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R&D Towards a Solid-State Central Tracker in NA World-Wide Review of LC Tracking January 8, 2004 Bruce Schumm SCIPP & UC Santa Cruz

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The SD Tracker Note: No report from Si Drift this time around; status of effort unclear

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Frequency Scanned Interferometer Demonstration System Jason Deibel, Sven Nyberg, Keith Riles, Haijun Yang University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

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Physics Goals and Background To Carry out R&D toward a direct, quasi real time and remote way of measuring positions of critical tracker detector elements during operation. The 1-Dimension accuracy of absolute distance is on the order of 1 micron. Basic idea: To measure hundreds of absolute point-to-point distances of tracker elements in 3 dimensions by using an array of optical beams split from a central laser. Absolute distances are determined by scanning the laser frequency and counting interference fringes. Assumption: Thermal drifts in tracker detector on time scales too short to collect adequate data samples to make precise alignment. Background – some optical alignment systems RASNIK system: used in L3, CHORUS and CDF Frequency Scanned Interferometer(FSI): used in ATLAS [A.F. Fox-Murphy et al., NIM A383, 229(1996)] Focusing here on FSI system for NLC tracker detector Haijun Yang; U. of Michigan

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Principle of Distance Measurement The measured distance can be expressed by + constant end corrections c - speed of light, N – No. of fringes, - scanned frequency n g – average refractive index of ambient atmosphere Assuming the error of refractive index is small, the measured precision is given by: ( R / R) 2 = ( N / N) 2 + ( v / ) 2 Example: R = 1.0 m, = 6.6 THz, N ~ 2R /c = 44000 To obtain R 1.0 m, Requirements: N ~ 0.02, v ~ 3 MHz Haijun Yang; U. of Michigan

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FSI Demonstration System In Lab Laser Mirror Beamsplitters Photodetector Fabry-Perot Interferometer Retroreflector

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Absolute Distance Measurements The measurement spread of 30 sequential scans performed vs. number of measurements/scan(N meas ) shown below. The scanning rate was 0.5 nm/s and the sampling rate was 125 KS/s. It can be seen that the distance errors decrease with increasing N meas. If N meas = 2000, the standard deviation (RMS) of distance measurements is 35 nm, the average value of measured distances is 706451.565 m. The relative accuracy is 50 ppb. Haijun Yang; U. of Michigan

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Error Estimations Error from uncertainties of fringe and frequency determination, dR/R ~ 1.1 ppm; if N meas = 2000, dR/R ~ 24 ppb Error from vibration. dR/R ~ 0.4 ppm; if N meas = 2000, dR/R ~ 8 ppb Error from thermal drift. Temperature fluctuations are well controlled down to 0.5 mK(RMS) in Lab by plastic box on optical table and PVC pipes shielding the volume of air near the laser beam. An air temperature change of 1 0 C will result in a 0.9 ppm change of refractive index at room temperature. The drift will be magnified during scanning. dR/R ~ 30 ppb; if N meas = 2000, dR/R is increased to ~ 40 ppb because the measurement window size is smaller for larger N meas. Error from air humidity, dR/R ~ 10 ppb. Error from barometric pressure should have negligible effect on distance measurement. The total error from the above sources is ~ 48 ppb which agrees well with the measured residual spread of 50 ppb. Haijun Yang; U. of Michigan

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Summary and Outlook A simple FSI demonstration system was constructed to make high-precision absolute distance measurements. A high accuracy of 35 nm for a distance of about 0.7 meter under laboratory conditions was achieved. Two new multi-distance-measurement analysis techniques were presented to improve absolute distance measurement and to extract the amplitude and frequency of vibration. Major error sources were estimated, and the expected error was in good agreement with measured residual spread from real data. One paper, ‘High-precision Absolute Distance Measurement using Frequency Scanned Interferometer’, will be submitted to Optics Letters. Haijun Yang; U. of Michigan

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Summary and Outlook We are working on FSI with fibers, one fiber for beam delivery and the other fiber for return beam. Much work needed before practical application of FSI system. Fibers necessary for remote inner tracker interferometer. The technique shown here does NOT give comparable accuracy under realistic detector conditions (poorly controlled temperature). Will investigate Oxford ATLAS group’s dual-laser scanning technique. Michigan group rapidly coming up to speed on technology, but much work lies ahead. Haijun Yang; U. of Michigan

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The SCIPP/UCSC Long Shaping- Time Effort Faculty/Senior Alex Grillo Hartmut Sadrozinski Bruce Schumm Abe Seiden Post-Doc Gavin Nesom Jurgen Kroseberg Student Christian Flacco (will do BaBar thesis) Engineer: Ned Spencer (on SCIPP base program)

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Pulse Development Simulation Long Shaping-Time Limit: strip sees signal if and only if hole is col- lected onto strip (no electrostatic coupling to neighboring strips) Incorporates: Landau statistics (SSSimSide; Gerry Lynch LBNL), detector geometry and orientation, diffusion and space-charge, Lorentz angle, electronic response

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Result: S/N for 167cm Ladder At shaping time of 3 s; 0.5 m process qualified by GLAST

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Analog Readout Scheme: Time-Over Threshold (TOT) TOT/ /r TOT given by difference between two solutions to (RC-CR shaper) Digitize with granularity /n dig

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Why Time-Over-Threshold? 4 2 6 10 8 TOT/ 1011000100 Signal/Threshold = ( /r) -1 100 x min-i With TOT analog readout: Live-time for 100x dynamic range is about 9 With = 3 s, this leads to a live-time of about 30 s, and a duty cycle of about 1/250 Sufficient for power- cycling!

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Single-Hit Resolution Design performance assumes 7 m single-hit resolution. What can we really expect? Implement nearest-neighbor clustering algorithm Digitize time-over-threshold response (0.1* more than adequate to avoid degradation) Explore use of second `readout threshold’ that is set lower than `triggering threshold’; major design implication

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RMS Gaussian Fit RMS Gaussian Fit Readout Threshold (Fraction of min-i) Trigger Threshold 167cm Ladder 132cm Ladder Resolution With and Without Second (Readout) Threshold

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Lifestyle Choices Based on simulation results, ASIC design will incorporate: 3 s shaping-time for preamplifier Time-over-threshold analog treatment Dual-discriminator architecture The design of this ASIC is now underway.

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Challenges Cycling power quickly is major design challenge Warm machine: At 120 Hz, must conduct business in ~150 s to achieve 98% power reduction What happens when amplifier is switched off? Drift of ~10 mV (or 1 fC in terms of charge) enough to fake signal when amp switched back on Challenging for circuit design

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More Challenges Trying to reach dynamic range of >100 MIP to allow for dEdX measurement of exotic heavy particles At comparitor, MIP is about 500 mV, rail is about 1V Active `Ramp Control’ forces current back against signal for few MIP and greater.

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0.29 mip threshold ¼ mip 1 mip 128 mip Response to signals between ¼ and 128 mips (in factor-of-two octaves)

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Response to ¼, 1 and 4 mip signals 8 msec power-off period (not to scale) 60 msec power restoration Power Off Power On

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Looking ahead Challenges continue to arise in circuit design (but at least they’re being caught before the chip is made!) Layout in specific technology (0.25 m mixed-signal RF process from Taiwan Semiconductor) lies ahead; substantial experience at SLAC and within UCSC School of Engineering Submit in March? Long ladder, Nd:YAG pulsing system, readout under development Project is very challenging, but progress is being made, albeit slower than first envisioned.

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