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Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 9 Social and Ethical Issues in Computing: Doing the Right Thing.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 9 Social and Ethical Issues in Computing: Doing the Right Thing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 9 Social and Ethical Issues in Computing: Doing the Right Thing

2 2Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Objectives Identify the social issues and ethics in computing Understand the digital divide social issue and its effect in society List and describe the workplace issues Describe the international and national legal issues

3 3Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Objectives List different methods that are already available for protecting children on the Internet Explain the significance of the ethics in computing Explain the significance of intellectual property rights

4 4Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall The Digital Divide Separates the computing haves from the have-nots haves from the have-notshaves from the have-nots Several initiatives exist to narrow the divide narrow the dividenarrow the divide

5 5Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Haves vs. Have-Nots Those with access to computers and the Internet take advantage of personal and economic opportunities Those without access fall farther behind Major divisions within countries Between urban areas and rural ones Between urban areas and rural ones Between rich and poor Between rich and poor Major divisions among nations Between industrialized and non-industrialized nations Between industrialized and non-industrialized nations Return

6 6Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Narrowing the Divide Within the U.S. Universal Service Fund helps service providers to provide telecommunications services to rural areas Universal Service Fund helps service providers to provide telecommunications services to rural areas E-Rate program provides rate subsidies for Internet access for schools and libraries E-Rate program provides rate subsidies for Internet access for schools and librariesWorldwide Africa ONE is creating a fiber optic network to connect the nations of Africa Africa ONE is creating a fiber optic network to connect the nations of Africa Return

7 7Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Workplace Issues Healthy computing Healthy computing Employee monitoring Employee monitoring Environmental concerns Environmental concerns

8 8Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Healthy Computing A number of health questions have been raised Harmful emissions from monitor Harmful emissions from monitor Eyestrain from monitor Eyestrain from monitor Back pain from position of chair and desk Back pain from position of chair and desk Repetitive strain injury Repetitive strain injury Repetitive strain injury Repetitive strain injury Return

9 9Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Repetitive Strain Injury May affect workers who hold their hands over a keyboard for a long period of time Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common form of RSI Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common form of RSICauses Speed Speed Repetition Repetition Awkward positioning Awkward positioning Holding a static position for a long time Holding a static position for a long time Return

10 10Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Ergonomics Refers to human factors related to the use of computers Ergonomic equipment Ergonomic equipment Ergonomic behavior Ergonomic behavior

11 11Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Ergonomic Equipment Chair should be pneumatically adjustable Keyboard platform should be set to proper height Monitor must be adjustable Lighting should be adjusted to minimize glare on the screen Return

12 12Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Ergonomic Behavior Ergonomic equipment must be used properly Turn the screen away from the window to reduce glare Turn the screen away from the window to reduce glare Cover your screen with a glare protector Cover your screen with a glare protector Place keyboard to avoid arm and wrist fatigue Place keyboard to avoid arm and wrist fatigue Use a raised rest for your wrist Use a raised rest for your wrist Position your seat back so back is supported Position your seat back so back is supported Sit with your feet firmly on the floor Sit with your feet firmly on the floor Enlarge fonts so they are easier to see Enlarge fonts so they are easier to see Take frequent breaks Take frequent breaks Return

13 13Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Employee Monitoring Various tools allow an employer to monitor an employee’s performance Keystroke monitors measure keystrokes per second Keystroke monitors measure keystrokes per second Other software tools monitor how long an employee is away from the computer Other software tools monitor how long an employee is away from the computer Monitor the files stored on the hard drive Monitor the files stored on the hard drive Monitor the sites visited on the Internet Monitor the sites visited on the Internet Many companies have policies that notify employees about monitoring practices Return

14 14Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Environmental Concerns Power consumption Power consumption Computer supplies Computer supplies PC disposal PC disposal Return

15 15Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Reducing Power Consumption Energy Star standards Limit the power the system consumes when idle Limit the power the system consumes when idle Energy management features Specify the amount of time the system will wait before turning off system components Specify the amount of time the system will wait before turning off system components Return

16 16Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Computer Supplies Use these strategies to reduce the amount of paper and toner cartridges used Don’t print out everything Don’t print out everything Use instead of faxing or sending a memo Use instead of faxing or sending a memo Use the back side of already used paper for draft copies Use the back side of already used paper for draft copies Save heavyweight bond paper for critical items and use recycled paper for routine printing Save heavyweight bond paper for critical items and use recycled paper for routine printing Make sure used paper is recycled rather than thrown in the trash Make sure used paper is recycled rather than thrown in the trash Refill and reuse empty ink-jet and toner cartridges Refill and reuse empty ink-jet and toner cartridges Return

17 17Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall PC Disposal Find ways to prolong the PC’s life Upgrade key components Upgrade key components Give the PC to someone in the organization with more limited computing needs When you buy a new PC, reuse the keyboard, mouse, and monitor Donate usable equipment to charities and/or schools Return

18 18Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Jurisdictional Issues International issues Applying national laws to a world-wide medium is a difficult process Applying national laws to a world-wide medium is a difficult process It would be impossible to determine if the content of every Web site was legal according to the laws of every country Issues exist over which country’s court has jurisdiction Issues exist over which country’s court has jurisdiction National issues Issues exist over which locality’s court has jurisdiction Issues exist over which locality’s court has jurisdiction Imposition of sales taxes on Internet transactions Imposition of sales taxes on Internet transactions

19 19Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Protecting Children on the Internet The Internet offers many opportunities for children There are also unsavory elements on the Internet There are also unsavory elements on the Internet Ways to protect children Blocking software Blocking software Blocking software Blocking software Child monitoring Child monitoring Child monitoring Child monitoring Laws to protect children Laws to protect children Laws

20 20Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Blocking Software Used to prevent children from accessing sites on its updatable list of objectionable sites Blocks pornographic sites and sites with foul language Blocks pornographic sites and sites with foul language Blocks sites requesting names, phone numbers, and credit card numbers Blocks sites requesting names, phone numbers, and credit card numbers Sometimes criticized for being overzealous Return

21 21Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Child Monitoring Place the child’s computer in a public area instead of his or her bedroom Restrict usage when parents are not present Return

22 22Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Laws to Protect Children Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act Requires Web sites that target children under 13 to post a privacy policy and obtain parental consent before collecting data Requires Web sites that target children under 13 to post a privacy policy and obtain parental consent before collecting data Children’s Internet Protection Act Requires libraries receiving federal funding to implement blocking technology Requires libraries receiving federal funding to implement blocking technology Neighborhood Children’s Internet Protection Act Requires libraries receiving the E-Rate discount to establish an Internet safety policy Requires libraries receiving the E-Rate discount to establish an Internet safety policy Return

23 23Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Ethics in Computing Ethics – standards of moral conduct Used to help determine the proper course of action in difficult situations Used to help determine the proper course of action in difficult situations Computing Issues Computer ethics Computer ethics Computer ethics Computer ethics Professional ethics Professional ethics Professional ethics Professional ethics Programmer responsibility Programmer responsibility Programmer responsibility Programmer responsibility Ethical use of computers Ethical use of computers Ethical use of computers Ethical use of computers

24 24Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Computer Ethics Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics Apply general ethical principles to computing Apply general ethical principles to computing Developed by the Computer Ethics Institute Developed by the Computer Ethics Institute Return

25 25Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Professional Ethics Relates to ethics of those whose work focuses on computer systems Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct developed by the Association for Computing Machinery Divided into sections General principles General principles Professional responsibilities Professional responsibilities Guidelines for organizational systems Guidelines for organizational systems Return

26 26Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Programmer Responsibility Bug-free software does not exist Testing can only show the presence of bugs, not their absence Testing can only show the presence of bugs, not their absence Issues related to software quality How much testing is enough? How much testing is enough? How many minor bugs are acceptable in software about to be released? How many minor bugs are acceptable in software about to be released? Return

27 27Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Ethical Use of Computers Data quality Data quality Protecting customers’ personal data Protecting customers’ personal data Digitally altering data Digitally altering data Return

28 28Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Data Quality Users are responsible for the quality of data entered into the system Procedures must be in place to detect and correct inaccurate information Return

29 29Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Protecting Customers’ Data Particularly relevant to companies doing business over the Internet Develop privacy policies stating how data will be used Two approaches Opt-in policy – customers are notified of privacy policy and must agree before their data can be released Opt-in policy – customers are notified of privacy policy and must agree before their data can be released Opt-out policy – customers are assumed to agree to the release of their data unless they specifically request it be kept private Opt-out policy – customers are assumed to agree to the release of their data unless they specifically request it be kept private Return

30 30Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Altering Reality Computers can alter photographs How much alteration is ethical? How much alteration is ethical? messages can be destroyed In a legal action, is this altering evidence? In a legal action, is this altering evidence? Return

31 31Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Intellectual Property Rights Refers to results of intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, or artistic fields U.S. Copyright Act provides protection in three areas Copyrights Copyrights Copyrights Patents Patents Patents Trademarks Trademarks Trademarks

32 32Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Copyrights Provides the creator of a literary or artistic work with control over its use and distribution Widespread distribution of music and video sover the Internet has created quite a controversy Widespread distribution of music and video sover the Internet has created quite a controversy Defining fair use has been difficult Under fair use, you may use copyrighted works for limited purposes Under fair use, you may use copyrighted works for limited purposes Digital issues Digital issues Digital issues Digital issues Return

33 33Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Digital Fair Use Issues Copy-protection schemes make it impossible to copy CDs and DVDs Users claim that violates their fair use rights Users claim that violates their fair use rightsSoftware Users may not modify copyrighted software Users may not modify copyrighted software Digital images Images on the Web may be downloaded and used as screen savers, but they may not be distributed or altered Images on the Web may be downloaded and used as screen savers, but they may not be distributed or alteredPlagiarism Work taken from the Internet must be cited if it is used in a paper or other presentation Work taken from the Internet must be cited if it is used in a paper or other presentation Return

34 34Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Patents Designed to protect inventions and encourage inventors Grant patent holder exclusive rights to the invention Grant patent holder exclusive rights to the invention Patent Office will grant patent protection to software algorithms and techniques Will also grant patents for business methods implemented in software Will also grant patents for business methods implemented in software Return

35 35Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall Trademarks A word, name, symbol, or device used to distinguish one company and its products from another Two issues in the digital arena Unauthorized use of one company’s trademarks on another’s Web site Unauthorized use of one company’s trademarks on another’s Web site Cybersquatting – obtaining a domain name that includes another company’s trademark, then selling that domain name at a profit Cybersquatting – obtaining a domain name that includes another company’s trademark, then selling that domain name at a profit Return


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