2What part of the Constitution lists the judicial powers? Article III
3U.S. Constitution- Article III Section 1.The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
4U.S. Constitution- Article III Section 2.The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State;--between Citizens of different States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
5U.S. Constitution- Article III Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.
6The 11th AmendmentThe Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.(It changes the jurisdiction of the Federal Courtsset forth in Article III)(It was added to overturn a Supreme Court decision in Chisholm v. Georgia )
7Judiciary Act of 1789set up a system of federal district courts and circuit courtspart of it was ruled unconstitutional in Marbury v. MadisonDid you know the Judiciary Act of 1789 was the first law ever passed by Congress…AND…the first law ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court?No, It was actually the sixth act of Congress…Oh, well. What do I know? I’m just a bill.
8Terms jurisdiction- the power of a court to hear a certain case original jurisdiction- the power of a court to hear a case firstappellate jurisdiction- the power of a court to review a lower court decisionjudicial power- right of a court to decide legal cases
9What was judicial principle was established by the decision in Marbury v. Madison? judicial reviewthe power of the court to rule an act unconstitutional
10Judicial Review the power of the Supreme Court to overturn laws NOT specifically listed in the Constitutionestablished by the ruling in Marbury v. Madison- 1803
11Federal Courts (the basic structure) Supreme Court-appellate jurisdiction-limited original jurisdictionCircuit Court of Appeals-appellate jurisdiction onlyDistrict Courts-original jurisdiction
12Federal Court System (more complicated structure) Original Jurisdiction CasesAppeals from States
19Supreme Court Procedure Court decides to hear the caseAbout 10,000 petitions each year, the court accepts about per yearSubmitting briefseach side submits their legal arguments in writingOral ArgumentsEach side has 30 minutes of Q & A with the nine justicesConferencePrivate meeting of justices.The chief justice speaks first and votes lastAssigning opinions/circulating draftsan opinion of the majority is written (and re-written) over a period of time. Others may write a concurring or dissenting opinionAnnouncement of opinionThe decision is made public and the opinion is read
20What type of vote is required for decisions by the Supreme Court? a simple majorityusually 5-4
21When making a decision, what factors should influence how the justices vote? the Constitutioncourt precedentthe intent of the law when it was enacted by CongressNOT by…what the president or the Congress wantswhat a majority of the people want by public opinion polls“Tyranny of the majority”
22Who makes the final decision about what the Constitution means? the Supreme Court of the United States
23How can a Supreme Court decision be overturned? a constitutional amendmenti.e. 16th Amendment (Income Tax),11th Amendment (lawsuits vs. citizens from other states)Flag burning Amendment??? (not yet)the court can overturn itself with a later decisioni.e. Brown v. Board (racial segregation is unconstitutional) overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal)
24prosecution v. defendant Criminal Trialprosecution v. defendantprosecution- a government body that brings chargesdefendant- an individual who is charged with a crime in criminal trial court
25Civil Trial plaintiff v. defendant plaintiff- an individual or group that brings a complaint against another party in a civil trial courtdefendant- an individual or group that answers a complaint in a civil trial court
26appellant v. respondent Appeals Caseappellant v. respondentappellant- an individual or group that requests a higher court to review the decision of a lower courtrespondent- an individual or group that is compelled to answer the claims or questions posed in court by an appellant
27What is judicial activism? ...judicial restraint? an effort by judges to take an active role in policymaking by overturning laws relatively oftenjudicial restraintan effort by judges to avoid overturning laws and to leave policymaking up to the other two branches of government
28What does the Constitution require for a person to be convicted of treason? a confession or two witnesses who testify to an overt act