Presentation on theme: "Aaron Adams, Tony Rohana, Kevin Kunkel & Jack Nelson."— Presentation transcript:
1 Aaron Adams, Tony Rohana, Kevin Kunkel & Jack Nelson. National Minimum Drinking Age Act 1984: Evaluating our Nation’s Solution to Drunk Driving & Underage ConsumptionAaron Adams, Tony Rohana, Kevin Kunkel & Jack Nelson.
2 Ideal GovernmentJustFairSatisfying to all of its people
3 Let’s Compromise Opposing views lead to an agreement on a compromise. These compromises don’t always satisfy all parties.
4 We Aren’t Satisfied!Our group wants to address the problem with our nations policy on underage drinking.Interest groups, State Government, and Federal Government are satisfied but the youth of our nation are not.
5 The LawAccording to the United States law, “The 1984 National Minimum Drinking Age Act, requires that States prohibit persons under 21 years of age from purchasing or publicly possessing alcoholic beverages…”Like in many situations the Federal Government will put conditions on the states to comply otherwise they will lose privileges which one of my partners will further discuss.
6 Get With The TimesLaws must stay relative to the population it applies to.Underage drinking is becoming accepted by the general population in many subcultures such as college.We came up with a proposed change to the current law.
7 National Minimum Drinking Age Act Sec. 158, Title 23, United States Code“The Secretary shall withhold 10% of the amount required to be apportioned to any state for highway funding, in which the purchase or public possession of any alcoholic beverage by a person who is less than twenty-one years of age is lawful.”
8 $$$ Current Law 1984 a.k.a. Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act Common misconceptionAny state allowed to lower drinking agePunished via federal fundingStates don’t think financial rewards of minors drinking would balance 10% highway funding loss$$$
9 After 26th Amendment 1971 Lowered voting age to 18 Two-thirds of states lowered drinking age to 18Some had law of 19Some had law of 20Less than a dozen states had a drinking age of 21
10 Safety & Health Not responsible enough to handle alcohol More likely to:Binge drinkSuffer from alcohol poisoningBecome alcoholicBrain doesn’t fully develop until 21Irresponsible; drunk driving
11 Prohibition 1920s Attempt to control irresponsible drinking behavior Nearly impossible to enforceAppeal of alcohol being “Forbidden fruit”Obeyed by few, difficult to keep orderGovernment lost out on sales tax
12 Federal GovernmentThe Legislative Branch is the biggest actor in alcohol consumption and sale lawsNational Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984Committee on Transportation and InfrastructureHighways and Transit Subcommittee
13 Federal GovernmentJudicial Branch could possibly overrule existing lawsSouth Dakota v. DoleExecutive Branch does not play a major role in current policyCould not mandate any change in the law
14 State GovernmentsStates have jurisdiction over alcohol consumption lawsEach state has its law making procedure to enact policiesStates currently have widely varying laws when it comes to liquorconsumption
15 State GovernmentsState governments regulate distribution of liquor licensesAllows government to control the sale of alcoholFor a national change in the drinking age every state must agree to a change
16 Implementation Enforcement mostly handled by local police departments National Parks Service handles cases in National ParksState Park jurisdiction can vary by stateDNR
17 Non-Governmental Actors (i.e. Interest Groups): MADD US is a representative democracy;Non-government actors at all levels of government.Participate and Influence public policy.Grassroots/indirect lobbying, direct lobbying, & education campaigns.Cindy Lightner13 year old daughter killed by a drunk driver in 1980.Founded Mothers Against Drunk Driving(MADD) in 1980“To aid the victims of crimes performed by individuals driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, to aid the families of such victims and to increase public awareness of the problem of drinking and drugged driving”
18 MADD’s Tactics & Influence: : MADD engages in a grassroots and national campaign.Grassroots and or indirect lobbying (local & state);Massive campaign to shape social and cultural discourse surrounding drunk driving.Grassroots/indirect lobbying, direct lobbying, & education campaigns.Direct lobbying of Congress (national):Social influence + political context of 1984 = public policy influenceLowered drinking age = good public policy.“she buttonholed congressmen while representatives of MADD chapters flooded their offices with letters and telegrams”President Reagan’s change of heart.
19 Success of NMDA: NMDA signed into law in July of 1984. Initial Context of Success:Create major social change in the attitude and behavior of Americans toward drunk driving:NMDA signed into law in July of 1984.Declines in drunk driving deaths since the 1980s:Decline of alcohol-related traffic accidents since 1980s.Statistics not what they appear to be?Transforming the social discourse surrounding drunk driving:Drunk driving viewed as socially unacceptable.New laws more tough/strict on drunk driving.BAC LAW
20 Limitations of NMDA ‘84:Shift in purpose (i.e. new context for evaluation):Focus from drunk driving to underage consumption:Age discrimination:Adult responsibilities associated with 18 should not exclude alcohol consumption?Creation of a binge drinking culture among the nation’s youth:Binge drinking in less controlled environments.Concern for colleges and universities(00:55 – 2:10)
21 Our Conclusion of NMDA ‘84: NMDA’s efforts to combat drunk driving = productive:Strict regulation of drinking = counterproductive:National alcoholic prohibition from 1920 to 1933 failed because it was expensive, unenforceable and lead to an increase in illegal and underground activities.In 2002 Candice Lightner stated that MADD “has become far more neo-prohibitionist than I had ever wanted or envisioned… I didn’t start MADD to deal with alcohol. I started MADD to deal with the issue of drunk driving”(Washington Times).
22 Our Policy Recommendation/Alternative: The National Pilot Alcohol Education Program Act of 20??:Predicated notion: education is the best alternative to teach youth to learn how to drink responsibly, and hold them accountable for their actions, as done with driving.Through executive and legislative approval, and a combination of cooperation and partnership between state and local governments and our public education system(s)Amend the current law in two fundamental ways:Establish three new criteria for highway funding and or lack of.
23 Policy Recommendations/Alternatives (continued…): 2:Be a model for reality-based alcohol education and require the development and implementation on a state-by-state basis.Require guidelines for eligibility and suspension of licenses proposed in the model program.Provide accurate and unbiased alcohol education; acknowledge the social reality of alcohol in our society, but would advocate neither consumption nor abstinence. Instead it would seek only to construct a cultural and social context(s) for responsible choices where alcohol is concerned.Be taught by a certified alcohol instructor, trained to cover legal, ethical, and health issues of the alcoholic curriculum.