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Children with Intellectual Disabilities Catherine McCabe Amy Richardson Kathleen Shepard Andrea Smith University of Central Florida EEX 6107 Dr. Lee Cross.

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Presentation on theme: "Children with Intellectual Disabilities Catherine McCabe Amy Richardson Kathleen Shepard Andrea Smith University of Central Florida EEX 6107 Dr. Lee Cross."— Presentation transcript:

1 Children with Intellectual Disabilities Catherine McCabe Amy Richardson Kathleen Shepard Andrea Smith University of Central Florida EEX 6107 Dr. Lee Cross October 2009

2 Characteristics of Student’s with Intellectual Disabilities Earlier labeled as EMH, TMH, PMH (educable mentally handicapped, trainable mentally handicapped, profoundly mentally handicapped Children will vary widely in ability levels General developmental delays with academics, social, and adaptive behavior skills Poor social skills Delays in cognitive skills development Delays with language development (Expressive and Receptive) Low achievement across all content and skills areas Children are able to develop basic literacy skills Children can learn basic computational and functional math skills Provide instruction with vocabulary development and phonological skills Provide teaching in context and apply to other areas for generalization of skills Focus on meaningful content Use strategies for remembering Direct attention to critical areas Remove extraneous stimuli Increase difficulty over time Everyone is a genius at least once a year. The real geniuses simply have their bright ideas closer together. George C. Lichtenberg

3 Impact on Speech and Language Development School Considerations: Child may take longer to process information Child may have a difficult time understanding: Questions Abstract concepts instructions Child may be easily distracted or have a short attention span Expressive communication compromised Receptive communication compromised Adapting to new situations Future planning Problem solving May experience difficulties in literacy skills Short- and long-term memory May experience motor delays Pragmatics trouble understanding social space speaking in public understanding social rules Turn taking Eye contact Down Syndrome: 75% of young children have at least a mild hearing problem Develop language skills slower than other cognitive skills Receptive skills greater than expressive Skill depends on: hearing status, speech- motor status, cognitive skills associated with communication acquisition Communication Ability Affected By: Organic Causes Down Syndrome Autism Spectrum Disorders Hearing and/or Vision Impairment Fragile-X Syndrome others Environmental Causes Traumatic Brain Injury Cerebral Palsy Malnutrition Poisoning others

4 Impact on Second Language Acquisition Five Stages of Second Language Acquisition Stage I: Pre-production * Silent period even if they have up to five hundred receptive words stored they still do not speak * Will listen to words and write down words they see Stage II: Early Production * May last up to six months * Develop a receptive and active vocabulary of about one thousand words * Usually speak in one or two phrases -> Teaching Suggestions: * Use pictures to build vocabulary * Accept one or two word answers * Use graphic organizers * Pair with a buddy

5 Stage III: Speech Emergence * Vocabulary of up to three thousand words * Ask simple sentences that may lack correct grammar Example: "I see out window” * Can understand easy to read stories with the help of pictures * Teacher support leads to understanding of content -> Tasks completed at this stage include: * Complete graphic organizers * Sound out phonetically * Participate in partner activities Stage IV: Intermediate Fluency * Vocabulary of six thousand words * Write complex sentences * Write with expression to share thoughts and opinions * Ask questions to clarify * Writing is sometimes translated from native language, so grammatical errors are evident Stage V: Advanced Fluency * Most likely exiting from English Language Learner (ELL) services * Continue support from teacher is a must

6 Strategies Use multiple modalities to communicate Use language the child understands Allow ample time for processing Present tasks in steps Allow for many opportunities to. communicate Use low- mid- or high-technology Focus on functional, social, & pragmatic. communication skills Address current communication needs as well as predict future needs Arrange child’s environment to make communication necessary Follow child’s lead, engage him in desired activities Build social routines Use prompts: Time-delay: withhold an item until the. child initiates a request for it Verbal: ask open-ended questions Expand vocal efforts, even if they are not. recognizable words Use concrete items and examples to explain concepts Role model desired behaviors; clearly identify expected behaviors Plan ahead with class activities Do not overwhelm student with multiple or complex instructions Use teaching strategies such as chunking, backward shaping, and role modeling Learn the individual’s needs and characteristics, but expect daily variances Help the individual be in control of their learning as much as possible Put skills in context so there is a reason for learning tasks ***Involve families and significant others in learning activities, planning, and special days, as well as informing you about the needs of their young person*** United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs

7 Resources: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Center for Disease Control ntellectualDisability.pdf Center for Effective Collaboration & Practice Council for Exceptional Children on=Home on=Home How to select, administer, and evaluate the use of accommodations for instruction Learn about Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Measuring the achievement of students with disabilities tml tml Merck Medical Encyclopedia 5a.html National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY). Check site pages for specific disabilities, and early intervention strategies. National Center on Accelerating Student Learning National Down Syndrome Society Planning for All Learners (PAL) Toolkit /tk/introduction.cfm?tk /tk/introduction.cfm?tk Positive behavioral interventions & supports, and professional development in UDL Teaching Children with ADHD wsletterVCUI-06.pdf wsletterVCUI-06.pdf Videos on Universal Design for Learning


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