5What is Jurisdiction?the right, power, or authority to administer justice by hearing and determining controversies.power; authority; control such as he has jurisdiction over all American soldiers in the area.the extent or range of judicial, law enforcement, or other authority such as this case comes under the jurisdiction of the local police.the territory over which authority is exercised such as all islands to the northwest are his jurisdiction.
6Various Types of Jurisdiction General Jurisdiction-- means that a court has the authority to hear a variety of different cases. A general jurisdiction court is separate and distinct from a limited jurisdiction court, such as a small claims court. The vast majority of cases in most countries are brought in general jurisdiction courts. These courts hear both civil and criminal cases.
7Various Types of Jurisdiction Original Jurisdiction--the authority of a court to try a case in the first time and give judgment according to the facts. This is the court where a case begins. Evidence is heard and testimony is given—courts of original jurisdiction can be decided by a judge or a jury.
8Various Types of Jurisdiction Limited Jurisdiction1. courts' authority over certain types of cases such as bankruptcy, claims against the government, probate, family matters, immigration and customs, or juvenile cases.2. limitations on courts' authority to try cases involving maximum amounts of money or value. Example: Small claims courts
9Various Types of Jurisdiction Appellate Jurisdiction-The power of a court to review and revise a lower court's decision. Appellate jurisdiction reviews the legal issues of the lower courts. No evidence is presented and no jury is seated.
10Supreme Court Stuart Mylin Highest Court in the State Original jurisdiction cases where state is a partyAppellate jurisdictionSuperior CourtAppellate jurisdictionPanel of 3 judgesHEARS QUESTIONS OF LAWLancaster CityLocated in the county seat.Courts of Common PleasOriginal jurisdiction.General jurisdiction for criminal and civil cases60 districts, 1-95 judges per districtHEARS QUESTIONS OF FACTDistrict MagistrateLimited JurisdictionOriginal jurisdictionGeneral Jurisdiction for criminal and civil casesSmall Claims CourtTraffic violationsMisdemeanorsHEARS QUESTIONS OF FACTStuart Mylin
11State Court System Special State Courts include Domestic Relations Court—matters of divorce and child custodyJuvenile Courts—offenders under 18—rehabilitation is the goal.Probate Court—handles disputes concerning wills.
12Article III. Judicial Branch Federal Court SystemDerives its power from Article III of the ConstitutionArticle III. Judicial BranchSection 1. Judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance of Office.
13Federal Court System Federal courts have jurisdiction over Actions where the U.S. or a state is party. ( (not between a state and citizens)Cases that involve a federal question i.e.,an interpretation of the Constitution.Diversity of citizenship cases—actions between citizens of different states of $50,000 or more.Admiralty (pertaining to the sea), copyright, patents, and bankruptcy.
14Circuit courts of Appeals Supreme CourtHighest Court in the landOriginal jurisdiction in some casesAppellate jurisdiction—Constitutional questionsCircuit courts of AppealsAppellate jurisdiction12 judicial districtsLancaster County in District #3Three judges sit on the panelHEARS QUESTIONS OF LAWU.S. District CourtsGeneral jurisdictionOriginal jurisdiction for federal cases94 federal district courtsHEARS QUESTIONS OF FACTLancaster County is in the Eastern PA DistrictCourt is located in Philadelphia
15Federal Court System Special Federal Courts include U.S. Bankruptcy CourtU.S. Court of International TradeU.S. Tax Courts—IRS disputesTerritorial CourtsCourt of Military Appeals
16The Supreme Court Only Court created in the Constitution The court of last resort“Watchdog of the governmentOriginal jurisdiction in some cases—ambassadors and other public officials, cases where the state is party.Appellate jurisdiction to hear cases on appeal from lower courts.Nine judges appointed for life on of which is the chief justice.
17The Supreme CourtThe “rule of four”—Four of the nine judges must agree to hear a case.Court hears but a fraction of cases submitted (100/5-6,000)Oral Arguments (30 minutes)—Each side (attorney) has only 30 minutes to present his case.Briefs—written documents—Each side submits briefs to the court prior to oral argumentsThe Conference—secret and no transcript is made
18The Supreme CourtThe Opinion of the Court (majority opinion—1/3 are unanimous)Concurring opinion—a different spin on the majority opinion.Dissenting opinion—written by judges who voted against the majority opinion.Lower court findings may be “affirmed” or “reversed.”
19Appellate Decisions To let the original verdict, or decision stand. To overturn the original court’s decision.To send the case back to the lower court for a new trial.Docket—a list or schedule of cases
20Supreme Court Decisions The justices should use the literal meaning of the Constitution—This is very difficult—the document is very short and statements are general. Not every situation is covered by the words of the Constitution.The justices should follow the intent of the framers of the Constitution—It is difficult to get into the minds of the framers and know what they intended.The justices should use perspective—Laws that are written today reflect the values of society today, not those of the 200 years ago. People should consider today’s values when deciding cases.
21State Route to the Supreme Court A party to case loses is the Court of Common Pleas.He takes the case to the Superior Court and the State Supreme Court.State Supreme Court rules on the case.The decision can now be appealed directly to the U.S. Supreme Court if a constitutional question is involved.
22Federal Route to the Supreme Court Case involving a federal law is tried in the U.S. District court.Loser takes case to the U.S. circuit of Appeals.Court of appeals ruling can be submitted to U.S. Supreme Court for review.
23Supreme Court Justices Chief Justice—John RobertsAssociate JusticesElena KaganSamuel AlitoAntonin ScaliaAnthony M. KennedySonia Sotomayor-- HispanicClarence Thomas—African AmericanRuth Bader GinsburgStephen G. Breyer