Presentation on theme: "The Administration of Justice"— Presentation transcript:
1The Administration of Justice Chapter 8The Administration of Justice
2The American Court Structure The U.S. has a dual court system.dual courtOne system of state and local courts and another system of federal courts.
3The American Court Structure The court’s jurisdiction is set by law and limited by territory and type of case.jurisdictionThe authority of a court to hear and decide cases.
4The Federal CourtsThe authority for the federal court system is in the Constitution. The system includes:The Supreme CourtThe federal courts of appealsThe federal district courts
5United States District Courts Trials in federal district court are usually heard by a judge.General trial courtsFederal criminal cases involve:Bank robberyCounterfeitingMail fraudKidnappingCivil rights abuses
6Circuit Courts of Appeals A party that loses a case in district court may appeal to a federal circuit court of appeals, or in some cases, directly to the U.S. Supreme Court.
7Circuit Courts of Appeals Circuit courts of appeals review a case for errors of law, not of fact.Normally, three judges sit as a panel to hear cases. Jury trials are not allowed.Texas is in the 5th Circuit along with Louisiana and Mississippi
8The United States Supreme Court Court of last resort in all questions of federal law and U.S. Constitution.The court may hear cases:Appealed from federal courts of appeal.Appealed directly from federal district courts.Appealed from the high court of a state, if claims under federal law or the Constitution are involved.
9The United States Supreme Court The U.S. Supreme Court is composed of:A chief justiceEight associate justicesEach member of the court is appointed for life by the president and affirmed by the Senate.
10The United States Supreme Court In order for a case to be heard by the Supreme Court, at least four justices must vote to hear the case.
11The United States Supreme Court When the court decides a case, it can:Affirm the decision of the lower court and “let it stand.”Modify the decision of the lower court, without totally reversing it.continued…
12The United States Supreme Court Reverse the decision of the lower court, requiring no further court action.Reverse the decision of the lower court and remand the case to the court of original jurisdiction, for either retrial or resentencing.
13The State CourtsThe state courts have general power to decide nearly every type of case.There are generally four levels of state courts:Trial courts of limited jurisdictionTrial courts of general jurisdictionIntermediate appellate courtsState courts of last resort
14Key Actors in the Court Process The three key actors in the court process are:The prosecutorThe defense attorneyThe judge
15The ProsecutorThe prosecutor is a powerful actor in the administration of justice. Prosecutors have the authority to:Decide whether to charge or not charge a person with a crimeDecide whether to prosecute or not prosecute a caseDetermine what the charge will be
16The Decision to Plea-Bargain Probably the most strategic source of power available to prosecutors is their authority to decide which cases to plea bargain.Justice in America is dispensed mostly through plea bargaining.
17The Defense AttorneyThe Sixth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees the right to the “effective assistance” of counsel. Defendants have a right to counsel during many stages in the criminal justice process
18The Defense AttorneyA defendant may waive the right to counsel and appear on his or her own behalf.In the American system of justice, the role of defense counsel is to provide the best possible legal counsel and advocacy within the legal and ethical limits of the profession.
19The Court-Appointed Lawyer In some circumstances, defendants who cannot afford a lawyer are provided with a court-appointed, private attorney.If they are paid at all, court-appointed private attorneys are paid a nominal sum.Many are not knowledgeable in criminal law.
20The Public DefenderIn many large jurisdictions, people who cannot afford an attorney are provided with public defenders.
21The Public DefenderPublic defenders are paid a fixed salary by the jurisdiction.Although public defenders may have a conflict of interest because of their close working relationship with prosecutors and judges, most defendants prefer them because they specialize in criminal law.
22The Contract LawyerA relatively new and increasingly popular way to provide for indigent defense is the contract system.Private attorneys, law firms, and bar associations bid for the right to represent a jurisdiction’s indigent defendants, and are paid a fixed dollar amount.
23The JudgeJudges have a variety of responsibilities in the criminal justice process:Determining probable causeSigning warrantsInforming suspects of their rightsSetting and revoking bailcontinued…
24The Judge Arraigning defendants Accepting guilty pleas In some jurisdictions, managing their own courtrooms and staffAllowing the jury a fair chance to reach a verdict on the evidence presented
25Selection of Judges The two most common selection methods are: Merit selection
26Selection of JudgesIn the merit selection process, also known as the “Missouri Plan,”The governor appoints judges from a list of qualified lawyers compiled by a nonpartisan nominating commission.After serving a short term, the judge faces an uncontested election in which citizens vote whether to keep the judge or not.If voters elect to keep the judge, they serve a full term.
27Pretrial StagesThe screening process of pretrial stages eliminates from the judicial process about half of all the persons arrested.
28Bail and Other Methods of Pretrial Release A bail bond or bail allows suspects or defendants to remain free while awaiting the next stage in the adjudication process.It is not a fine, but an incentive to appear.
29bail bond or bailUsually a monetary guarantee deposited with the court that is supposed to ensure that the suspect or defendant will appear at a later stage in the criminal justice process.
30Bail and Other Methods of Pretrial Release The amount of bail generally depends on:The likelihood that the suspect or defendant will appear in court as requiredThe seriousness of the crimeThe suspect’s prior criminal recordJail conditions and overcrowding
31Bail and Other Methods of Pretrial Release If a judge believes that a suspect or defendant would pose a threat to the community, the judge can refuse to set bail. This is called preventive detention.
32Bail and Other Methods of Pretrial Release For people who cannot afford to post bail, professional bonds people are available to post it for them for a nonrefundable fee, typically 10% of the required amount.Suspects who post their own bail get it all back after they appear.
33Bail and Other Methods of Pretrial Release When the crime is minor and suspects or defendants have ties to the community, they are generally released on their own recognizance.
34Bail and Other Methods of Pretrial Release Other nonfinancial releases are:Conditional releaseUnsecured bond
35conditional release unsecured bond A form of release that requires that a suspect/defendant maintain contact with a pretrial release program or undergo regular drug monitoring or treatment.unsecured bondAn arrangement in which bail is set but no money is paid to the court.
36InformationIf the decision is made to prosecute a defendant, in states that do not use grand juries, the prosecutor drafts a document called an information. The information outlines:The charge or chargesThe law or laws violatedThe evidence to support the charge or charges
37Grand JuryThe alternative to filing an information is a grand jury.
38grand juryGenerally a group of 12 to 23 citizens who meet in closed sessions to investigate charges coming from preliminary hearings or to engage in other responsibilities. A primary purpose of the grand jury is to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that the accused committed the crime or crimes.
39Grand JuryBefore appearing before a grand jury, the prosecutor drafts an indictment.indictmentA document that outlines the charge or charges against a defendant.
40Grand JuryBecause the grand jury has to determine only probable cause:Only the prosecution’s evidence and witnesses are heardIn most jurisdictions, the defendant does not have a right to be presentProsecutors are allowed to present hearsay or illegally obtained evidence
41Grand JuryIn addition, prosecutors have the authority to subpoena witnesses.
42Grand JuryIn practice, the grand jury system is criticized for merely providing a rubber stamp for whatever the prosecutor wants to do.Suspects waive the right to a grand jury hearing in about 80% of cases.
43Plea BargainingJustice in the U.S. is dispensed mostly through plea bargaining. There are three basic types of plea bargains:The defendant may be allowed to plead guilty to a lesser offense.A defendant who pleads guilty may receive a lighter sentence.A defendant may plead guilty to one charge in exchange for the prosecutor’s promise to drop another charge.
44Plea BargainingThe bargain a prosecutor will strike generally depends on three factors:The seriousness of the offenseThe defendant’s criminal recordThe strength of the prosecutor’s case
45Plea BargainingThere is neither a constitutional basis nor a statutory basis for plea bargaining.Plea bargaining developed out of custom, but has been upheld by the Supreme Court.
46Plea BargainingPlea bargaining is widely used because of several factors:It reduces uncertainty in the criminal justice process.It serves the interest of the participantsProsecutors get high conviction rates.Judges reduce their caseload.continued…
47Plea BargainingDefense attorneys spend less time on each case and avoid expensive trials.Defendants get lighter sentences than they might have gotten from juries, and can avoid conviction on stigmatizing crimes such as child abuse.