Presentation on theme: "New Paradigms, New Treatments in Relapsed/Refractory Disease: An Update Kenneth C. Anderson, M.D. Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center Dana-Farber Cancer."— Presentation transcript:
New Paradigms, New Treatments in Relapsed/Refractory Disease: An Update Kenneth C. Anderson, M.D. Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Harvard Medical School
Conflict of Interest: Kenneth C. Anderson, M.D. Consultancy: Celgene, Onyx, Sanofi Aventis, and Gilead Scientific Founder: Acetylon, Oncopep
Integration of Novel Therapy Into Myeloma Management Bortezomib, Lenalidomide, Thalidomide, Doxil, Carfilzomib, Pomalidamide Target MM in the BM microenvironment to overcome conventional drug resistance in vitro and in vivo Effective in relapsed/refractory, relapsed, induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy Eight FDA approvals and median survival prolonged from 3-4 to 6-7 years, with additional prolongation from maintenance New approaches needed to treat and ultimately prevent relapse
Relapsed or Intolerant There is a well defined and recognized unmet need in multiple myeloma treatment Adapted from: Durie BGM. Multiple Myeloma. International Myeloma Foundation. 2011/2012 edition. Jagannath S. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2008;8 Suppl 4:S149-S156. Unmet Need Relapsed Frontline Treatment Frontline Treatment Expected survival (m) Sensitivity to therapy Sensitive Treatment limitations/ comorbidities Peripheral neuropathy (~15% at diagnosis) Less Sensitive/Resistant >80% incidence of peripheral neuropathy Compromised marrow reserve Cytopenia 6-10 Resistant Intolerant to or ineligible for available therapy Elderly population ( risk for heart, lung, renal, liver dysfunction, diabetes)
Overview of Phase III Trials with Len and Bortezomib in Relapsed/Refractory MM 1. Weber DM, et al. N Engl J Med. 2007;357: Dimopoulos M, et al. N Engl J Med. 2007;357: Richardson PG, et al. Blood. 2007;110: Orlowski RZ, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25: Weber D, et al. Blood. 2007;110:Abstract 412. RegimenTrialORR, % CR or nCR, % ≥ VGPR, % DOR, Mos TTP or PFS, Mos Median OS, Mos Len + dexMM-009  6124NE  Len + dexMM-010  6025NE1711 BortezomibAPEX  4316NE8630 Vdox MMY  NE
Palumbo et al. ASH 2010 abstr 620.
SC vs IV Bortezomib for Relapsed/Refractory Myeloma EQUIVALENT EFFICACY Peripheral Neuropathy Bortezomib IV (N=74) Bortezomib SC (N=148) P- value* Any PN event, % Grade 2, % Grade 3, % Risk factors for PN, % Grade 1 PN at baseline2823 Diabetes at baseline1113 Exposure to prior neurotoxic agents8586 *P-values are based on 2-sided Fisher’s exact test Moreau et al, ASH 2010 abstr 312
Lenalidomide induces caspase 8 mediated apoptosis of MM cells in BM in vitro and in vivo; Dex (caspase 9) enhances response Synergistic MM cell toxicity of lenalidomide (caspase 8) with Bortezomib (caspase 9>8) in vitro and in vivo (dual apoptotic signaling) Phase I-II trials show that majority (58%) of patients refractory to either agent alone respond to the combination Phase I-II trials show 100% response with 74% CR/VGPR and 52% CR/nCR when used as initial therapy, including molecular responses. Bortezomib, Lenalidomide and Dex Therapy Richardson et al. JCO 2009; 27: Richardson et al. Blood 2010; 116:
Carfilzomib: A Novel Proteasome (Chymotryptic) Inhibitor Novel chemical class with highly selective and irreversible proteasome binding Improved antitumor activity with consecutive day dosing No neurotoxicity in animals Durable responses in relapsed and relapsed/ refractory MM w/o neuropathy Carfilzomib lenalidomide Dex versus lenalidomide Dex phase III trial for new drug approval Demo et al. Cancer Res 2007; 67:6383Kirk et al., Blood 2008, 112: 2765 Siegal et al. Blood 2012:120:2817. Epoxyketone Tetrapeptide
Benefit of Carfilzomib in Relapsed/Refractory MM: Meaningful ORR, DOR and OS Response Category Total N = 266, n (%) 1 (0.4) VGPR 13 (4.9) PR 47 (17.7) MRCR SD 81 (30.5) PD 69 (25.9) Not evaluable 21 (7.9) ORR = 22.9% (95% CI: 18.0, 28.5) Overall Survival Median OS = 15.4 months (95% CI: 12.5, 19.0) CBR = 35.7% (95% CI: 30.0, 41.8) Duration of response Median DOR = 7.8 months (95% CI: 5.6, 9.2)
CRd in Relapsed and Upfront MM Wang et al ASCO 2011; Jakubowiak et al ASH 2011 Response to CRd therapy was high, with an ORR of 78% –41% VGPR or better CRd well-tolerated with durable responses ASPIRE phase 3 open-label, international, multicenter trial comparing CRd to Rd in R/R MM fully enrolled. Remarkable extent and frequency of response to CRd upfront (100% ORR, 80% CR,nCR after 12 cycles) Jakubowiak A. et al., Blood, 2012; 120:
Carfilzomib in Relapsed/Refractory MM StudyPhBTZ statusn Median prior tx lines CFZ dose Mode of admin ORR PX A1 1 IIRelapsed and refractory /27 mg/m min IV infusion 24% PX I/IIRelapsed and/or refractory /56 mg/m 2 30-min IV infusion 60% 1.Siegel et al. Blood. 2012;120(14): Papadopoulos KP, et al. Blood. 2011;118(21):Abstract and poster 2930.
Phase II Study of Infusional Carfilzomib in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory MM CFZ dose of 20/56 mg/m 2 administered as a 30-minute IV infusion resulted in high response rates in our BTZ treated/refractory population. Response rates were comparable to those seen in PX CFZ dose of 20/56 mg/m 2 was associated with more frequent cardiac and pulmonary toxicities, particularly HTN and pulmonary edema/CHF. –Possible contribution from “supportive” measures? CFZ dose of 20/56 mg/m 2 continues to be explored in ongoing Phase II/III studies. Lendvai et al, ASH 2012 Abstr 947
Pomalidomide in Myeloma MM cells Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Dendritic Cells IL-6 TNF IL-1 A IL-2 IFN CD8+ T Cells C E Bone Marrow Vessels ICAM-1 VEGF bFGF D B NK Cells NK-T Cells Hideshima et al. Blood 96: 2943, 2000 Davies et al. Blood 98: 210, 2001 Gupta et al. Leukemia 15: 1950, 2001 Mitsiades et al. Blood 99: 4525, 2002 Lentzsch et al Cancer Res 62: 2300, 2002 LeBlanc R et al. Blood 103: 1787, 2004 Hayashi T et al. Brit J Hematol 128: 192, 2005 PKC NFAT PI3K IL-2 CD28
Pomalidomide With Low-Dose Dexamethasone Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma POM was effective in heavily pretreated patients who had already received LEN and bortezomib and who progressed on their last line of therapy The combination of POM with LoDEX improves the ORR due to synergy between immunomodulatory agents and glucocorticoids –POM + LoDEX, 34%; POM alone, 15% Response was durable with POM regardless of the addition of LoDEX –POM + LoDEX, 8.3 months ; POM alone, 8.8 months POM is generally well tolerated, with low rates of discontinuations due to AEs Age had no impact on ORR, DoR, or safety Jagannath S, et al. ASH 2012 abstract 450.
Pomalidomide Plus Low-Dose Dexamethasone (Pom/Dex) in Relapsed Myeloma (345 patients) Pom/Dex has high response rates even in heavily pretreated relapsed myeloma Pom/Dex is well tolerated Toxicity and efficacy are similar between the 2mg and 4mg dose levels The strongest predictors of response include the number and type of prior regimens. The strongest predictors of TTP and survival include the number and type of prior regimens, LDH, and B2M. Lacy et al. ASH 2013 Abstr 201.
A Phase III Clinical Trial of Pomalidomide with Low-dose Dex vs. High-dose Dex in Relapsed/Refractory MM POM + LoDEX significantly improved PFS and OS –Median PFS: 3.6 vs 1.8 months HR = 0.45; P <.001 –Median OS: not reached vs 7.8 months HR = 0.53; P <.001 Equal benefit in pts refractory to both LEN and BORT POM + LoDEX was generally well tolerated POM + LoDEX should be considered as a new treatment option for these pts Dimopoulos et al. ASH 2013 LBA6
MM-005: A Phase 1 Trial of Pomalidomide, Bortezomib, and Low-dose Dexamethasone in Relapsed or Relapsed/Refractory MM POM + BORT + LoDEX (PVD) well tolerated –cohort 5 as the MTD/MPD POM 4 mg; BORT 1.3 mg/m 2 ; DEX 10/20 mg Responses in RR MM across all cohorts –ORR: 73%, VGPR: 27%, SD: 27% –Responses were rapid; majority are ongoing –Efficacy even with adverse cytogenetics Phase III Trial Pom Bort Dex vs Bort Dex for full approval Richardson et al. ASH 2013 Abstr 727.
Carfilzomib Pomalidomide Dexamethasone (Car-Pom-d) in Relapsed/Refractory MM MTD was Carfilzomib 20/27 mg/m 2, Pomalidomide 4 mg, and dexamethasone 40 mg There are limited G 3 and 4 non hematologic toxicities; the regimen was tolerated well with no unexpected toxicity The combination of Car-Pom–d is highly active in this heavily pretreated, refractory patient population The combination has encouraging preserved response rate and survival independent of FISH/cytogenetic risk status ≥ VGPR13% ≥ ORR50% ≥ CBR67% PFS (median)7.4 months 1 year Shah et al. ASH 2012 Abstr 74.
1.Development of immune therapies 2.Development of novel agents targeting the MM cell in the BM microenvironment 3. Development of rationally-based combination therapies 4. Utilization of genomics for improved classification and personalized therapy Myeloma will be a chronic illness, with sustained CR in a significant fraction of patients. Current and Future Directions
Antibody-dependent Cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) ADCC Effector cells: MM FcR Complement-dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) CDC MM C1q Apoptosis/growth arrest via targeting signaling pathways MM Lucatumumab or Dacetuzumab (CD40) Elotuzumab (CS1) Daratumumab (CD38) XmAb 5592 (HM1.24) huN901-DM1 (CD56) nBT062-maytansinoid (CD138) 1339 (IL-6) BHQ880 (DKK1) RAP-011 (activin A) Daratumumab (CD38) MAb-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Myeloma Tai & Anderson Bone Marrow Research 2011
Phase 2 Elotuzumab Lenalidomide Low-dose Dex in Relapsed/ Refractory MM Elotuzumab plus lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone has a high ORR in relapsed and relapsed/refractory MM –82% for all pts (91% in pts who had received only 1 prior therapy) –92% for pts treated with elotuzumab 10 mg/kg Median PFS was 33 mos for patients receiving elotuzumab 10 mg/kg The combination was generally well tolerated –Most common Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent AEs were neutropenia (16%), thrombocytopenia (16%), and lymphopenia (16%) –Premedication regimen decreased incidence and mitigated severity of infusion reactions* Richardson et al. ASH 2012, Lonial et al. ASCO 2013
PHASE I/II STUDY OF DARATUMUMAB CD38 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY IN RELAPSED/REFRACTORY MM Favorable safety profile as monotherapy In 15 of 32 (47%) showed benefit –4 patients achieving PR (13%) –6 patients achieving MR (19%) –5 patients achieving SD (16%) At doses 4mg/kg and above, 8 of the 12 patients had at least MR (66%) To be combined with lenalidomide dexamethasone Plesner et al. ASH 2012 Abstr 73.
Phase I Trial of Vaccination with DC/MM Fusions in Relapsed Refractory MM Well tolerated, no autoimmunity Induced tumor reactive lymphocytes in a majority of patients Induced humoral responses to novel antigens (SEREX analysis) Disease stabilization in 70% of patients Rosenblatt et al. Blood 2011; 117: DC/MM fusions induce anti-MM immunity in vitro and inhibit MM cell growth in vivo in xenograft models Vasir et al. Brit J Hematol 2005; 129:
Background: MM/DC Vaccination following Autologous PBSCT for Myeloma Rosenblatt et al., CCR 2013
PD-L1 Plays an Important Role in Dampening the Anti-tumor Immune Response Stromal PD-L1 modulation of T cells Immune cell modulation of T cells PD-L1/PD-1-mediated Inhibition of tumor cell killing IFN - mediated up-regulation of tumor PD- L1 Priming and Activation of T cells PD-L2 mediated inhibition of TH-2 T cells receptor Chen DS, Irving BA, Hodi FS. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:6580. PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment can inhibit anti-tumor T cell activity: 1.PD-L1 expression by tumor infiltrating immune cells 2.PD-L1 expression by cancer cells cancer cell PD-L1 lymphocyte Presence of intratumoral T-cells may lead to adaptive immune resistance
Combination Immunotherapy Posttransplant Anti PD-1 Ab administration in the early post-autologous transplant period is well tolerated Anti-PD1 results in the expansion of tumor reactive lymphocytes in the post-transplant period that persist at 6 months This provides a promising platform for combination with a tumor vaccine We have inititated enrollment into cohort 2, in which patients receive an autologous DC/myeloma fusion vaccine 1 week prior to each dose of Anti-PD-1Ab Avigan et al.
P5091 Specifically Target USP-7 and does not Alter Proteasome Activity P5091 (µM) Velcade (nM) USP-7 Knockout Proteasome Activity Assay Chauhan et al. Cancer Cell 2012;22:
P5091 Overcomes Bortezomib-Resistance in MM Cells Chauhan et al. Cancer Cell 2012; 22:
MLN2238/9708 Decreases Cell Viability in MM Cells and Overcomes Bortezomib- Resistance 24h48h Chauhan et al., Clin Cancer Res, 2011; 17:
Weekly MLN9708 in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Phase I Study Single-agent oral MLN9708 MTD 2.97 mg/m 2 on a weekly (days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) schedule Oral MLN9708 generally well tolerated –hematologic and gastrointestinal events generally manageable, low rate of discontinuations –Infrequent PN, only 1 grade 3 PN Pharmacokinetic profile supports weekly oral dosing Relapsed and/or refractory MM patients (median 4 prior lines of therapy) –ORR (≥PR) of 18%, plus 2% MR and 30% SD, including relapse post Bortezomib Kumar ASCO 2013
MLN9708 in Relapsed and/or Refractory MM: Expansion Cohorts of a Phase 1 Dose- Escalation study 46 pts evaluable for response –21 in dose-escalation cohorts –30 in expansion cohorts (including 6 from dose-escalation cohorts) 6 pts have achieved ≥PR –1 CR, confirmed by bone marrow (PI-naïve expansion cohort) –5 PRs (1 each at 1.2 and 2.23 mg/m 2 in dose-escalation cohorts; 1 in RRMM and 2 in bortezomib-relapsed expansion cohorts) 1 pt achieved MR (bortezomib-relapsed expansion cohort; 40% M-protein reduction) All 7 pts remain in response, with duration of disease control of up to 15.9 months 28 pts have achieved SD –14 in dose-escalation cohorts –9, 5, and 2 in RRMM, bortezomib-relapsed, and PI-naïve expansion cohorts –Durable, with disease stabilization for up to 12.9 months Richardson et al. ASH 2011
Phase I clinical trials ongoing In Vitro Anti-MM Activity of Oral Chymotryptic Inhibitor ONX 0912 (Opromazib) Myeloma Cell LinesPatient Tumor Cells Chauhan et al. Blood. 2010;116:490614
Marizomib: A Non-Peptide Proteasome Inhibitor Induces Rapid, Broad and Prolonged Inhibition Chauhan et al., Cancer Cell 2005; 8: Exhibits high levels of proteasome inhibition without toxicities associated with bortezomib Active in bortezomib and IMiD resistant myeloma preclinically Marizomib (NPI-0052) H N O O O CH 3 OH Cl H H H
Responses to Marizomib +/- Dexamethasone in Evaluable Pts at Full Dose [ >0.4 mg/m 2 ]* Twice Weekly (n=21**) All Pts EBMT ≥ SD 11/2055% MR + PR 3/2015% Uniform Criteria ≥ SD 12/2157% PR + VGPR 4/2119% Pts Exposed to Bortezomib EBMT ≥ SD 11/1958% MR + PR 3/1916% Uniform Criteria ≥ SD 11/1958% PR + VGPR 3/1916% *As of 05 Dec 11 Response criteria defined with baseline SPEP ≥ 0.5 g/dL or UPEP ≥ 200 mg/24h with at least 2 assessments after treatment Day 1 for EBMT ; also by free lite for UC**. Refractory defined as having PD during or within 60 days of last regimen. Pts Refractory to Bortezomib EBMT ≥ SD 8/1267% MR + PR 2/1217% Uniform Criteria ≥ SD 8/1267% PR + VGPR 2/1217% Pts Refractory to Lenalidomide EBMT ≥ SD 8/1362% MR + PR 3/1323% Uniform Criteria ≥ SD 9/1464% PR + VGPR 4/1429% Median Duration of Response (all Pts) = 133 days (~ 5 mos) Richardson et al. ASH 2011
MM Functional Sequelae of Btk Inhibition by PCI in the MM BM milieu Osteoclast precursorsOsteoclast M-CSF, IL-6, MCP-1 PCI32765 IL-6 SDF-1 MIP-1 MIP-1 M-CSF MCP-1 PCI M-CSF TRAP5b SDF-1 IL-8 Activin A APRIL MIP-1 MIP-1 TGF 1 RANTES BAFF Stromal cells fms RANK Bone resorption Tumor microenvironment Adhesion Migration Homing PCI32765 MM Stem Cell Btk activation by IL-6, SDF-1 Colony formation MIP-1 , MIP-1 , IL-8, TGF 1 RANTES, BAFF, TRAF2, CXCR4, LAT, PLC 2, MYD88, NFATc1 Tai et al. Blood2012; 120:
Delmore JE., Issa GC, et al. Cell 2011; 146:904. BET Bromodomain Inhibition Suppresses c-myc Expression and Function and Triggers Anti-MM Activity
Additional Targeted Therapies in Development KSP inhibitors (Array 520) AKT inhibitor (GSK agent) Nuclear transport inhibitors (KPT) CDK inhibitors
Protein protein aggregates (toxic) Ub 26S proteasome Ub Aggresome Panibinostat, Vorinostat, ACY1215 dynein Ub dynein Microtubule Autophagy Bortezomib, Carfilzomib, NPI0052, MLN9708, ONX 0912 Ub Lysosome HDAC6 Ub Development of Rationally-based Combination Therapies (HDAC and Proteasome Inhibitors) Hideshima et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:8530.Catley et al. Blood. 2006;108:
VANTAGE 088: An International, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Vorinostat or Placebo with Bortezomib in Relapsed MM The combination of vorinostat + bortezomib is active in patients with relapsed and refractory MM – Significant improvement in response rate – ORR 54% vs 41% (P<0.0001); CBR 71% vs 53% (P<0.0001) PFS and TTP were prolonged in the combination arm compared with bortezomib alone PFS hazard ratio reduction of 23% (P=0.01); 7.63 months (6.9–8.4) versus 6.83 months (5.7–7.7) Diarrhea, fatigue, and thrombocytopenia limited tolerability Dimopoulos et al. ASH 2011, Lancet Oncology, in press
Bench to Bedside Translation of HDAC 6 Selective Inhibitor ACY 1215 Orally bioavailable, highly potent, selective inhibitor of HDAC 6 synthesized in fall 2009 Synergistic MM cytotoxicity with Bortezomib in vitro and in vivo Favorable PK/PD, toxicity profile Phase Ia/Ib/II clinical trials of ACY1215, alone and with Bortezomib and with lenalidomide/dexamethasone, ongoing; trials with pomalidomide and carfilzomib this year. Santo et al. Blood 2012;119:
Mutations in Myeloma 19 Patients Each With Newly Diagnosed and Relapsed MM Protein homeostasis: 42% including FAM46C, RPL10, RPS6KA1, EIF3B, XBP1, LRRK2 NF-kB signaling: 10 point mutations, 4 additional structural re- arrangements affecting coding Confers bortezomib sensitivity Histone methylating enzymes: WHSC1, UTX, MLL BRAF: 4% activating : Single patient MM response Andrulis et al Cancer Discovery 2013; 3: PSMB5 b5 proteasome subunit mutation confers proteasome inhibitor resistance in laboratory, not identified in clinic Lichter et al Blood 2012: 120: Chapman et al. Nature 2011; 471:
EARLY LATE Early mutation not in late sample New mutations in late sample Early TumorLate Tumor Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies Acquisition of New Changes in MM: 71 Patient Study (Munshi et al, ASH 2011 Abstract 276) Early TumorLate Tumor
1.Lenalidomide dexamethasone, bortezomib, and pegylated doxorubicin are approved regimens for relapsed MM. 1.Pomalidomide/dex and carfilzomib are newly FDA approved options. 3.There are many promising protocols of novel immune and targeted agents which show promise, alone and in combination. 4. Genomic analyses are both defining the basis for evolution underlying relapse and identifying new targets. Relapsed Refractory Myeloma
United Nations Against Myeloma: Bench to Bedside Research Team Kenneth Anderson Nikhil Munshi Paul Richardson Robert Schlossman Irene Ghobrial Steven Treon Jacob Laubach Deborah Doss Kathleen Colson Mary McKenney Kim Noonan Tina Flaherty Kathleen Finn Muriel Gannon Stacey Chuma Janet Kunsman Diane Warren Carolyn Revta Andrea Freeman Alexis Fields Andrea Kolligian John Feather Farzana Masood Nora Loughney Heather Goddard Tiffany Poon Nicole Stavitzski Ranjit Banwait Shawna Corman Heather Goddard Meghan Marie Leahy Caitlin O’Gallagher Christina Tripsas Karin Anderson Shannon Viera Katherine Redman Amber Walsh Samir Amin Wanling Xie Parantu Shah Holly Bartel Lisa Popitz Jeffrey Sorrell Teru Hideshima Constantine Mitsiades Dharminder Chauhan Noopur Raje Yu-Tzu Tai Ruben Carrasco James Bradner Gullu Gorgun Jooeun Bae Francesca Cottini Michele Cea Antonia Cagnetta Teresa Calimeri Edie Weller Ajita Singh Ze Tian Diana Cirstea Yiguo Hu Naoya Mimura Jiro Minami Sun-Yung Kong Weihua Song Douglas McMillin Catriona Hayes Steffen Klippel Jana Jakubikova Panisinee Lawasut Niels van de Donk Eugen Dhimolea Jake Delmore Hannah Jacobs Masood Shammas Mariateresa Fulciniti Jianhong Lin Jagannath Pal Samantha Pozzi Loredana Santo Claire Fabre Anuj Mahindra Rao Prabhala Jake Delmore Puru Nanjappa Michael Sellito Avani Vaishnav USA UK India Italy Japan Canada Germany China Greece Taiwan Australia Ireland Israel Turkey Austria