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FutureProofing TTI Vanguard -- Advanced Technology Conference Tokyo, Japan June 19, 2012 Innovation of Complex Systems (in Two Short Years): OLEV and MH.

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Presentation on theme: "FutureProofing TTI Vanguard -- Advanced Technology Conference Tokyo, Japan June 19, 2012 Innovation of Complex Systems (in Two Short Years): OLEV and MH."— Presentation transcript:

1 FutureProofing TTI Vanguard -- Advanced Technology Conference Tokyo, Japan June 19, 2012 Innovation of Complex Systems (in Two Short Years): OLEV and MH Nam P. Suh KAIST

2 Thank you for the invitation to speak! Gordon Bell Hal Levin

3 Why? 1.Why does it take so long to develop engineered systems? 2.Why do major corporations miss the delivery dates of their newly developed systems? 3.Why does the cost of development often exceed the original estimated cost?

4 Plausible causes? Is it the excessive reliance on experience? or too much reliance on detailed analyses of sub-systems while ignoring the system-level theoretic design issues?

5 Examples of Innovative Engineering Systems: Two Disruptive Technologies Created at KAIST On-Line Electric Vehicle (OLEV) Mobile Harbor (MH)

6 Video of OLEV (On-Line Electric Vehicle)

7 Mobile Harbor (video) Selected as the second most promising technology by an Australian organization

8 Universities do not teach “design of complex large systems”. Why? Special KAIST Renaissance Ph.D. Program Freshman Design Course

9 What is the most difficult first step in technology innovation? Money? Clever people? Invention? My answer: Discovery or identification of the problem (need) that requires solutions!!

10 What is the most difficult step in creating the innovative system, after the problem (need) is identified? Rational design of the system that satisfies the highest-level FRs and constraints at all times! Rational design = No Functional Coupling throughout the entire system!

11 How do we create an engineering system? 1.Satisfy certain specific societal needs. 2.FRs at the highest level must be satisfied at the same time within a set of constraints. 3.FRs must be decomposed to create lower-level FRs, a top-down approach. 4.We design and create DPs to satisfy all the FRs at all levels, layer-by-layer. 5.When design is completed, FRs at a given level must be independent of other FRs.

12 Why OLEV? Energy, Environment, Water, Sustainability (EEWS) CO 2 problem -- 50% reduction by 2050 Elimination of IC engines from automobiles Lithium Battery -- expensive, heavy, big, safety OLEV -- Funding history Opposition -- why? Remarkable achievement -- two years from concept to realization

13 Mobile Harbor (MH) Singapore harbor Larger and larger container ships $2~3 billion to build a large harbor with deep water (>15 m) Environmental problems -- 9 km of shore land Two years from concept to demonstration on open sea (2009 to 2011)

14 Secret behind the fast realization of the technology, i.e., two years Axiomatic Design Theory

15 Clearly Define the Goal 1.Do you want to go to Korea? 2.Do you want to Boston, U.S.A.?

16 Many different ways of achieving the goal Once you defined the goal (FRs), there are many different ways of achieving the goal. Choose the most promising method. (robust design)

17 What should we do, when there are more than one goal? What should we do, when there are more than one goal? Water faucet problem Two goals: –Control the flow rate of water –Control the temperature of water.

18 When we choose DPs, FRs must remain independent. Or Maintain the independence of FRs. Water Faucet Design

19

20 I used AD to innovate many things. Axiomatic design –Independence Axiom –Information Axiom Many examples other than OLEV and MH: – Mixalloy (TiB 2 /Cu dispersion strengthened alloy) – Microcellular plastic (MuCell) – Charge decay NDE – USM foam molding technology – Lamination process

21 Functional Domain Customer Environment Physical Domain Process Domain Customer Needs Functional Requirements Design Parameters Process Variables Axiomatic design: Mapping, hierarchies, and zigzagging What?How ? What?How ?

22 ◈ Proving of original technology by implementing the research achievements in the field. ◈ Verification on safety and reliability of OLEV technology at the public place. ◈ OLEV test bed system needed to commercialize technology. OLEV tram starts COMMERCIAL OPERATION at Seoul Grand Park

23 FR1 = Propel the vehicle with electric power FR2 = Transfer electricity from underground electric cable to the vehicle FR3 = Steer the vehicle FR4 = Brake the vehicle FR5 = Reverse the direction of motion FR6 = Change the vehicle speed FR7 = Provide the electric power when there is no external electric power supply FR8 = Supply electric power to the underground cable FRs of the On-Line Electric Vehicle (OLEV)

24 Constraints (Cs) C1 = Safety regulations governing electric systems C2 = Price of OLEV (should be competitive with cars with IC engines) C3 = No emission of greenhouse gases C4 = Long-term durability and reliability of the system C5 = Vehicle regulations for space clearance between the road and the bottom of the vehicle

25 DPs of OLEV DP1 = Electric motor DP2 = Wireless power transfer system DP3 = Conventional steering system DP4 = Conventional braking system DP5 = Electric polarity DP6 = Motor drive DP7 = Re-chargeable battery DP8 = Electric power supply system

26 Design Matrix {FRs} = [DM] {DPs} [DM] must be either Diagonal -- > Uncoupled Design Or Triangular --> Decoupled Design

27 Decomposition of FR2 and DP2 FR2 = Transfer electricity from underground electric cable to the vehicle DP2 = Power transfer system

28 Decomposition of FR2 FR21 = Generate an alternating magnetic field FR22 = Control the power level of the magnetic field FR23 = Shape the magnetic field to control the height of the field, H FR24 = Control the radiation (EMF) FR25 = On/Off the magnetic field FR26 = Maximize the pick-up of the power in the alternating magnetic field created under the ground for use in the vehicle

29 Decomposition of DP2 DP21 = Underground power lines with AC field surrounding the magnetic core (ferrite) DP22 = Electric power level, i.e., current (I) times voltage (V), at a given frequency DP23 = Width of the magnetic poles established by the magnetic core in the ground DP24 = Active or passive shields for EMF DP25 = Switches that turn on/off the underground power DP26 = Pick-up unit mounted on the car that resonates the frequency of the alternating magnetic field

30 Decomposition involves only the diagonal elements, but …

31 Decomposition involves only the diagonal element, but the off-diagonal element must be checked for possible coupling.

32 Ferrite Pick-up system Shaped Magnetic Field in Resonance Power supply system

33 SMFIR (Shaped Magnetic Field in Resonance)

34 On-Line Electric Vehicle (OLEV) Examples of Large Complex Systems

35 구 간구 간길 이길 이 1 구간 122.5m [24mx5+2.5m] 2 구간 122.5m [24mx5+2.5m] 3 구간 122.5m [24mx5+2.5m] 4 구간 5m [2.5m+2.5m] 급전구간 : 372.5m 급전 ∙ 수전인프라 : 인버터 위치 : 맨홀의 위치 : 케이블 트랙길이 : 배전선 : 공동구내 배선 서울대공원 OLEV 시스템 개요

36 Batteries: Major Roadblock for Mass Adoption of Electric Vehicles EV Battery Problem –Weight –Cost –Limited driving range –Long recharge time –Plug-in charging, manual user experience KAIST Online Electric Vehicle (OLEV) technology solves EV battery problem –80% smaller battery size with less cost and weight –Stationary or “in-motion” charging with no need to pull out of service for recharge –Automated charging with no manual efforts © 2011 OLEV Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.36

37 The OLEV Technology – Key Differentiators ChallengesBreakthrough Innovations “In-Motion” ChargingReal-time, dynamic charging with variable length segment control to provide safe, peak power and no down-time operation High Power CapacityOver 100kW to power heavy-duty (HD) vehicles High EfficiencyOver 83% end-to-end power transfer efficiency High Ground ClearanceOver 8” to meet bus operating requirements SafetyElectromagnetic field (EMF) well below international standards on human safety © 2011 OLEV Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.37

38 The OLEV Technology – EMF, EMI Safety International Standards for Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Safety Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) – No interference with radio devices © 2011 OLEV Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.38 Public Exposure Limits mG (milli Gauss) Country/OrganizationOLEV Equipped Vehicle Meets Specified Requirements 62.5 mGKorea 200 mGICNIRP 2000 mGIEEE

39 Case Study - Energy Cost Savings* © 2011 OLEV Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.39 Bus Type Annual Fuel Cost ($) Unit $/Fuel Unit $/Mile Diesel (40 ft)$ 52,000gallon$ 4.00$ 1.30 Diesel Hybrid BRT (60 ft) $ 43,000gallon$ 4.00$ 1.08 CNG (40 ft)$ 32,000MBTU$ 20.96$ 0.80 OLEV (60 ft)$ 18,000kWh$ 0.10$ 0.46 *Estimates based on 40,000 annual miles, $4.00 per diesel gallon and $0.10 per kWh. These numbers are illustrative comparison purposes only.

40 Case Study - CO2 Emission Reduction* © 2011 OLEV Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.40 Bus Type Annual CO2 Emission (tons) Unit CO2/Unit (lbs) Unit/Y ear Diesel (40 ft)132gallon ,983 Diesel Hybrid BRT (60 ft) 110gallon ,819 CNG (40 ft)93MBTU ,529 OLEV (60 ft)0kWh0182,212 OLEV (60 ft) - grid*69kWh ,212 *Estimates based on 40,000 annual miles, $4.00 per diesel gallon and $0.10 per kWh. These numbers are illustrative comparison purposes only.

41 Mobile Harbor (MH)

42 Rate Limiting Process in Ocean Transportation Systems “Why should ships come into harbor?” Why couldn’t a harbor go to the ship? The Concept of a Mobile Harbor

43 Creativity of KAIST - MH (July 31, 2008 file) Creativity of KAIST - MH (July 31, 2008 file)

44 “Why should large container ships come into harbor?” “Why shouldn’t harbor go out to the ship?” “Why should large container ships come into harbor?” “Why shouldn’t harbor go out to the ship?” Execute high speed loading and unloading in the wavy open sea Deploy original, advanced technologies Large Containership Draft 15m Shallow or Congested port Large Containership Draft 15m Shallow or Congested port Large Containership Draft 15m Shallow or Congested port Mobile Harbor (MH)

45 Examples of Large Complex Systems Mobile Harbor (MH) : “Why should large container ships come into harbor?” “Why shouldn’t harbor go out to the ship?”

46 21/24 EUROPE ASIA S. AMERICA OCEANIA AFRICA N. AMERICA 항만 증설이 어려운 지역 수심이 낮은 연안 항구 인프라 미비지역 물동량 적체 지역 파나마 운하지역 항만 증설이 어려운 지역 Possible Regions for Use of MH

47 Three Laws of Innovation (N. P. Suh, 2010) The 1st Law: – Innovation continuum The 2nd Law: – Nucleation of innovation hub The 3rd Law: – The rate of nucleation versus the rate of diffusion

48 Thank you.

49


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