A better explanation of global political change? The fundamental clash is not about civilizations but about “different conceptions of community and how these conceptions should be reflected in political arrangements and organizations.” (Holsti). Key is territorial control and expressions of communal identity BUT AT WHAT SCALE?
Political Geography-Key Terms State – political unit with defined territorial limits Nation – group of people sharing cultural characteristics Ethnographic boundaries – match nations to state boundaries Regionalism: Government at the regional level Global/International Governance and Politics
A brief history of the state system Pre-1000 BCE: Discrete Empires (China, African kingdoms, Latin American (Pre-Colombian) –Some trade, but largely internally developed –Ruled but not governed –Coercive, military (with cultural assistance) –Military depended upon plundering and tribute –Power only along main roads –NO FIXED BOUNDARIES 1000 AD Kingdom of France, Germanic Empire, Principality of Poland, etc. –Power is local and personal –Networks of interlocking ties and obligations –Economic life is agricultural; also rise of cities –The Holy Roman Empire gives unity
A brief history of the state system End of Feudalism: –Struggles, peasant rebellions, spread of trade, technology Early modern states: absolutist (France, Prussia, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden) and constitutional monarchies (UK and Holland) Characteristics: –Absorption of smaller, weaker units –Strengthened ability to rule –Tightened system of law and order –Single sovereign head
A brief history of the state system Absolutism paved the way for the emergence of the nation state by virtue of INSTITUTIONS of governance: –Territorial boundaries/uniform system of rule –Fiscal management –Centralized administration, military power –Development of diplomacy and standing armies –Law making and enforcement
A brief history of the state system The European “Society of States”: The Interstate System –Westphalian Model 1648 –1648-1945 (or later) Attributes of the model of Westphalia; –Sovereign territorial states: no higher authority –Law-making and settlement of disputes are handled by individual states –International law minimal laws of coexistence designed to support objectives of states –Cross-border disputes is “private matter” –All states are equal before the law –Differences between states settled by force –Minimization of impediments to state freedom is the “collective priority” –“immunity from jurisdiction” “Immunity of state agencies”
A brief history of the state system Expansions of state system by colonialism –Model used to some degree in ruling –Not all “states” and colonies are equal –Neo-colonial relations maintained even after independence Intergovernmental organizations expand during end of 19 th century –ITU –Postal Union –Railway Congress –Patents –Maritime Law –Scientific Standards
A brief history of the state system Modern Nation-State –Territoriality: exact borders –Control over means of violence: “pacification” of peoples; breaking down of rivals (fragile achievement) –Impersonal structure of power: needed distance from power of religion and nobility –Claim to legitimacy: loyalty has to be won Since WWII: rise of liberal democracies –1974: 64% of states are authoritarian –1995: 75% of states are more or less democratic
Issues of Concern amidst Democratic Growth 1.Cycles of Democratic Growth –Reversals of Democracy –Illiberal Democracies 2.Democracy and Human Rights 3.Post-war international norms 4.Uneven development 5.Responses to Globalization?
Political Geography-Key Terms Centripetal forces - pushing together e.g. citizenship rules, common language, strong state -regional unions -international agreements Centrifugal forces – pulling apart e.g. Multi-national state, regional disparities
Types of Citizenship Ethnic: “jus sanguinis” e.g. Germany, Estonia Civic: “jus soli” e.g. United States, Ukraine