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Presentation on theme: "AP US GOVERNMENT & POLITICS. ELECTORAL COLLEGE (Explanation)"— Presentation transcript:



3 Presidential Term of Office TRADITION – Washington, etc. BREAK WITH TRADITION CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT 1951 22 nd Amendment

4 POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT ALONE Commander-in-chief of armed forces Commission officers in armed forces Grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses (except impeachment) Convene Congress in special session Receive ambassadors – appoint officials Execute laws faithfully

5 POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT SHARED WITH THE SENATE Make treaties Appoint ambassadors, judges, high officials SHARED WITH CONGRESS AS A WHOLE Approve legislation

6 WHITE HOUSE OFFICE Essentially three ways president can organize his personal staff: 1) PYRAMID STRUCTURE – assistants report through hierarchy to chief of staff (Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, Bush, Clinton)

7 White House Office (con’t) 2) CIRCULAR STRUCTURE Cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president (Carter) 3) AD HOC STRUCUTRE Task forces, committees, informal groups deal directly with president (Clinton, for a while) *NOTE: common for Presidents to mix methods

8 EXECUTIVE OFFICE of the PRESIDENT *Agencies report directly to president *Perform staff services for him (though not located in White House itself) Principle agencies: Office of Management and Budget Director of National Intelligence Office of Economic Advisers Office of Personnel Management Office of U. S. Trade Representative

9 PRESIDENTS CABINET Fifteen executive branch departments of the federal government Abundance of political appointments NOTE the Cabinet Departments

10 Independent Agencies, Commissions, Judgeships About 50 agencies and commissions to which the president appoints people. Heads of many independent agencies serve for fixed terms – removed only “for cause.” President can also appoint federal judges

11 Presidential Character Each president brings to White House a distinctive personality: Eisenhower: orderly, military, delegating Kennedy: bold, “pattern of personal rule and an atmosphere of improvisation” Johnson: master legislative strategist; persuasive; many personal decisions Nixon: knowledgeable; distrustful

12 Presidential Character (con’t) Ford: genial; at home with “give-and-take” Carter: outsider; moved from circular to pyramid structure Reagan: outsider; set agenda, left details to others; “Great Communicator” Bush: hand-on manager; extensive experience in federal government Clinton: attentive to public policy; informal

13 Power to Persuade Chief Executive of Government; Ceremonial Head of State Three Audiences: 1. Fellow politicians / leaders in Washington 2. Party activists and officeholders 3. “The Public” – but many different publics

14 Popularity and Influence Goal: convert personal popularity into congressional support to legislative programs Presidential coattails? (chart p. 391) Presidential popularity (chart p. 392) What do the tables/charts demonstrate?

15 Presidential Power to Say “No” “Executive Privilege”: withhold info. From Congress VETO Veto message Pocket veto (Pres. doesn’t sign within 10 days and Congress adjourned) Line-item veto (don’t have!) IMPOUNDMENT OF FUNDS


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