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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RIO TO RIO+20 A Presentation by Dr. Rajneesh Dube, Joint Secretary Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India 28 September.

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Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RIO TO RIO+20 A Presentation by Dr. Rajneesh Dube, Joint Secretary Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India 28 September."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RIO TO RIO+20 A Presentation by Dr. Rajneesh Dube, Joint Secretary Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India 28 September 2011, Jaipur 1

2 RIO 1992 Environment & Development (UNCED) Rio Principles (27) Agenda 21: Global Partnership for SD UNFCCC and CBD: Opened up for signatures UNCCD was born 2

3 RIO PRINCIPLES Non-negotiable fundamentals of approach to SD Pr.-1: Human beings as central to SD Pr.-3: Right to Development Pr.-4: Environment protection integral part of the Dev. Pr.-5: Poverty eradication – indispensable Pr.-7 Common but differentiated responsibilities Pr.-10: Access to information and judicial remedy Pr.-11 Env. legislations and standards: as nationally appropriate Pr.-15: Precautionary approach Pr.20-23: Social equity 3

4 COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Established in 1994: Functional commission of ECOSOC Bridge between Env. & Dev. Agendas Institutional expression to SD as an umbrella concept to guide the work of global institutions Open Space for policy dialogue and best practices Political, intellectual and operational presence: Multi- stakeholder approach CSD has turned into a body run by the Env. Ministries. 4

5 Multi-lateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) >500 MEAs India is a party to 94 MEAs Nature Conservation: CBD/CITES/UNFF Chemical & waste: Basel/Stockholm Atmospheric emissions: UNFCCC/Montreal Pr. Land: UNCCD 5

6 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AGREEMENTS WTO: NAMA/TRIPS World Intellectual Property Organization ILO Conventions: Forced labour/equal remuneration Human Rights Conventions 6

7 Human Development Index trends from 1980 to 2010. 7

8 Energy consumption per capita and per unit of GDP for select countries 8

9 ISSUES IN SUSTAINABILITY Environment and sustainable development Sectoral approach and systematic approach Vertical and horizontal integration Access versus greening Question of technology and finance. Transitional Costs 9

10 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS UN Millennium Declaration 2000 Three areas: human capital/infrastructure/rights 8 goals + sub-goals India’s progress: – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger – moderate/slow – Achieve universal primary education – on track – Reduce child mortality rate/MMR – moderate/slow – Sustainable access to safe drinking water – on track 10

11 Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development Agreed to at the gathering of heads of State and Government in Monterrey, Mexico, 2002 Mobilizing domestic financial resources for development Private international capital flows, foreign direct investment Promoting multilateral trading system and trade liberalization Developed countries encouraged to target 0.7 percent of GNP as ODA to developing countries Sustainable debt financing Enhancing coherence and consistency of international monetary, financial and trading systems in support of development 11

12 ECONOMIC & SOCIAL LEGISLATIONS IN INDIA Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act, 1992 The Competition Act, 2002 Fiscal Responsibilities and Budget (Management) Act, 2003 Right to Information Act, 2005 NREGA, 2005 MSME Development Act, 2006 Forest Rights Act, 2006 Right to Education Act, 2009 12

13 Legislative Framework The present legislative framework is broadly contained in: Environment The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974; The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 Forests, Wildlife and Biodiversity The Indian Forest Act, 1927; The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980; The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 The Biological-diversity Act, 2002. 13

14 ROLE OF JUDICIARY Interpretation of right to life under Article 21 Oleum Gas Leak Case, 1987: Pr. of absolute liability Vellore Citizen’s Welfare Forum Case, 1996: principles of SD Enviro Legal Action Case, 1996: principles of SD Godavarman Case, 1995: NPV and Forest Cons. Principles. MV Naidu Case, 1999: Environmental Courts. 14

15 POLICY FRAMEWORK: ENVIRONMENT Auto Fuel Policy, 2002 National Water Policy, 2002 National Environment Policy, 2006 National Urban Transport Policy, 2006 Integrated Energy Policy, 2008 National Disaster Management Policy, 2009 15

16 POLICY FRAMEWORK: SOCIAL & ECONOMIC National Housing and Habitat Policy, 1998 National Agriculture Policy, 2002 National Electricity Policy, 2005 National Relief & Rehabilitation Policy, 2007 National Minerals Policy, 2008 National Urban Sanitation Policy, 2008 16

17 KEY PROGRAMMES: SD District Primary Education Programme, 1994 National Social Assistance Programme, 1995 Targeted Public Distribution System, 1997 National Afforestation Programme, 2002 Mahatma Gandhi NREGS, 2004 JNNURM, 2005 National Rural Health Mission, 2005 Integrated Water Shed Mgmt. Programme, 2009 National Ganga River Basin Authority, 2009 17

18 Status of implementation of CBD Policy frameworks, legislation and action plans Biological Diversity Act, 2002 – National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), – State Biodiversity Boards (SBB) – Biodiversity Management Committees (BMC) National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) 2008 Adoption of Nagoya Protocol on ABS Hosting CoP 11 to CBD in October 2012 18

19 Status of implementation of UNFCCC NAPCC- eight missions National Communication to the UNFCCC- First submitted and the second in final stage of submission India’s voluntary declaration to reduce emissions intensity of its GDP by 20-25 percent of our 2005 levels by 2025 Integration of low carbon growth and sustainable development in the planning process (XII FYP) NCDMA in India grants Host Country Approvals to CDM projects 19

20 Economic Sustainable development Population & health MoH&FW MoHA o DoHA Education MoHRD o DoE DoW&CD Employment MoSCI&A&RI MoRD MoL Women & children MoHRD DoW&CD Protection of vulnerable sections MoLJ MoTA MoSJ&E Overall environment MoEF Energy & power MNRE MoP Water MoWR Land MoRD DoLR Awareness MoHRD Urban development MoUD MoH&PA MoSCI& A&RI Rural development MoSCI &A &RI MoCAFPD MoRD o DoRD o DoLR o DoDWS MoA MoPR Industry MoC&I o DoC o DoIP&P MoSCI&A&RI Environment Social Science & technology MoS&T MoES MoC&IT Social security MoH&FW MoRD 20

21 Institutions for Sustainable Development Panchayats/Municipalities CPCB/SPCBs regime MoEF – SEIAAs/SCZMAs Specialized authorities u/s 3(3) of E(P) Act NBA/SBB/BMC Other authorities: NTCA/NDMA/NRAA Councils and Commissions Research institutions Issues: Coordination and capacity building 21

22 CHALLENGES Pressures on Environment Due to Economic Growth, Infrastructure Development, Urbanization and Changing Life Styles Promoting Intersectorality and Integrating Safety, Health and Environment Institutional Reforms to Keep Pace with Legislation Enhancing Institutional Capacities and Strengthening Implementation Mainstreaming Science Based Approach Appropriate Technological Applications Balancing Environment & Development 22

23 Status of Pollution  Trends in pollution Levels of SOx and lead are decreasing- all cities complying PM10 exceeding in 94 cities and NOx an emerging pollutant in 10 cities Number of polluted river stretches increasing : 150 Waste generation is increasing  Status of Compliance 17 categories of HPIs (2609 units): compliance 70%; Grossly Polluted Industries (1162 units): compliance 68% Sewage Class I & II Cities: Generation: 38254 mld, Treatment: 11787 (31%) 23


25 CORE ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK : MoEF and CPCB at Federal Level SPCBs at State Level Municipal bodies at City level Setting of Standards by MoEF on the Recommendations of CPCB Enforcement of Standards through Consent Mechanism by SPCBs/PCCs Environmental Clearance by Federal and State EIA Authorities EC compliance Monitoring by Regional Offices of MoEF & CPCB Coordination among SPCBs by CPCB 25

26 26 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE ISSUES Hiatus between Environmental Regulations and Compliance Use of Economic Instruments Inspection Protocols Database Management (Use of ICT/GIS/GPS) Environmental decision-making Centre-State Relationship (CPCB-SPCBs-Local Bodies) Capacity Building/Institutional Building

27 New Initiatives by MoEF Third party audit On-line emission monitoring Industrial self-monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) National Green Tribunal Administrative Adjudication Proposed Proposed NEAMA 27

28 WHY NGT ? Increasing environmental litigation Multidisciplinary nature of environmental cases No existing court with dedicated jurisdiction Rigidity of existing court procedures Existing gaps in judicial remedy NGT Established on October 18, 2010: Effective and expeditious disposal of cases. 28

29 POWERS OF NGT Has both original & appellate jurisdiction To settle disputes related to E&F laws Powers to award relief and compensation Appellate body under six enactments NET Act, 1995 and NEAA Act, 1997 repealed 29

30 GLOBAL CRISIS Energy crisis Food crisis Water crisis Financial crisis Societal crisis 30

31 RIO + 20 2012, Brazil: Head of State Level Renewed political commitment Focus on implementation Two themes: o Green Economy (GESDPE) o Institutional Framework (IFSD) o UNEP Upgrade o ECOSOC/CSD Reforms Issues: o Policy space o Green protectionism o Sustainable development goals o Technology and finance o Balancing the three pillars 31


33 Dr. Rajneesh Dube, Joint Secretary Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India Email: Phone: 011-24363956 33

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