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1 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Systems Engineering in Academia How can Academia contribute.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Systems Engineering in Academia How can Academia contribute."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Systems Engineering in Academia How can Academia contribute to Industry? Is Industry exploiting academic support? Scene Setting Presentation to Academic Session Autumn Assembly, INCOSE UK Swindon, 6, 7 November 2000 by Prof. Peter Sydenham UCL

2 2 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Nature and Scope of the Academic Session This presentation highlights issues relevant to application and maturity of academic support for stakeholders Covers many aspects: does not attempt to decide which are the most important This is a complex situation for which many today, and before, have tried to improve The situation is still akin to the 1970’s The Academic Session uses presentations by experts to portray various situations to get debate going

3 3 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Contents How Do We Characterize Systems Engineering? Importance of People What Research is Needed? Taking Stock of Academia Comparison with 1970 situation Need for National Plan for SE Academic Support Some Conclusions

4 4 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET How Do We Characterize Systems Engineering Intellectual Activity? Numerous aspects and parameters are evident. The key issues appear to be:- What the Systems Engineer does to ‘add value’ to the engineering of systems of all types Contrast and handling of ‘Breadth’ and ‘Depth’ issues It is all about managing chaotic complexity Hard versus Soft thinking cultures are so often apparent and in conflict

5 5 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET The Key Role of a Systems Engineer Science determines- ‘What is’ Component (or Detail) Engineering determines- ‘What can be’ Systems Engineering determines- ‘What should be’ - and has to cope with and manage Complexity Buede (2000)

6 6 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET This seems to sum up the task of SE From ‘Signs that say what you want them so say ……’ Gillian Wearing , Tate Gallery. Passer-bys were asked to write a sign.

7 7 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET “The Systems Engineer attempts to predict the consequences of his/her systems operation” ENGINEERING EDUCATION : April From International Science and Technology, Nov 1964 SE Dept Why we are here? Words from 1964!

8 8 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Breadth and Depth Tee diagram shows how the skills change as person matures in career Profile needed by mature SE practitioners changes to need much more Breadth Breadth of topics needed starts with usual engineering subjects. Over time these must spread out into management, finance, human aspects, decision making, innovation, complex problem solving, law…………… etc…………..and even to such topics as anthropology, semiotics, epistemology and, maybe, theology as a last resort!

9 9 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET 2. Newly graduated Detail Engineer 3. Mature University Leader - following optimal career path 4. Requirement for experienced Systems Engineer The Knowledge and Experience Tee Diagram Depth of detail Breadth of topics 1. T diagram legend

10 10 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET ENGINEERING EDUCATION : April 1970 – Cartoon From International Science and Technology, Nov 1964 “A systems engineer is a good engineer - only more so” Summed up – again back in 1964!

11 11 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Time ( years) Main knowledge area of engineers and scientists Concept IntegrationDesignBuildIst life Upgrade 2nd lifeDisposal T&E Design Management Integration TEMP CAECAD Production Plan Logistics Configuration management Specs Requirements PERT Data reductionTest plansOperational test execution CIM CMM’s Planners OR Statistics and Maths Equipment config. Inventory Maintenance plan Archives Software build BREADTH DEPTH Electronics Mechanics Control Sensors Manufacturing. Operations Research Logistics Activity Analysis Decision Making Prototype M&S Fluid dynamics MOE’s TSI Whole Life costing The Breadth and Depth of SE - as seen by the Systems Engineer

12 12 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Complexity What is meant by Complexity in SE? Not so much how many sub-elements exist in system (i.e. like a VLSI chip) but evident when system:- Has large number of inter-relationships Number of interfaces between nodes is large Dynamic flows through interfaces are rapid Flows in human system comms hard to formalise Human cognition in high demand Level of cognition high in the many knowledge flows Degree of chaos high

13 13 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Hard Versus Soft Thinking Cultures We think according to cultures we have experienced ‘Reductionist’ (hard) versus ‘phenomenological’ (soft) thinking attitudes need addressing in academic programs of teaching and research and in applications BOTH essential to SE advancement – hard (depth) is the easiest to pursue and feel comfortable with. Soft needs breadth of understanding Consider the following picture to see how you view life when confronted with a technical like system

14 14 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Are you a ‘Hard’ or ‘Soft’ thinker? Arthur’s sculpture “Fertilization of Drako Vulen’s Cheese Pizza” 1975 Art Gallery of New South Wales. Do you instinctively - 1. Look for and question its engineering detail – or 2. Look for the deep appreciation of what it expresses as a vision, mood, portrayal, etc?

15 15 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Mind and Body Problem Problem with Cartesian dualism is still that mental and physical worlds seem so different Physical world consists of material objects which exist in space and time and obey certain laws that can be established by physics Mental world is populated with thoughts which seem to be outside of space and time and which are subjective, private and unique to each individual Yet these two comprise our SE systems ! From Robinson and Garret

16 16 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET The world I live in thinks like me! ‘Systems Engineer Thinking’ (Assumes ‘Closed System’) Damn these bugs! ‘Rest of World Thinking’ (As an ‘Open System’) The Cultural and Stove-pipe Communication Problem BUT DOES IT?

17 17 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Real Complex Systems Problems Transdisciplinary Teams Complex Problem Solving Needs the Right Perspectives SE (After Lawson) 1. $ bottom line driven Degree of Dissent on Solution  Degree of Uncertainty in Solution  Qualities Needed to Solve Problems Communications Learning Conflict resolution Common experience Transdisciplinary Helmsmanship Followship Patience Withhold judgement Open Systems Thinking Think broadly Be in secure situation Viewpoint is all important! 2. Precedent Systems 4. Really tough systems 3. Realistic simpler systems

18 18 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Importance of People People are the heart of the engineering of systems. They either:- make it all develop as they pull together not develop at all well due to silo (stove-pipe) attitudes do it inefficiently as they work in a state of chaos Soft Systems are not given enough applied research attention in seeking to improve SE practices The ‘Pragmatic SE Teaming’ Model shows the need for better understanding of how to share knowledge in multi-team situations Designers are networking knowledge; these flows are not well understood re the optimisation of flows

19 19 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Needs Statement Brain For each team Brain(s) in Overall Control Output Product to Customer’s Need Pragmatic Teaming Model Real time Interfaces, many and vital Mission: Teams work in unison toward fastest, right, solution Knowledge and data flows between teams all the time SE leadership Customer’s Need as Input

20 20 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Optimisation of SE Process If the stuff flowing between nodes is ‘energy’ or ‘mass’ then mathematical formal methods allow the flows to be quantitatively calculated and optimised using network and topology methods - good clean thinking! BUT the flowing entity is ‘knowledge’ and we are very ignorant of how this works in networks as it is a meaningful parameter lacking formal description. Each human communication link has two simultaneous elements:- Data flows – obey formal mathematical laws of digital data Knowledge flows – that are qualitatively described by cognitive psychology, grammatics, human factors, semiotics, etc.

21 21 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Fundamental Issues in Human Communication over data links Communicate a concept from the brain of one engineer to the brain of another with a sufficient level of understanding to ensure its correct use. Transfer semantically correct data from one tool to another with sufficient speed, completeness and accuracy for it to be useful. ( Source. D D Harris, SEEC, 2000) Data Flow Cognitive Flow Communication Link

22 22 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Some Unhelpful Sayings About Academia ‘But that’s academic’ Isn’t intellectual thought relevant to the real world anymore ‘Academics are naïve about real SE’ Yet UK academic SE leaders are well steeped in reality ‘Staff advancement is not helped by getting a postgraduate SE qualification’ ‘A PhD does not help career advancement in SE’ ‘SE is not suited for PhD theses’ but look at the situation in many leading non-engineering enterprises

23 23 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Value of Education and Training According to the US National Center Report on the ‘Educational Quality of the Workforce, Jan 1999 A 10% increase in Capital Stock yields a 3.4% increase in national productivity. A 10% increase in Work Hours yields a 5.6% increase in national productivity. A 10% increase in Education yields an 8.6% increase in national productivity. Education is currently funded in US at about 1.5% of national revenue so a 10% increase can yield increased national revenue of 8.6% That is a value-adding amplification factor of up to 57x. (8.6% increase for 0.15% investment)

24 24 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Scope of Curriculum SE Curriculum currently not that well driven by enduring basics; more by pragmatics that capture current practice well but do not develop minds for new solution generation Will not assist maturity of growth of SE but propagate and prolong thinking of present ways INCOSE ‘Systems Engineering Educational Environment’ study shows need for much different delivery of SE education to the courses currently on offer See [www.incose.org/index.emwg]

25 25 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET What SE Research is Needed? Independent major studies (of around 1998) have investigated what industry says it needs researched INCOSE US (Buede) – 200+ areas; mainly US; well documented; used as basis of SECOE project SERF Report (Foresight/ Boardman) – 100+ areas; UK survey of depth; published as matrix table Sydenham project list; 50+ with abstracts; personal ideas Result of the surveys; support has NOT been that forthcoming from Industry for any of the areas! Significant Observation: Few are of interest to typical Engineering schools for not ‘engineering’ but need much support of other disciplines- who equally are not interested as it is seen as ‘engineering’

26 26 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Taking Stock of Academic Activity No worthy study yet done for UK Presented here is a personal feeling for the situation to give an overall impression Need to carry out careful audit of UK SE academic effort as part of a nationally integrated approach to understanding what is in the cupboard now and what should be there.

27 27 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Some Recent Key UK Initiatives Foresight Panel in Aerospace and Defence Systems SERF and IEE Reports from above STEFFIE SE network initiative to integrate stakeholders better Ongoing National Advisory Committees after Foresight Various new MSc courses INCOSE UK Chapter and its annual events INCOSE UK Technical initiatives IEE and RAeS initiatives SEDRES data exchange Fourth Framework project Overall have these given the UK their fullest potential?

28 28 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET University SE Groups in the UK – Current Guestimate Professorial Full Chairs – Units – (if include s/w, safety, rail etc.) Staff numbers Students per annum in SE awards Undergrads - 40 Postgrad Coursework – 40 in 6 locations Research (MPhil and PhD) – 20 Grants - £5m p.a. Publications (in SE) - 20 (>>in non SE topics) Conferences and seminars – 5 Short courses - 15

29 29 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET University Constraints on SE Campus Development There is little dissent on what are the Academic Campus constraints on development of robust SE groups Lack of acceptance of SE as a ‘worthy’ area by colleagues Or – every group is in SE! Lack of acceptance a discipline Less than critical-mass SE Academic Groups cannot drive campus and government politics re resource flows No adequate career path for younger academics exists with result we are not forming SE academic leaders for near time successions of people, or with the academic culture needed for success in academic growth Too little support given to new leadership appointments and succession planning

30 30 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET SE Staff Non-Development in Academia Comment by a person climbing the academic SE ladder ‘Whilst the rest of the young academic world tends to specialise and focus very narrowly, I find it hard to gain credibility as a generalist’ ‘I am not convinced SE is academically respected as a discipline amongst many I know……’ - ‘Everyone has a claim to what we do. Systems thinking should be intrinsic in our academic way of life’ ‘The SE discipline doesn't seem to have a natural home in universities; multi/inter-disciplinary by nature, it is perceived as the poor relation to the more established departments’ ‘Pursuing an academic career in SE is poorly defined and uncertain ‘ ‘Students need to see the SE area as not just one for the grey beards ….’

31 31 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Benefits to Industry from Academia Medium to long term development, underpinning and maintenance of SE body of Knowledge Formation and flow of suitable staff and their ongoing education Consultants on call New ideas for better engineering of systems More effective use of government funds to support industry via this work (as do other sectors) Critical review of how best to engineer systems

32 32 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET UK SE Uni. Groups – 2005 Potential Professorial Full Chairs – 25 (10 personal) Staff numbers – 400 inc. visiting appointments Students per annum in SE awards Undergrads - 200, Postgrad Coursework – 100 in 10 locations Research (MPhil and PhD) – 200 Grants - £50m p.a. Publications (in SE) supporting generic SE Conferences and seminars – 10 (5 recurrent) Short courses – 50 (some as part of degrees) 20 major areas supported (20 people interacting on each) 100 visiting staff from other places Overall this is a real support force for SE Stakeholders - and not dissimilar to that commonly enjoyed by major areas like telcos, software, etc.

33 33 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Where Are We Today C’W 1970? The April 1970 issue of US journal ‘Engineering Education’ was a special on ‘Systems Engineering’. 12 papers reviewed the facets of SE at that time – it is revealing to compare then and now We have possibly gone backwards u Less universities involved now u Depth and extent of debate on SE needs is less now u The size of University Groups has diminished markedly UK has always lagged US in terms of extent of overt philosophy, education and practice related to SE - but both still do it well! We appear to be re-inventing a worse wheel Stakeholders give less support now Campus support for SE has not improved Campus leadership did not set up growth and succession for its SE staff

34 34 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Extracts from the 1970 Papers ‘Students (in a program) include participants from all of the disciplines that have a bearing on the problem’ (Bollay paper) ‘Performance of students, with respect to ingenuity and inventiveness is equal or better than that of most industry teams’ (Bollay paper) ‘It is clearly important to the national interest to develop greater competency in engineering systems design through graduate education and research’ (Hansing paper) ‘In general college educators are guilty of spending their limited class-room time in teaching the special details of a device or sub-system design’ (Cutchins paper) ‘Conventional dismemberment of a vast subject is a convenient but arbitrary dissection and is a major impediment to learning’ (Cutchins paper paraphrased) ‘SE is about exposing one’s self and ideas to major scrutiny’ (Cutchins paper) ‘Discussions on SE Education create heat but shed little light’ (Vidale paper) ‘Bulk of current SE’ers do not have formal background; Surveys indicate academic programs will better equip the next generation of SE’ers’ (Eldin paper)

35 35 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Need for Plan for Developing National SE Academic Support Current UK initiatives do not appear to have recognized need for development of critical-mass Academic groups that mature quickly to become mature robust entities A national enterprise plan that works to make the UK a major ‘Engineering of Systems’ nation would allow better targetting of resources INCOSE/ IEE/DERA/Academia etc. should be directing effort to this end as a joint effort for the good of the nation

36 36 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET The Speakers We are pleased to have so many experts here to address us. This augers well for this session Their presentation time is quite restricted; they will give us food for thought and then join in the debate Our appreciations are extended to them for:- Working so well and easily with the conveners Being messed around with orders, instructions and deadlines Sending in all that was asked of them Being here to make good contribution This session also acts as a test run for the Academic Forum of the 2001 Symposium in Melbourne in July.

37 37 Defence Engineering Group Systems Engineering Team - University College London - 5/8/2015 DEG-SET Conclusions From the Academic Session Already it is possible to draw some conclusions but this session is to develop consensus Hence Conclusions are yet to be realised Scribes will be making records of key points Andy Low will moderate the last debate to drive discussion toward recorded findings and decisions These data are intended to open up the debate, provide a base-line for future investigations and seek to prevent the ‘heat and no light’ situation where time is wasted with little valued added. It is now up the audience to consider the panelists views and set up vigorous debate


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