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SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Ethics: A Philosophical &Biblical Perspective Satyarth Priyedarshi.

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Presentation on theme: "SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Ethics: A Philosophical &Biblical Perspective Satyarth Priyedarshi."— Presentation transcript:

1 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Ethics: A Philosophical &Biblical Perspective Satyarth Priyedarshi

2 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day. The way of the wicked is as darkness: they know not at what they stumble. - PROVERBS 4:18-19 The Old Testament of the HOLY BIBLE The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly. - JOHN 10:10 The New Testament of the HOLY BIBLE

3 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Overview Why a Presentation on Ethics Why a Presentation on Ethics PART I – Philosopher’s Perspective PART I – Philosopher’s Perspective Introduction To Ethics Introduction To Ethics Ethical Principles Ethical Principles History Of Ethics History Of Ethics Greek School Greek School Christian Philosophy Christian Philosophy

4 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Overview Secular Ethical Philosophies Secular Ethical Philosophies Modern Ethics Modern Ethics PART II- Lessons From Bible PART II- Lessons From Bible Quotes And Explanations Quotes And Explanations

5 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Why Ethics??? Ethics as a topic is very personal Ethics needed for security in social structure. Its Like oil in the wheels of social transactions

6 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Introduction Ethics (Greek ethika, from ethos, ”character”, ”custom”), principles or standards of human conduct, sometimes called morals (Latin mores," customs”), and, by extension, the study of such principles, sometimes called moral philosophy. Ethics (Greek ethika, from ethos, ”character”, ”custom”), principles or standards of human conduct, sometimes called morals (Latin mores," customs”), and, by extension, the study of such principles, sometimes called moral philosophy.

7 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Ethical Principles Ethics=Goodness In Conduct Ethics=Goodness In Conduct Goodness in Conduct Based on: Goodness in Conduct Based on: - either good in themselves or - either good in themselves or -good because they conform to a particular moral standard -good because they conform to a particular moral standard Three principal standards of conduct, each of which has been proposed as the highest good: Three principal standards of conduct, each of which has been proposed as the highest good: - happiness or pleasure; - happiness or pleasure; - duty, virtue, or obligation; - duty, virtue, or obligation; - perfection, the fullest harmonious development of human potential. - perfection, the fullest harmonious development of human potential.

8 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Prudence A person lacking motivation to exercise preference may be resigned to accepting all customs and therefore may develop a philosophy of prudence. He or she then lives in conformity with the moral conduct of the period and society. A person lacking motivation to exercise preference may be resigned to accepting all customs and therefore may develop a philosophy of prudence. He or she then lives in conformity with the moral conduct of the period and society.

9 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Pleasure Hedonism is that philosophy in which the highest good is pleasure. The hedonist decides between the most enduring pleasures or the most intense pleasures, whether present pleasures should be denied for the sake of overall comfort, and whether mental pleasures are preferable to physical pleasures Hedonism is that philosophy in which the highest good is pleasure. The hedonist decides between the most enduring pleasures or the most intense pleasures, whether present pleasures should be denied for the sake of overall comfort, and whether mental pleasures are preferable to physical pleasures

10 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Power Power seekers may not accept customary ethical rules but may conform to other rules that can help them become successful. They will seek to persuade others that they are moral in the accepted sense of the term in order to mask their power motives and to gain the ordinary rewards of morality Power seekers may not accept customary ethical rules but may conform to other rules that can help them become successful. They will seek to persuade others that they are moral in the accepted sense of the term in order to mask their power motives and to gain the ordinary rewards of morality

11 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Origin Although the morals were formalized and made into arbitrary standards of conduct, they developed, sometimes irrationally, after religious taboos were violated, or out of chance behavior that became habit and then custom, or from laws imposed by chiefs to prevent disharmony in their tribes. Although the morals were formalized and made into arbitrary standards of conduct, they developed, sometimes irrationally, after religious taboos were violated, or out of chance behavior that became habit and then custom, or from laws imposed by chiefs to prevent disharmony in their tribes.

12 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI The Greeks Pythagoras- the intellectual nature is superior to the sensual nature and that the best life is one devoted to mental discipline, he founded a semi religious order with rules emphasizing simplicity in speech, dress, and food. Pythagoras- the intellectual nature is superior to the sensual nature and that the best life is one devoted to mental discipline, he founded a semi religious order with rules emphasizing simplicity in speech, dress, and food. Protagoras- taught that human judgment is subjective, and that one's perception is valid only for oneself. Protagoras- taught that human judgment is subjective, and that one's perception is valid only for oneself.

13 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI The Greeks Thrasymachus - believed that might makes right Thrasymachus - believed that might makes right Socrates- virtue is knowledge people will be virtuous if they know what virtue is; and vice, or evil, is the result of ignorance. Thus, according to Socrates, education can make people moral. Socrates- virtue is knowledge people will be virtuous if they know what virtue is; and vice, or evil, is the result of ignorance. Thus, according to Socrates, education can make people moral.

14 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Socrates Socrates Cynics :self control, pleasure is evil Megarians:wisdom Platonists:evil is opp. Of good Cyrenaics:hedonists

15 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI PLATO Evil does not exist in itself but is, rather, an imperfect reflection of the real, which is good Evil does not exist in itself but is, rather, an imperfect reflection of the real, which is good The human soul has three elements— intellect, will, and emotion—each of which possesses a specific virtue in the good person and performs a specific role. The virtue of intellect is wisdom, or knowledge of the ends of life; that of the will is courage, the capacity to act; and that of the emotions is temperance, or self- control The human soul has three elements— intellect, will, and emotion—each of which possesses a specific virtue in the good person and performs a specific role. The virtue of intellect is wisdom, or knowledge of the ends of life; that of the will is courage, the capacity to act; and that of the emotions is temperance, or self- control

16 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI STOICISM According to the Stoics, nature is orderly and rational, and only a life led in harmony with nature can be good. The Stoic philosophers, however, agreed also that because life is influenced by material circumstances one should try to be as independent of such circumstances as possible. The practice of certain cardinal virtues, such as practical wisdom, courage, discretion, and justice, enables one to achieve independence in the spirit According to the Stoics, nature is orderly and rational, and only a life led in harmony with nature can be good. The Stoic philosophers, however, agreed also that because life is influenced by material circumstances one should try to be as independent of such circumstances as possible. The practice of certain cardinal virtues, such as practical wisdom, courage, discretion, and justice, enables one to achieve independence in the spirit

17 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI CHRISTIAN ETHICS it introduced a religious conception of good into Western thought it introduced a religious conception of good into Western thought Early Christianity emphasized as virtues asceticism, martyrdom, faith, mercy, forgiveness, and non erotic love, few of which had been considered important by the philosophers of classical Greece and Rome Early Christianity emphasized as virtues asceticism, martyrdom, faith, mercy, forgiveness, and non erotic love, few of which had been considered important by the philosophers of classical Greece and Rome

18 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI CHRISTIAN ETHICS Dante places sins into three categories sins of incontinence (sensual or emotional sins); sins of incontinence (sensual or emotional sins); Of violence or brutishness (sins of will); Of violence or brutishness (sins of will); Fraud or Malice (sins of intellect) Fraud or Malice (sins of intellect)

19 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI SECULAR ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY Spinoza deduced ethics from psychology and psychology from metaphysics. He asserted that all things are morally neutral from the point of view of eternity; only human needs and interests determine what is considered good and evil, or right and wrong. Whatever aids humanity's knowledge of nature or is consonant with human reason is acknowledged as good Spinoza deduced ethics from psychology and psychology from metaphysics. He asserted that all things are morally neutral from the point of view of eternity; only human needs and interests determine what is considered good and evil, or right and wrong. Whatever aids humanity's knowledge of nature or is consonant with human reason is acknowledged as good

20 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI SECULAR ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY Immanuel Kant in Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten (Principles of the Metaphysics of Ethics, 1785) - Immanuel Kant in Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten (Principles of the Metaphysics of Ethics, 1785) - no matter how intelligently one acts, the results of human actions are subject to accident and circumstance; therefore, the morality of an act must not be judged by its consequence, but only by its motivation no matter how intelligently one acts, the results of human actions are subject to accident and circumstance; therefore, the morality of an act must not be judged by its consequence, but only by its motivation

21 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI SECULAR ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham highest good is the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people.

22 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI MODERN ETHICS Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov

23 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI PART II ETHICS: LESSONS FROM THE BIBLE

24 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI COMMANDMENTS EXODUS: CHAPTER 20 20:12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. 20:13 Thou shalt not kill. 20:14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. 20:15 Thou shalt not steal. 20:16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 20:17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. 20:17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

25 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI DOING GOOD Proverbs 3:27 Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do it. 3:27 Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do it. 3:28 Say not unto thy neighbour, Go, and come again, and to morrow I will give; when thou hast it by thee. 3:28 Say not unto thy neighbour, Go, and come again, and to morrow I will give; when thou hast it by thee. 3:29 Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he dwelleth securely by thee. 3:29 Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he dwelleth securely by thee. 3:30 Strive not with a man without cause, if he have done thee no harm. 3:30 Strive not with a man without cause, if he have done thee no harm. 3:31 Envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways. 3:31 Envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways.

26 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI On Wisdom And Stupidity Proverbs 9:8 Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee: rebuke a wise man, and he will love thee 9:8 Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee: rebuke a wise man, and he will love thee 10:12 Hatred stirreth up strifes: but love covereth all sins 10:12 Hatred stirreth up strifes: but love covereth all sins 11:2 When pride cometh, then cometh shame: but with the lowly is wisdom 11:2 When pride cometh, then cometh shame: but with the lowly is wisdom 11:4 Riches profit not in the day of wrath: but righteousness delivereth from death. 11:4 Riches profit not in the day of wrath: but righteousness delivereth from death. 13:20 He that walketh with wise men shall be wise: but a companion of fools shall be destroyed 13:20 He that walketh with wise men shall be wise: but a companion of fools shall be destroyed

27 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI BITS AND PIECES JOHN 15:13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends 15:13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends 7:18 He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory: 7:18 He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory: 7:24 Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment 7:24 Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment

28 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI BITS AND PIECES MATTHEW 26:52 for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword 26:52 for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword 15:11 Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man. 15:11 Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man. 7:1 Judge not, that ye be not judged. 7:1 Judge not, that ye be not judged. 7:2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again 7:2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again 6:24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other 6:24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other

29 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI LAST WORD MATTHEW MATTHEW 5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is 5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. the kingdom of heaven. 5:4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. 5:4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. 5:6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. 5:6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. 5:7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. 5:7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. 5:8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. 5:8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. 5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. 5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. 5:10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 5:10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 5:11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5:11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.

30 SATYARTH PRIYEDARSHI Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. - MATTHEW5:17


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