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The Role of Foreign Powers in the Mexican Revolution 1910-1940 From Intervention to Good Neighbors.

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of Foreign Powers in the Mexican Revolution 1910-1940 From Intervention to Good Neighbors."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of Foreign Powers in the Mexican Revolution From Intervention to Good Neighbors

2 Overview Extent of U.S. and European economic influence before 1910 U.S. Diplomatic reaction to the Mexican Revolution Latin American and U.S. Interventions U.S. Response to Villa’s raid Effects of the Zimmerman note on the Mexican Revolution Causes of post constitutional economic tensions

3 What was the extent of U.S. and European economic influence before 1910? Porifirio Diaz wanted Mexico to modernize and become a peer in the modern world. – Long standing government would provide the stability required to modernize – Encouraging foreign investment would speed up the process of economic and industrial modernization

4 Foreign Investment Railroads – Railroads are the basis for modernization and industrialization, first lines connected Mexico City to El Paso,Texas. – By the end of the 1880’s lines connected Atlantic and Pacific Ports mostly controlled by foreign British and Americans – Vast majority of these investments were held by British and American interests – Some contracts with Japan for agriculture and ceramic manufacturing

5 What was the U.S. Diplomatic reaction to the Mexican Revolution ? President Taft – Insisted that U.S. economic interests should be protected President Wilson – Recalled Ambassador Wilson – Said Huerta’s government were butchers Ambassador Wilson – Steeped in the Big Stick and Dollar Diplomacy – Did not support Madero or Mexico – Influential during the Ten Tragic Days

6 What were the U.S. Interventions in Latin America ? Huerta’s Coup – Varied reactions among Latin American countries – US did not support Huerta’s government – Resented European influence in Mexico

7 The Tampico Affair and Veracruz Occupation – Insignificant incident became motivation for US intervention – Wilson ordered US Marines to occupy customs house in Tampico, led ti fighting and deaths on both sides – Led to six month occupation and anti-American demonstrations in Mexico and Latin America

8 ABC Powers Conference and Pan-Americanism (1914) – Argentina, Brazil, and Chile met to mediate conflict between the US and Mexico – Concerns about drift toward war in Europe and arms sales by Latin American countries to all of the factions in Mexico – US left Veracruz and turned over to Carranza – Latin American countries assured of non-intervention by the USA – Became an inspiration for Pan-American cooperation

9 What was the U.S. Response to Villa’s raid? 1915 – US recognizes Carranza government – No more arm sales or support of any other faction Attack on Columbus, New Mexico – Jan 1916, one of Villa’s general attacked a train and killed seventeen Americans – Wilson ordered Americans out of Mexico – Villa went into the US and had a day long gun battle in Columbus, New Mexico

10 US Intervention – Punitive expedition to capture or kill Villa – Wilson conscripted 150,000 border troops – Gen Pershing led expedition of 12,000from March 1916 until February 1917, couldn’t catch Villa – Carranza protested US intervention, officially asked US to recall them by April – Talks suspended in May 1916 – Talks reconvened, US wanted to return and Mexico wanted withdrawl – Stalemate

11 Conflict Resolution – Villa’s radicalization alienated his supporters – US troops needed in Europe – By December 1916, Constitution talks underway. Carranza needed more openness in negotiations with the US. Accepted concessions but no arms sales or loans

12 What was the effects of the Zimmerman note on the Mexican Revolution? Before the First World War – Germany had important business and trade interests in Mexico During the War – US sympathized with the allies – Germany encouraged US-Mexican hostlities – Hoped Mexican oilfields would be damaged, important to the British – Carranza resented Germans but saw them as an ally in US-Mexico conflict

13 The Zimmerman Note – Note intercepted by the British, implied that Germany would support Mexico if they attacked the US. – President Wilson used the Zimmerman Note as a way to influence declaration of war – Carranza insisted on Mexican neutrality and denied an alliance with Germany

14 What were the causes of post constitutional economic tensions Foreign Investment – Article 27 about subsoil and Article 123 about labor caused concerns – Carranza hesitated to fully apply the laws Not alienate US interests Wanted US recognition – US wanted Mexican support of the allies in WW I – The USA was unable to get Carranza to abandon the Constitution or give up neutrality

15 Oil – By 1921, Mexico generating 25% of world oil production – US share in Mexican oil increased from 38.5% in 1911 to 61% in – Bucarelli Agreement (1923) – US owned petroleum interests pressured President Harding to withhold US recognition until investments could be guaranteed – In 1938, Cardenas nationalized petroleum industry – President Roosevelt cut off imports of oil and silver – By end 0f 1939, Mexico was selling half its oil to the Axis

16 The Second World War – Good Neighbor Policy(1933) End of US interventions – Hemispheric security and co-operation crucial to allied war effort

17 What motivated foreign powers? How did foreign powers, particularly the US, intervene in the Mexican Revolution? What were the contributions of foreign powers to the Mexican Revolution?

18 Bibliography Benson, Philip, and Yvonne Berlinner. Access to History for the IB Diploma: The Mexican Revolution Hodder Education An Hachette UK Company, 2014.


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