight at least as much as the height.  The barrier may be either close to the source or receiver, subject to the condition that, R <

 At very large distances, the barrier becomes less effective because of the possibility of refractive atmospheric effects.

Design of building:  The design of the building incorporating the use of suitable noise absorbing material for wall/door/window/ceiling will reduce the noise levels.  The approximate reduction of outside noise levels using typical exterior wall construction is given at Table 6. Green belt development:  The degree of attenuation varies with species of greenbelt.  The typical attenuation of noise levels by trees is presented at Fig. 7 (a) and (b).  The statutory regulations direct the industry to develop greenbelt four times the built-up area for attenuation of various atmospheric pollutants, including noise.

Using protection equipment  Protective equipment usage is the ultimate step in noise control technology, i.e. after noise reduction at source  and/or after the diversion or engineered control of transmission path of noise.  The first step in the technique of using protective equipment is to gauge the intensity of the problem, identification of the sufferer and his exposure to the noise levels. The usage of protective equipment and the worker's exposure to the high noise levels can be minimized by -:  Job rotation: By rotating the job between the workers working at a particular noise source or isolating a person, the adverse impacts can be reduced.

 Exposure reduction: Regulations prescribe that, noise level of 90 dB (A) for more than 8 hr continuous exposure is prohibited.  Persons who are working under such conditions will be exposed to occupational health hazards.  The schedule of the workers should be planned in such a way that, they should not be over exposed to the high noise levels.  Hearing protection: Equipment like earmuffs, ear plugs etc. are the commonly used devices for hearing protection. Attenuation provided by ear-muffs vary widely in respect to their size, shape, seal material etc. Literature survey shows that, an average noise attenuation up to 32 dB can be achieved using earmuffs.

Traffic Control Measures Reducing road traffic noise at source: (a)imposing permissible noise emission limits; (b) promoting the use of public transport; and (c) cracking down illegal vehicle modifications such as muffler alterations Land use planning: (a)zoning land and planning urban projects with the consideration of the noise factor; (b) building bypasses and ring roads; and (c) establishing buffer zones on each side of a road.

 Resurfacing roads with low-noise materials:  Resurfacing roads with low-noise materials to reduce noise from tire friction.  Generally speaking, low-noise pavement can attain a reduction of noise from 3 dB(A) to 5 dB(A).  Installing double-glazed windows and air-conditioning for the affected residents  Adopting advanced construction methods  employing a jointless construction method for elevated roads and bridges; and  installing sound-absorbing panels on the underside of elevated roads.

 Prohibition of certain vehicle types (usually trucks) from a particular route or restricting vehicles from operating during noise sensitive times of the day.  The prohibition of trucks from a major roadway can produce up to an 8 to 10 dB reduction in noise, at times providing an adequate traffic management abatement measure.

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