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Elisabeth Kvarnström, SP/Urban Water Local solutions for global challenges – nutrient recycling contributes to sustainable post-2015 development. Picture:

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Presentation on theme: "Elisabeth Kvarnström, SP/Urban Water Local solutions for global challenges – nutrient recycling contributes to sustainable post-2015 development. Picture:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elisabeth Kvarnström, SP/Urban Water Local solutions for global challenges – nutrient recycling contributes to sustainable post-2015 development. Picture: J. Wijkmark with adaptations by M. Palmér-Rivera

2 Sanitation Systems Used World- Wide Sanitation Service Delivery Chain Goals – Millennium Development Goals – Sustainable Development Goals and Recycling Good Examples – Aguié province, Niger – El Alto, Bolivia – Port-au-Prince, Haiti – Durban, South Africa Challenges Final Reflections Overview Photo:SOIL ´Source: CREPA 2500 CFA/bag (Urine fertilized ) 2000 CFA/bag (urea fertilized) 1500 CFA/bag (control)

3 Figure from Boston Consulting Group, 2013 Sanitation Technologies World-Wide

4 Some urban examples… Dhaka, Bangladesh: 12 of 15 million on on-site https://www.flickr.com/photos/joiseyshowaa/2402764792/ Dakar, Senegal: 1.7 of 2.7 million on on-site Wa, Ghana: 31000 open defecators, 53000 on-site, no sewers http://commonground191.com/journal/senegal.htm Photo: E. Kvarnström

5 Household Treatment Emptying and Transport Reuse Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera Sanitation Service Delivery Chain all the Way to Reuse Usually works somewhat…

6 Household Treatment Emptying and Transport Reuse Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera Sanitation Service Delivery Chain all the Way to Reuse Usually works somewhat…

7 The Millennium Development Goals Sanitation-related target To halve the proportion of the population without access to improved sanitation by 2015. Improved sanitation Facilities that ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact: flush or pour-flush toilet/latrine to: – piped sewer system – septic tank pit latrine ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine pit latrine with slab composting latrine

8 Household Treatment Emptying and Transport Reuse Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera Sanitation Service Delivery and the Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goal Target Related to Sanitation X

9 Sustainable Development Goals and Recycling of Nutrients Pictures from UN home page

10 Household Treatment Emptying and Transport Reuse Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera Sanitation Service Delivery and the Goals The Millennium Development Goal Target Related to Sanitation The Sustainable Sanitation Goal Targets Related to Sanitation

11 Image: F. Kvarnström Context 1 – on-site sanitation with low population density (rural – peri-urban edge) Context 2 – on-site sanitation with high population density (peri-urban) Context 3– separate flowstream collection within existing wastewater jurisdiction (urban) 2. Bolivia 3. Haiti 1. Niger 4. South Africa Presented by others during the conference Some good examples from around the world

12 Household Emptying and Transport Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera Aguié Province, Niger Photo: L. Dagerskog PPILDA Treatment Reuse Photo: L. Dagerskog Picture: L. Aguié citizen

13 Possible to combine 2 crucial messages for human excreta – its dangers and its resources. – Adapted participatory tools (PHAST SARAR going agricultural) – Cultivation experiments – Blind tasting evaluations – Study visits between villages – Collaboration with Burkinabè actors – Distinction between human excreta and the treated excreta = liquid and solid fertilizer No more peeing in the showers… 70% of latrines and 80% of urinals in use 3 years after project end. Low cost storage of urine is a challenge, to maximize the use of the N The experience has been taken up in other projects in Niger. Possible to combine 2 crucial messages for human excreta – its dangers and its resources. – Adapted participatory tools (PHAST SARAR going agricultural) – Cultivation experiments – Blind tasting evaluations – Study visits between villages – Collaboration with Burkinabè actors – Distinction between human excreta and the treated excreta = liquid and solid fertilizer No more peeing in the showers… 70% of latrines and 80% of urinals in use 3 years after project end. Low cost storage of urine is a challenge, to maximize the use of the N The experience has been taken up in other projects in Niger. Reflections on Aguié, Niger Photos: Kim Andersson.

14 Household Emptying and Transport Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera El Alto, Bolivia Photo: Sumaj Huasi Photo: K. Andersson. Photo: Sumaj Huasi Photo: K. Andersson Photo: Sumaj Huasi Photo: K. Andersson Photo: Sumaj Huasi Photo: K. Andersson Photo: Sumaj Huasi Photo: SARAR-T. Treatment Reuse

15 System keeps both pathogens and nutrients from Río Seco. System operation currently dependent on Sumaj Huasi – fragile setup. Usage fee has been introduced – but rel. low Equal treatment of this system to the utility-run centralized system – would bring stability System keeps both pathogens and nutrients from Río Seco. System operation currently dependent on Sumaj Huasi – fragile setup. Usage fee has been introduced – but rel. low Equal treatment of this system to the utility-run centralized system – would bring stability Reflections on El Alto Photo: SARAR-T. Photos: Kim Andersson.

16 Household Emptying and Transport Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera Cap-Haitien, Haiti Photo: SOIL Treatment Reuse

17 STRENGTHS Widely accepted technology Robust services Rigorous hygiene measures enforced along the chain - high level of public health protection Local, interdisciplinary and passionate team, fluent in Haitian Creole Extreme low-cost operations WEAKNESSES Fluctuating funding Potential high staff turn- over Cost savings leading to too high work burden on staff OPPORTUNITIES Low cost fits the market A steady market Water scarcity Declining soil fertility Increased prices on fertilizers Reduced carbon emissions Good relations with the sanitation authority DINEPA THREATS Natural disasters Cholera epidemic, increasing negative perceptions of compost Political uncertainty Earlier failed projects using dry urine diverting toilets in Haiti Reflections on SOIL’s service delivery in Haiti

18 Household Emptying and transport Treatment Farmer Courtesy of EWS http://www.wrc.org.za/News/Pages/Areweontrackwithsustainabl esanitationservices.aspx Drawing: J. Wijkmark w alterations by M. Palmér-Rivera Durban, South Africa: Fecal sludge from VIP latrines

19 Reflections, Durban Services under competent utility – stable services Cost-recovery 3.6 million customers, 3000 staff Customer-orientated – ALL types of customers. Jurisdiction NOT based on technology Ring-fenced operations Progressive tariffs Internal cross-subsidies, Accessing all national programs possible Appr. 10% of budget spent on customer training Cooperating with other partners Strong research relations Incredibly innovative – both reuse and service delivery Services under competent utility – stable services Cost-recovery 3.6 million customers, 3000 staff Customer-orientated – ALL types of customers. Jurisdiction NOT based on technology Ring-fenced operations Progressive tariffs Internal cross-subsidies, Accessing all national programs possible Appr. 10% of budget spent on customer training Cooperating with other partners Strong research relations Incredibly innovative – both reuse and service delivery

20 Many actors are working with sanitation and reuse world-wide

21 Challenges and mitigation Mitigation Challenges http://www.lantbruk.com/lantbruk/hon -sommarpratar-i-land-lantbruks-podcast Photo: L. Dagerskog http://www.styrkelabbet.se/marklyft/

22 Final reflections http://www.lantbruk.com/lantbruk/hon- sommarpratar-i-land-lantbruks-podcast http://www.styrkelabbet.se/marklyft/ PPILDA

23 Thank you! Elisabeth Kvarnström, elisabeth.kvarnstrom@urbanwater.se

24 0.15 kg/cap,day Microbial/chemical quality depends on habits and use of chemicals 0.3-0.4 kg N and 0.07- 0.37 kg P/cap, yr 20-200 L/cap,day 1.5 L/cap,day 2-4 kg N and 0.2- 0.37 kg P/cap, yr 0.3-0.55 kg N and 0.1-0.2 kg P/cap, yr Organic matter Extremely low metal content and low pathogen content Low metal content and high pathogen content GREYWATERURINEFECES Volume Nutrients Quality X100-1000 x10 Pathogens Chemical pollutants Pathogens Characteristics of domestic wastewater

25 New developments in eThekwini Water and Sanitation 80,000 urine diverting toilets; Centralized collection of dried feces; Pilot plant – black soldier fly larvae production; Capacity 20 ton/day; Chicken feed and oil


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