Presentation on theme: "KAITLYN PAULY & NATALIA BERMUDEZ U.S. SPECIAL COURTS."— Presentation transcript:
KAITLYN PAULY & NATALIA BERMUDEZ U.S. SPECIAL COURTS
Created by Congress for unique subjects, such as tax disputes, imports, taxes, etc. These courts have special jurisdiction, which means they can only rule in cases related to their unique purpose. These courts also have limited jurisdiction, which means they handle minor matters such as misdemeanors, civil actions including small monetary amounts, etc.
FACTS ABOUT SPECIAL COURTS Special courts in the United States developed out of the English custom of handling different kinds of cases by establishing many different special courts. Many of the special courts established in the United States during colonial times and shortly after the Constitution was adopted have been abolished, but new special courts continue to be created, especially at the state and local level. At the federal level, these are called district courts. At the state level, these courts have many different titles, including district court, trial court, county court, circuit court, municipal court, and superior court. A special court generally addresses only one or a few areas of law or has only specifically defined powers. Special courts now handle the vast majority of all cases brought in the United States. The majority of all cases brought in any particular state jurisdiction go to special courts. Special courts exist for both civil and criminal disputes. Cases tried in special, limited- jurisdiction criminal courts, such as traffic court or misdemeanor court, may be reheard in a general-jurisdiction trial court without an appeal upon the request of the parties. Special courts differ from general-jurisdiction courts in several other respects besides having a more limited jurisdiction. Cases are more likely to be disposed of without trial in special courts, and if there is a trial or hearing, it is usually heard more rapidly than in a court of general jurisdiction. Special courts usually do not follow the same procedural rules that general-jurisdiction courts follow; often special courts proceed without the benefit or expense of attorneys or even law-trained judges.
COURTS WITH SPECIAL JURISDICTION U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces U.S. Court of Federal Claims U.S. Court of International Trade U.S. Tax Court U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation
EXAMPLES OF SPECIAL COURT CASES Special Federal Courts Former Court (Estab.) Present Court (Estab.) Board of Tax Appeals (1924) Tax CourtTax Court (1942) Boards of Review (1920) Courts of Military Review (1968) Air Force Court of Criminal AppealsAir Force Court of Criminal Appeals (1994) Army Court of Criminal Appeals (1994) Coast Guard Court of Criminal Appeals (1994) Navy-Marine Corps Court of Criminal Appeals (1994) Army Court of Criminal Appeals Coast Guard Court of Criminal Appeals Navy-Marine Corps Court of Criminal Appeals Court of Claims (1855) Claims Court (1982) Court of Federal ClaimsCourt of Federal Claims (1992) 1 Commerce Court (1910) [Abolished 1913] Court of Customs Appeals (1910) Court of Customs and Patent Appeals (1929) Court of Appeals for the Federal CircuitCourt of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (1982) Court of Military Appeals (1951) Court of Appeals for the Armed ForcesCourt of Appeals for the Armed Forces (1994) Court of Veterans Appeals (1988) Court of Appeals for Veterans ClaimsCourt of Appeals for Veterans Claims (1999) Customs Court (1926) Court of International TradeCourt of International Trade (1980) 2 Emergency Court of Appeals (1942) [Abolished 1961] Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals (1971) [Abolished 1993]