Presentation on theme: "Unit 6: The Federal Court System and Supreme Court Decision-Making"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 6: The Federal Court System and Supreme Court Decision-Making Jurisdiction
2Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Introduction to Jurisdiction Notes: In US Federalism, our judicial system has parallel courts—federal courts and state courts.Because of this it is important to know which court has jurisdiction, the authority to hear certain cases, in legal matters.
3Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Introduction to Jurisdiction (cont’d.) Notes: There are 4 basic types of jurisdiction in the US legal system:Concurrent JurisdictionOriginal JurisdictionAppellate JurisdictionFederal Court Jurisdiction
4Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Concurrent Jurisdiction Notes: Concurrent Jurisdiction is where both the federal courts and state courts have jurisdiction over a case.In these cases either may try the case, unless one of the persons involved in the case insists it be tried in a federal court. In that instance, the case must be tried in a federal court.
5Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Original Jurisdiction Notes: The original court where a case is originally tried is called a Trial Court.District courts and some lower courts have original jurisdiction which is the authority to hear a case first.
6Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Appellate Jurisdiction Notes: If a person loses a case in a trial court and wants to appeal the decision, they can take the case to a court with appellate jurisdiction or the authority to hear a case that has already been tried.
7Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Federal Court Jurisdiction Notes: The Constitution gives federal courts jurisdiction that involve US laws, treaties with foreign nations, and/or interpretation of the Constitution.Federal courts may also hear cases involving bankruptcy and maritime law.
8Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Federal Court Jurisdiction (cont’d.) Notes: Federal courts may also hear cases involving the following individuals/or groups:Ambassadors/representatives from foreign countriesTwo or more state governmentsThe US government and one or more of its agencies.Citizens who are residents of different statesCitizens who are residents of the same state but claim lands under grants of different states.
9Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Federal Court Jurisdiction (cont’d.) Notes: Congress created district courts to so that federal cases could be divided among districts, rather than all having to go to one federal court.Today the U.S. has 94 district courts with more than 550 judges.
10Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Federal Court Jurisdiction (cont’d.) Notes: U.S. district courts hear federal civil and criminal cases.There are 2 types of juries used in federal criminal cases:Grand JuryPetit Jury
11Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Federal Court Jurisdiction (cont’d.) Notes: A grand jury (16-23 people) hears charges brought against someone suspected of committing a crime.If there is enough evidence, the grand jury may issue an indictment (formal accusation).
12Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Federal Court Jurisdiction (cont’d.) Notes: A petit jury (6-12 people) is the trial jury for district courts.They will weigh evidence in civil or criminal trials and issue a verdict of guilty or not guilty.
13Jurisdiction: Main Idea: Federal Court Jurisdiction (cont’d.) Notes: Federal courts are also responsible for settling disputes on interpretation of the Constitution.Major cases involving Constitutionality, are dealt with in the US Supreme Court.