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Magnetic Force PH 203 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 16

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Charge Carriers Imaging a current flowing from top to bottom in a wire, with a magnetic field pointing “in” If the charge carriers are negative (moving to the top), the magnetic field will also deflect them to the right

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The Hall Effect If it is high the carriers are positive Since a voltmeter shows the low potential is on the right, the electron is negative

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Hall Quantified Electrons are now longer deflected and the potential across the strip is constant but the velocity is the drift speed of the electrons v = i/neA n = Bi/eAE Since the potential V = Ed and the thickness of the strip (lower case “ell”), l = A/d n = Bi/Vle

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Electric and Magnetic Force For a uniform field, electric force vector does not change Electric fields accelerate particles, magnetic fields deflect particles

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Particle Motion A particle moving freely in a magnetic field will have one of three paths, depending on Straight line When = Circle When = Helix When This assumes a uniform field that the particle does not escape from

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Circular Motion

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This will change the direction of v, and change the direction of F towards more bending How big is the circle? Magnetic force is F = Centripetal force is F = We can combine to get r = mv/qB Radius of orbit of charged particle in a uniform magnetic field

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Circle Properties Circle radius is inversely proportional to q and B r is directly proportional to v and m Can use this idea to make mass spectrometer Send mixed atoms through the B field and they will come out separated by mass

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Helical Motion Charged particles will spiral around magnetic field lines If the field has the right geometry, the particles can become trapped Since particles rarely encounter a field at exactly 0 or 90 degrees, such motion is very common Examples: Gyrosynchrotron radio emission from planets and stars

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Helical Motion

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Magnetic Field and Current We know that i = q/t and v = L/t (where L is the length of the wire) So qv = iL, thus: F = BiL sin We can use the right hand rule to get the direction of the force Use the direction of the current instead of v

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Force on a Wire

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Force on a Loop of Wire Consider a loop of wire placed so that it is lined up with a magnetic field Two sides will have forces at right angles to the loop, but in opposite directions The loop will experience a torque

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Loop of Current

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Torque on Loop Since = 90 and L = h, F = Bih The torque is the force times the moment arm (distance to the center), which is w/2 but hw is the area of the loop, A = iBA = iBA sin

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Torque on Loop

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General Loops = iBAN sin he torque is maximum when the loop is aligned with the field and zero when the field is at right angles to the loop (field goes straight through loop) If you reverse the direction of the current at just the right time you can get the coil to spin Can harness the spin to do work

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Next Time Read 29.1-29.4 Problems: Ch 28, P: 22, 36, 67, Ch 29, P: 1, 27 Test 2 next Friday

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A beam of electrons is pointing right at you. What direction would a magnetic field have to have to produce the maximum deflection in the right direction? A)Right B)Left C)Up D)Down E)Right at you

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A beam of electrons is pointing right at you. What direction would a magnetic field have to have to produce the maximum deflection in the up direction? A)Right B)Left C)Up D)Down E)Right at you

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A beam of electrons is pointing right at you. What direction would a magnetic field have to have to produce no deflection? A)Right B)Left C)Up D)Down E)Right at you

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Wed. Feb. 11 – Physics Lecture #29 Magnetic Forces 1. Magnetic Forces on Charged Particles 2. Motion in Magnetic Fields 3. Magnetic Forces on Current-Carrying.

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