Presentation on theme: "Al-Baaqir and the politics at his time By A.S. Hashim. MD."— Presentation transcript:
Al-Baaqir and the politics at his time By A.S. Hashim. MD
In this slide show: Discussed in this Slide Show: Happenings during every decade of Al-Baaqir's lifetime was discussed Al-Baaqir was witness to: much social upheavals need for Islamic knowledge, specified and categorized Government’s extensive use of undercover agents, and imposing its power, leading to devastating developments construction of numerous Masjids notably Masjid Al-Haram, Al- Aqsa, and expansion of al-Masjid al-Nabawi Expansion of Muslim territory, including Spain
Ali Refers to Ahlul Bayt: They [Ahlul Bayt] are the life for [Divine] knowledge and the death keel to ignorance. Their forbearance tells you of their knowledge, and their behavior about their integrity Their silence tells you of their wisdom….. Ahlul Bayt understood the correct spirit of Islam, attentively and painstakingly. They carried Islam's precepts into practice. And all this was not by heresy or from narrators. Lo! The narrators of knowledge are many but those who truly understand it are only few.
Al-Baaqir: Up to the age of 10 years Witnesses the horrendous happenings in Karbala Is taken along from Kufa to Damascus, then back to Medina Extremely affected by Karbala and the move to Damascus followed by returning to Medina Al-Baaqir saw Zainab, on a vigorous campaign in Medina, to explain what happened in Karbala He saw his father Zainul Abideen go into seclusion and cut off most contact with people He observed that people of Medina were inflamed and very angry Everyone cried and mourned for Imam Al ‑ Husain. The mind of the young Al ‑ Baaqir could only absorb the scenes with further apprehension and remorse.
Al-Baaqir: Up to the age of 10 years Al-Baaqir is tutored by his father Zainul Abideen. Heard of the uprising against Benu Umayya by Al-Tawwaboon Heard of Al-Mukhtar after the killers of Al-Husain in Iraq Al-Mukhtar forces kill Obaidullah ibn Ziyad in north of Iraq Medina had revolted too, and a horrific battle took place His father, Zainul Abideen, takes on his shoulder hosting 400 of Benu Umayya clan Witnesses the atrocities inflicted on Medina by Yazid's force that looted, and ransacked Medina for 3 days after the battle When Jabir Al ‑ Ansaari finally met Al ‑ Baaqir he excitedly hugged him, kissed his hand, and joyfully conveyed the salutation of the Prophet to the young boy.
Contemporary to Benu Umayya Al-Baaqir being contemporary to 3 of Benu Sufyan Khalifas (Benu Umayya) Yazid son of Mu’awiya Mu’awiya son of Yazid Mu’awiya son of Abu Sufyan
Al-Baaqir: In his boyhood Marwan takes over the Khilaafah, is killed by his wife 9 months later. Abdul Malik ibn Marwan becomes the Khalifa. Zainul Abideen, active in teaching his children Islam. He concentrated on teaching them: the Holy Quran, then Tafseer, followed by the Hadith and Al ‑ Ah'kaam Al ‑ Baaqir was extremely receptive. He not only showed an unparalleled brilliance of mind but also the eagerness to absorb the Islamic knowledge. It was not only his father who tutored him, it was also the collective effort of the whole family. His great ‑ aunt Zainab, great-uncle Ibn Al ‑ Hanafiyah, or others, they all participated.
During his teen years Mail service previously introduced by Mu’awiya has become better and much improved. Undercover agents that used to be everywhere had become even more ominous and meanacing. Politically turbulent times under Al ‑ Zubair's rulership of 7 years, for he tried to seize the Khilaafah from Benu Umayya. Many military clashes evolved between Abdul Malik, and Ibn Zubair Al ‑ Baaqir was very grieved by the bloodshed caused by Al-Hajjaj in Mecca, and how he wrecked the Ka'ba Al ‑ Baaqir continued to absorb the enormous amount of knowledge made available to him. Participated in the Discourses his father was giving.
Al-Baaqir understands his father’s aim Al-Baaqir’s father, Zainul Abideen, being more now in the public's eye teaching Islam, excessively worshipping, helping people, and regularly crying about Imam Al ‑ Husain, Zainul Abideen attracted hordes of people, and was teaching an ever enlarging body of students. Zainul Abideen attracted hordes of people, and was teaching an ever enlarging body of students. Tutoring students was with the aim of: producing high quality scholars, who were to teach others about true Islam, thus spread the word to the general public about the motive of and the principles which Imam Al ‑ Husain had given his life for, and at the same time uncover the offenses of Benu Umayya.
During his Teen Years The aim was to teach Islam as Muhammad (pbuh) had taught it. The aim was to popularize piety and righteousness, to make them the very foundation for Islamic fabric, and at the same time never to compromise with the ruling class (Benu Umayya or others) if Islam was ever jeopardized. Al ‑ Baaqir and his father were busy in the educational process, the discourses, which were active and dynamic. Al ‑ Baaqir and his father were busy in the educational process, the discourses, which were active and dynamic. As a teenager Al ‑ Baaqir raised so many thought ‑ provoking questions that people nick ‑ named him Al ‑ Baaqir. As a teenager Al ‑ Baaqir raised so many thought ‑ provoking questions that people nick ‑ named him Al ‑ Baaqir. Al ‑ Baaqir means the one who penetrates deeply, or delves into any problem and extracts its high value, its treasure. Religious problems that seemed too difficult to solve by many people were easy for him to come out with wonderful answers.
During his Teen Years Al ‑ Baaqir's brothers also participated in the discourses, the ones father Zainul Abideen was conducting. Notable Students were: Al-Hasan Al ‑ Basri, Al ‑ Thamali, Al ‑ Zuhri Ibn Tawoos, and many other erudite scholars were the students in these discourses. Ibn Tawoos, and many other erudite scholars were the students in these discourses. The dean, the tutor, and the professor, was Imam Zainul Abideen, and as Al ‑ Baaqir and his brothers participated regularly, their store of knowledge became ever so large. and as Al ‑ Baaqir and his brothers participated regularly, their store of knowledge became ever so large. That of Al ‑ Baaqir was immense.
Al-Baaqir: During his Twenties When Al ‑ Baaqir was in his twenties many divergent ideologies emerged in the Islamic world and had to be dealt with and corrected. 1. the Jabriah (Emphasizing Absolute Predestination), 2. the Qadariyah (Emphasizing Absolute free will), 3. the Khariji (deviators), 4. Those of Al ‑ Raa'y (the opinionated), 5. Those of Al ‑ Qiyas, (Users of analogy), and 6. the Murji'ah, (acknowledgers of Benu Umayya legitimacy, but free to criticize them)
In his Twenties Muhammad Al ‑ Baaqir Marries Umm Farwa, the great-granddaughter of Khalifa Abu Bakr. More than a year later, in the year 83H, a boy was born to him. They called him Ja'far. Al ‑ Baaqir is sought after for his enormous knowledge. People endearingly call him Al ‑ Baaqir, for his in ‑ depth analysis of any religious problem. Al-Baaqir also means: the one who discloses treasures of wisdom underlying various Islamic laws.
The Currency: The money as it was Before the advent of Islam and after it, the money used to be: Mainly coins made in the Byzantine and Persian Empires The Arabs did not make their own coins, be they Dirhams or Dinars The Byzantine Emperor threatened to withhold the currency of the Ummah Thus a crisis was soon to take place. Khalifa Abdul Malik asks for Al-Baaqir’s help and assistance to solve the looming problem.
The Currency 1.The Byzantine emperor was threatening: a.to withdraw the dominant Byzantine currency, thus sabotage the Islamic Ummah b.unless concessions were made by the Muslims, (which were unacceptable). c.Until now the currency in the Muslim world had been predominantly the Byzantine currency. 2. Abdul Malik the Khalifa sends for Al-Baaqir to solve the crisis (the currency problem facing the nation).
Al-Baaqir Solves the Currency Problem Orientalists call it a stroke of genius. 1. Stop dealing with the Byzantine currency, 2. Build Muslim currency (coins) instead, a.Inscribe on one side La Ilaaha Illa Allah, b.Inscribe on the other side Muhammad Rasool Allah, c.Stamp the edge of the coin with the date and locality, and d.Have special scales to weigh the gold currency pieces to make sure its accurate worth.
Al-Baaqir and Benu Umayya During his lifetime Al ‑ Baaqir witnessed 10 rulers of Benu Umayya, whose rulership aroused political turmoil of a unique nature. During his lifetime Al ‑ Baaqir witnessed 10 rulers of Benu Umayya, whose rulership aroused political turmoil of a unique nature. Benu Umayya's rule was not acceptable to the pious. Benu Umayya's rule was not acceptable to the pious. Since Al ‑ Baaqir was calling for the Islamic Shari'ah and emphasizing piety as the basis, there developed perpetual friction, or a creative tension, between him on the one hand and the ruling clique on the other hand. between him on the one hand and the ruling clique on the other hand. Fearful for their position, Benu Umayya held Al ‑ Baaqir as a suspect. Fearful for their position, Benu Umayya held Al ‑ Baaqir as a suspect. Benu Umayya knew they did not come about by Shoora as Islam had enjoined, but by means of force, so they were anxious to hold to power at any cost. but by means of force, so they were anxious to hold to power at any cost. Therefore, Benu Umayya did not take lightly to Ahlul Bayt (who shunned them).
Al-Baaqir Contemporary Khulafaa During his Lifetime, Al- Baaqir was contemporary to the Following ten Rulers of Benu Umayya: 3 of Benu Sufyan and 7 of Benu Marwan Benu Sufyan: 1.Mu'awiya son of Abu Sufyan 2.Yazid son of Mu'awiya 3.Mu'awiya son of Yazid Benu Marwan: 1.Marwan son of Al ‑ Hakam 2.Abdul Malik son of Marwan 3.Waleed son of Abdul Malik 4.Suleiman son of Abdul Malik 5.Omar son of Abdul Aziz 6.Yazid II son of Abdul Malik 7.Hisham son of Abdul Malik
Contemporary to Khalifas Al-Baaqir being contemporary to 7 of Benu Marwan Khalifas (Benu Umayya) Omar son of Abdul Aziz Hisham son of Abdul Malik Yazid II son of Abdul Malik Al-Waleed Abdul Malik Suleiman Marwan
Flavors of Benu Umayya For every ruler, however, there is a bad side and a good side. For every ruler, however, there is a bad side and a good side. Though Benu Umayya were dictatorial monarchs, some of them were also: accomplished administrators, others expansive, yet some of them unusually arrogant and mean. yet some of them unusually arrogant and mean. Some of them were playboys of the time, others just pleasure loving, and some of them very stingy. some of them very stingy. It is important, therefore, to have an overview of the rule and background of the rulers (Khalifas) during the lifetime of Imam Al ‑ Baaqir, and to have a panorama of the times. It is important, therefore, to have an overview of the rule and background of the rulers (Khalifas) during the lifetime of Imam Al ‑ Baaqir, and to have a panorama of the times.
Abdul Malik son of Marwan Abdul Malik maintained central authority over the many Arab landlords. Abdul Malik Arabizes: Abdul Malik decreed the Arabic language on the administration as mandatory to replace Greek, Aramaic, and Persian languages that were used till his time. And Tax ‑ books and books of administration henceforth were in Arabic. All officials were made to learn and deal through Arabic language, to replace other languages which dominated before then by indigenous administrative tradition. (The Venture of Islam, Marshall Hodgson, Vol. 1, Page 246.)
Abdul Malik son of Marwan Abdul Malik enlarged the Prophet's mosque, but had to tear down some of the historic buildings. Abdul Malik tried to show affinity to the growing piety ‑ minded people (spearheaded by Zainul Abideen) in Medina to gain their support Builds the Dome of the Rock: Dome of the Rock took 7 years to build. It cost all the funds from Egypt (taxation) collected over a period of 7 years. Builders, engineers, artisans, and artists from all over were employed.
Abdul Malik son of Marwan Al-Hajjaj bloodily clashed with Ibn Zubair in Mecca and wrecked the Ka'ba, He killed Ibn Zubair who was the grandson of Khalifa Abu Bakr. When as governor, Al ‑ Hajjaj showed terrifying violence in Iraq, leading to a lot of bloodshed, killed numerous innocent people, especially the loyalist to Ahlul Bayt. killed numerous innocent people, especially the loyalist to Ahlul Bayt. Al ‑ Hajjaj had a lust for bloodshed. Al ‑ Hajjaj ruled over the eastern part of the Islamic nation, using ruthless means at his disposal to wield obedience to the central authority of Abdul Malik. Al ‑ Hajjaj put down Khariji revolts. Al ‑ Hajjaj built Wasit and could use only Syrian troops since he could not rely on Iraqis, the Iraqis hated him profoundly. Al ‑ Hajjaj improved the irrigation canals in Iraq, thus improving thereby the agricultural yield. And he increased revenue to the treasury.
Al-Waleed son of Abdul Malik BUILDING MASJIDS: Al ‑ Masjid Al ‑ Umawi in Damascus, massive and ornate, was built. Enlarged the Masjid Al ‑ Nabawi, the Prophet's Mosque, though some historical buildings nearby had to be demolished. MILITARY ENDEAVORS OF AL ‑ WALEED: Al ‑ Waleed recaptured the territories lost to the Byzantines in Anatolia then advanced into the Byzantine Empire. Muslims expanded into high central Asia (Transoxania) where Bukhara and Tashkent are located. This was the vital silk route. Recuperated all lost territories in Western Africa. Muslims expanded into Spain, moved up to Southern France.
Hisham son of Abdul Malik THE PERSON OF HISHAM: Hisham was greedy, cross ‑ eyed, un ‑ comely, and bad ‑ looking. Hisham was stone ‑ hearted, rough and tough, without tact or discretion. without tact or discretion. He loved to accumulate wealth, but also used that to build. Hisham loved horse racing, and was reputed to have 4,000 horses. Since Hisham was tightfisted and a miser, many people followed his suit, therefore charities decreased to such a level that livelihood was very difficult for the impoverished and disadvantaged people.
Hisham son of Abdul Malik Just like his father (Abdul Malik), Hisham was also dictatorial but a capable administrator. Hisham enhanced and strengthened the outposts at the frontiers. Muslims expanded into the Sind territory in India which came under the domain of Islam. There were further advances in Spain, up to 50 miles south of Paris. Hisham's strong control led to an impressive amount of bureaucratic organization directly in Muslim hands and centrally controlled from the Khalifa's capital. the Musaadarah المصادره : The governors and heads of financial bureaus were under temptation to enrich themselves at the expense of the treasury. More so during Hisham's time it became an established practice that an official who incurred the special displeasure of the Khalifa might be discharged and arrested in a moment, subjected to scrutiny about embezzlement and fined a corresponding sum; even use torture in the process.
Omar II (son of Abdul Aziz) Omar II scrupulously accorded the privileges to the old Medina families (Muhajiroon and Ansaar) as Omar Ibn Al ‑ Khattab had granted them previously (which Benu Umayya had cut down those privileges). Omar returned Fadak to Ahlul Bayt. Fadak was the property which the Prophet (pbuh) had given to Fatima as inheritance, and was denied her as soon as the Prophet died. Omar II ended the condemnation (cursing) of Imam Ali on the pulpits, something that was having profound negative effect on people. Omar II corrected numerous injustices leading to acceptable settlement, examples: Some Christian groups had their tribute reduced. Church lands in Egypt were freed of certain taxes. Other illegal taxes in Iran were remitted. Some excess taxes already paid were restored.
Omar II Administration Omar II managed to find effective governors who: yet ruled without brutality to the persons of the Muslims, and abstained from building up private fortunes. Perhaps his most important policy was one of quietly treating all provinces alike. In particular, Omar II removed from Iraq the more obvious evidences of Syrian dominion, perhaps even many Syrian troops. Omar II gave some remoter provinces more local control of their revenues. The central budget was reduced (despite a program of charities which extended to all provinces, not just chiefly to Syria as had previous Marwani charities) Eliminated wars on most frontiers (which became glorified plundering expeditions) and peace with the Byzantines was prudently accorded.
Al-Baaqir admonishes Omar II of Abdul Aziz 1. Al-Baaqir advised Omar II: “Pay heed to what company you like to be with when in the presence of your Lord, and 2. Look at what you loathe to be with when in His presence and 3. Wish not to have a commodity that is of no use to those before you, since it won't be of use to you. 4. O Omar! a.Open your doors to the public, be accessible, be just, and repeal all acts of injustice. b.With three qualities; you will have advanced your faith in Allah: I.The satisfied person whose satisfaction does not lead him to commit falsehood [wrong doing] II.The angry person whose anger does not lead him to commit wrong, and III.The man of power who does not permit his power take what is not his
Map during Benu Umayya Khilaafah Mediterranean Spain Transoxania Sind
Expansion during Benu Umayya Khilaafah Spain Transoxania Sind area Mediterranean
The three phases of Islam Islam 1. Muhammad 2. Ali, Hasan & Husain 3. Rest of Imams
The 1st of 3 Phases of Islam PHASE CARRIED OUT BY: TASKS CONSISTING OF: FIRSTPHASE Muhammad (pbuh) (pbuh) Emphasis was on teaching Islam in depth, especially to the Sahaaba (Companions), and making Islam available to the maximum number of people—yet, bearing in mind that it would take an average person a long time to assimilate Islam. Therefore, Muhammad (pbuh) did not fight the hypocrites.
The 2 nd of 3 Phases of Islam PHASE CARRIED OUT BY: TASKS CONSISTING OF: SECONDPHASE Ali, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain They were the 3 who were to confront the negative forces caused by Islamicly weak persons which threatened to undermine Islam: Be it during Ali's Khilaafah, Al ‑ Hasan's acceptance of peaceful terms, or the events leading to the explosive but anticipated Karbala as led by Al ‑ Husain.
The 3 rd of 3 Phases of Islam PHASE CARRIED OUT BY: TASKS CONSISTING OF: THIRD PHASE Zainul Abideen and the Imams after him. Zainul Abideen took on his shoulders the heavy task of teaching the scholars (the educational endeavor) once the confrontational phase was over. This culminated by establishing the Islamic Institute (Institute of Ahlul Bayt). The main source of information was the Corpus of Knowledge Imam Ali left. The Institute was to expand and flourish by later Imams.
Al-Baaqir in his Thirties Zainul Abideen and Al ‑ Baaqir shun politics completely They held the contemporary rulers and their administration as not valid nor legitimate. They saw Islam was violated in the name of Islam Therefore, they raced against time to deliver to the people as much Islamic knowledge as possible. Medina became an intellectual center of learning As a result, the Piety ‑ minded community evolved When Zainul Abideen died Al ‑ Baaqir’s Imamah started at the age of 38 years
Al-Baaqir’s Admonitions Al-Baaqir's admonitions created a spiritual sensation among the Muslims in general. He was not only hospitable even to his worst enemies but also used to continually exhort them to the right path. He urged people to earn their livelihood by their own hard work. He gave much importance to convening Majlis (meetings) in commemoration of the martyrdom of Al-Husain. Kumayl ibn Zayd al-Asadi, a famous and highly talented poet of that time, used to recite the eulogy of Imam Husain in those Majlis. Such type of Majlis were also greatly encouraged by Imam Ja'far as-Saadiq and Imam Ali al-Ridha,
During Al-Baaqir’s Imamah 1. The institute of Ahlul Bayt grows substantially a.Up to 300 scholars graduate over a period of 18 years b.Graduates write about 100 books 2. Al ‑ Baaqir himself wrote the book of Tafseer, in which he registered numerous Hadiths. 3. Numerous knowledge seekers traveled from far away (and lived in Medina) to attend Al-Baaqir’s discourses 4. He argued with the Kharijis (deviators) and Ghulaat (exaggerationists).
The Institute graduates Educational works of Al-Baaqir versus Zainul Abideen During Al-Baaqir’s time, 300 Scholars graduated. The 300 Scholars wrote 100 books During Zainul Abideen’s time 160 Scholars graduated The graph on the right shows relative numbers This is remarkable, since it was in spite of the heavy political pressure on Ahlul Bayt
The subjects Al-Baaqir taught 1. Tafseer of the Holy Quran. 2. Hadith, as quoted by each Imam from his father, up to Ali, then Muhammad (pbuh). 3. Al ‑ Ah'kaam, which grew with time, since new religious problems were to be solved according to the Shari'ah. 4. Fiqh, as diversified due to the Ij'tihaad of the Jurisprudents. 5. Halal and Haram, 6. Ethics, Mu'aamalaat, among other important Islamic subjects. 7. Irfan (Islamic theological philosophy). 8. Adab: High forms of literature.
Regions of Religious Movements at the Time of Al-Baaqir IN MEDINA Ahlul Bayt Ibn Abbas Ibn Omar IN SYRIA JabriahQadariyahJama’ah IN KUFA Murji'ahKharijiShi'a IN EGYPT 1.Ibn Abbas 2.Ibn Omar IN BASRAH Murji'ahMu'tazilaKhariji IN KHURASAN Shi'aJama’ahJah'miyyah
Select Sayings of Al ‑ Baaqir When two believers meet and shake hands, Allah will place his hand with them, favoring the one who loves his brother the most. When you meet each other start with greetings of peace and shake hands, and when you part, do so with entreating Allah’s forgiveness. The good deed rewarded promptly by Allah is when you keep communicating with relatives in gracious manner. Imam Al ‑ Baaqir said: "My father, Imam Ali Ibn Al ‑ Husain used to tell his children to avoid big and small lies in earnestness or in jest; for he who tells small lies will soon have the audacity to tell big ones."
Al-Baaqir describing his devotees "By Allah our Shi'a are they who obey Allah, are pious, and upright. Our Shi'a are recognized for their modesty, humility, excessive worship, frequent offering of Salat, observance of fast, and they honor their parents. Our Shi'a care for neighbors, the disadvantaged, the needy, the indebted, and the orphans, Our Shi'a always speak the truth, recite the Holy Quran, hold their tongue against speaking ill of others, and Our Shi'a are trustworthy in all matters of social and spiritual relationship. والله ما شيعتنا إلاّ من إتقى الله وأطاعه وما كانوا يُعرَفون إلاّ بالتواضع والتخشع وأداء ألأمانة وكثرةِ ذِكر الله والصوم والصلاة والبرِّ بالوالدين وتعهُّد الجيران منَ الفقراء وذوي المَسْكنةِ والغارمين والأيتام وصِدق الحديث وتلاوة القرآن وكفِّ الألسن عن الناس إلا من خير
Imam Al ‑ Baaqir dies Just as the case with Zainul Abideen and Al ‑ Husain, Imam Al ‑ Baaqir died at the age of 57 years. His death was mourned by numerous people Al ‑ Baaqir designated his son, Al ‑ Saadiq, as the subsequent Imam He gave him a will containing a treasure of wisdom He handed him the books constituting the Corpus of Knowledge which Imam Ali had previously written. Imam Al ‑ Baaqir was buried in Al ‑ Baqii, by the burial site of Imam Al ‑ Hasan and Imam Zainul Abideen. Imam Al ‑ Baaqir was buried in Al ‑ Baqii, by the burial site of Imam Al ‑ Hasan and Imam Zainul Abideen.
Picture of Al-Baqii Before & After 1925 Al-Baqii after it was destroyed Al-Baqii before 1925
In Conclusion Discussed were happenings during every decade of Al-Baaqir's lifetime: Al-Baaqir was witness to: much social upheavals need for streamlining Islamic education Government’s extensive use of undercover agents, and imposing its power, leading to devastating developments construction of numerous Masjids notably Masjid Al- Haram, Al-Aqsa, and expansion of al-Masjid al- Nabawi Territorial expansion including Spain
Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim