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Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Gary.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Gary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods 6th Edition Chapter 6 Classroom Management II: Promoting Student Engagement

2 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Chapter Overview Systems of Classroom Management The Humanist Tradition in Classroom Management The Applied Behavioral Analysis Tradition in Classroom Management An Integrated Approach to Classroom Management The Parent–Teacher Conference The Influence of Home and Family on Classroom Behavior Problems Culturally Responsive Classroom Management

3 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Systems of Classroom Management Approaches to classroom management can be grouped into three traditions. These are: The Humanist Tradition The Applied Behavior Analysis Tradition The Classroom Management Tradition

4 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Six Criteria of an Effective Classroom Management Plan 1.Establish positive relationships among all classroom participants. 2.Prevent attention-seeking and work- avoidance behavior. 3.Quickly and unobtrusively redirect misbehavior once it occurs. 4.Stop persistent and chronic misbehavior with strategies that are simple enough to be used consistently. 5.Teach self-control. 6.Respect cultural differences.

5 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Humanist Tradition in Classroom Management Principles underlying this tradition are derived from the practice of clinical and counseling psychology. This approach emphasizes interventions stressing the use of communication skills, an understanding of student motives, private conferences, individual and group problem solving, and the exercise of referent and expert power. Examples of this tradition are Ginot’s “Cooperation through congruent communication” approach, and Glasser’s “Cooperation through individual and group problem solving” approach.

6 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Ginott’s Congruent Communication The principle behind Ginott’s congruent communication is that learners are capable of controlling their own behavior if only teachers would allow them to do so. Teachers communicate congruently when they: 1.Express “sane” messages 2.Accept rather than deny feelings 3.Avoid the use of labels 4.Use praise with caution 5.Elicit cooperation 6.Communicate anger

7 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Applied Behavioral Analysis Tradition in Classroom Management This approach is closely linked to Skinner’s theory of learning called Behaviorism, or Operant Conditioning. This approach is often referred to as Applied Behavior Analysis.

8 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Behavior Modification Focuses on changing or modifying behavior that is seen, heard, counted, or captured (as in a home video). Positive Reinforcement occurs when a desired stimuli or reward you provide after a behavior increases that behavior. Negative Reinforcement occurs when the frequency of a behavior is increased by ending a painful or aversive state.

9 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Process of Behavior Modification Figure 6.1 The Process of Behavior Modification Insert figure 6.1 here

10 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Behavior Modification (continued) Teachers should avoid the trap of negatively reinforcing behaviors such as students who avoid teacher’s eye contact (the behavior) as a way to avoid answering questions (the negative stimulus). When satisfied with a particular behavior, Intermittent Reinforcement can be applied to maintain a behavior at its current level. Behavior Antecedents are events or stimuli that are present and elicit or set off a behavior.

11 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Behavior Modification (continued) Procedures for changing student behavior may vary, and include: Ignoring disruptive behavior, and immediately reinforcing positive behavior. Immediately punish inappropriate behavior, and immediately reward appropriate behavior (using systems of punishment such as “time- out,” “response cost,” or “overcorrection.”

12 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Steps for Improving Behavior Identify both the inappropriate behavior you wish to change and the behavior you want to take its place. Identify the antecedents to both the inappropriate and appropriate behavior and make necessary changes in the classroom environment to prevent the former and increase the latter. Identify the student’s goal or purpose behind the inappropriate behavior and discontinue actions on your part that satisfy that purpose. Establish procedures for reinforcing the appropriate behavior. Use punishment only as a last resort.

13 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Classroom Management Tradition Frames classroom management in terms of prevention of, rather than in reaction to, misbehavior. Is based upon research on teachers who are more effective, or less effective, classroom managers. More effective classroom managers had higher student engagement rates, and lower student off-task behavior. Effective managers established themselves as instructional leaders early, worked on rules and procedures until students learned them, and stressed group cohesiveness and socialization as well as content. Poorer managers had vague rules, monitored ineffectually, and did not deliver consequences for good or inappropriate behavior in a timely manner.

14 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Effective Classroom Managers Effective classroom managers possess three broad classes of effective teaching behaviors: 1.Effective Managers devote time before and during the first few weeks of school to planning and organizing their classroom to minimize disruption and enhance work engagement. 2.Effective managers approach the teaching of rules and routines as methodically as they approach their subject area, with clear instructions about acceptable behavior, and monitor student compliance carefully as the school year begins. 3.They inform students about the consequences for breaking rules and enforce these consequences consistently.

15 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e An Integrated Approach to Classroom Management Blends all three approaches to classroom management with an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Low-Profile Classroom Management refers to coping strategies used by effective teaches to stop misbehavior without disrupting the flow of a lesson. Low-profile classroom management approaches are effective for “surface behaviors” which represent the majority of disruptive classroom actions (examples: doodling, passing notes, humming, tapping). Low-profile classroom management requires teacher anticipation of problems, deflection to redirect disruptive behavior, and reaction to unobtrusively stop disruptions immediately after they occur.

16 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e General Advice: Responses to Misbehavior Mild misbehaviors (talking out, acting out, disrupting others) deserve a mild response at first. If they occur repeatedly a severe response may be warranted. Moderate misbehaviors (cutting class, profanity) deserve a moderate response, but if they occur repeatedly a severe response may be warranted. Severe misbehaviors (theft, vandalism, substance abuse) deserve a severe response, but do not try to handle incidents in your classroom. Immediately bring them to the attention of administrators.

17 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Dealing with Persistent Disruptive Behavior Three ways to apply your authority in dealing with misbehavior are: 1.You alone judge what occurred and what the punishment should be. 2.You provide alternative forms of punishment from which the student must choose. 3.You select a punishment from alternatives that the students provide The level of severity with which you respond to a misbehavior should match the misbehavior that has occurred. Corporal punishment is rarely effective in deterring behavior.

18 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Rewards and Reinforcement External or Extrinsic Rewards, such as certificates or smiley faces are sometimes criticized by proponents of Internal or Intrinsic Rewards or Natural Reinforcers (such as the pleasure of learning to read). Transference from external to internal awards is called Operant Conditioning.

19 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Steps for Transference from Extrinsic to Intrinsic Rewards 1.Select the target behavior. 2.Identify the natural consequences of the selected behavior. 3.Choose intrinsic consequences. 4.Identify those consequences the learner may more easily notice. 5.Design your lessons in a way that you make conspicuous the occurrence of natural consequences. 6.Select appropriate backup reinforcers. 7.Condition the natural reinforcer.

20 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Rewards and Punishment Rewards are usually more successful than punishment, and some reasons for this are: Punishment does not guarantee the desired response will occur. Punishment’s effects are specific to a particular context and behavior. Punishment can have undesirable side effects. Punishment can elicit hostile and aggressive responses. Punishment can become associated with the punisher. Punishment that is rendered to stop an undesired behavior, but is not immediately associated with the desired behavior, seldom has a lasting effect.

21 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Parent–Teacher Conference Notifying parents that a conference is necessary is usually the teacher’s responsibility. One feature of the parent-teacher conference that accounts for its effectiveness is the involvement of the parent in eliminating the misbehavior. When conducting a conference, use “plain talk” rather than jargon, listen actively, and use “I messages” that emphasize describing a behavior the teacher is concerned about, rather than “you messages” that emphasize blame. After the conference, make a list of actions to be taken by you or the parent, and follow through on whatever you committed to.

22 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e The Influence of Home and Family on Classroom Behavior Problems If a behavior problem persists and your efforts to resolve it are to no avail, consider the possibility that a family problem may be occurring. It is not the teacher’s role to resolve problems at home, but knowing the reasons for a behavioral problem may assist in finding an effective management solution.

23 Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods, 6e Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Recent research shows that different cultures react differently to verbal and nonverbal behavior management techniques, including proximity control, eye contact, and classroom arrangement. Understanding and acting upon these cultural differences is a component of the emerging field of Culturally Responsive Teaching. Understanding the cultural history of the learner is important in utilizing effective and appropriate classroom management techniques—this is called “intercultural competence.”


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