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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated,

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated,"— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

2 Learning Objectives 1.Describe the nature of leadership and relate leadership to management. 2.Discuss and evaluate the two generic approaches to leadership. 3.Identify and describe the major situational approaches to leadership. 4.Identify and describe three related approaches to leadership. 5.Describe three emerging approaches to leadership. 6.Discuss political behavior in organizations and how it can be managed. 17–2 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

3 The Nature of Leadership The Meaning of LeadershipThe Meaning of Leadership  Leadership as a Process: what leaders actually do.  Using noncoercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals.  Motivating others’ behavior toward goals.  Helping to define organizational culture.  Leaders are people who can influence the behaviors of others without having to rely on force.  Leadership as a Property: who leaders are.  Characteristics attributed to individuals perceived as leaders.  Leaders are people who are accepted as leaders by others. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–3

4 Leadership Versus Management LeadershipActivityManagement Establishing direction and vision for the organization Creating an agendaPlanning and budgeting, allocating resources Aligning people through communications and actions that provide direction Developing a human network for achieving the agenda Organizing and staffing, structuring and monitoring implementation Motivating and inspiring by satisfying needs Executing plansControlling and problem solving Produces useful change and new approaches to challenges OutcomesProduces predictability and order and attains results © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–4

5 ActivityManagementLeadership Creating an agendaPlanning and budgeting: Establishing detailed steps and timetables for achieving needed results; allocating the resources necessary to make those needed results happen Establishing direction: Developing a vision of the future, often the distant future, and strategies for producing the changes needed to achieve that vision Developing a human network for achieving the agenda Organizing and staffing: Establishing some structure for accomplishing plan requirements, staffing that structure with individuals, delegating responsibility and authority for carrying out the plan, providing policies and procedures to help guide people, and creating methods or systems to monitor implementation Aligning people: Communicating the direction by words and deeds to everyone whose cooperation may be needed to influence the creation of teams and coalitions that understand the visions and strategies and accept their validity Executing plansControlling and problem solving: Monitoring results versus planning in some detail, identifying deviations, and then planning and organizing to solve these problems Motivating and inspiring: Energizing people to overcome major political, bureaucratic, and resource barriers by satisfying very basic, but often unfulfilled, human needs OutcomesProduces a degree of predictability and order and has the potential to produce consistently major results expected by various stakeholders (for example, for customers, always being on time; or, for stockholders, being on budget) Produces change, often to a dramatic degree, and has the potential to produce extremely useful change (for example, new products that customers want, or new approaches to labor relations that help make a firm more competitive) © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17– Distinctions Between Management and Leadership

6 Management Challenge Question Based on what you learned about motivation in the previous chapter, is the statement— “management is functional, leadership is motivational”—defensible or are leaders really just practicing a higher form of management?Based on what you learned about motivation in the previous chapter, is the statement— “management is functional, leadership is motivational”—defensible or are leaders really just practicing a higher form of management? © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–6

7 The Nature of Leadership (cont’d) Legitimate power Coercive power Referent power Expert power Reward power Types of Power © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–7

8 Leadership and Power Power is the ability to affect the behavior of others.Power is the ability to affect the behavior of others.  Legitimate power is granted through the organizational hierarchy.  Reward power is the power to give or withhold rewards.  Coercive power is the capability to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threat.  Referent power is the personal power that accrues to someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charisma.  Expert power is derived from the possession of information or expertise. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–8

9 Power and Leadership Legitimate request Coercion Personal identification Information distortion Inspirational appeal Rational persuasion Instrumental compliance Uses of Power by Leaders © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–9

10 Using Power Legitimate RequestLegitimate Request  A subordinate’s compliance with a manager’s request because the organization has given the manager the right to make the request. Instrumental ComplianceInstrumental Compliance  A subordinate complies with a manager’s request to get the rewards that the manager controls. CoercionCoercion  Threatening to fire, punish, or reprimand subordinates if they do not do something. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–10

11 Using Power (cont’d) Rational PersuasionRational Persuasion  Convincing subordinates compliance is in their best interest. Personal IdentificationPersonal Identification  Using the superior’s referent power to shape a subordinate’s behavior. Inspirational AppealInspirational Appeal  Influencing a subordinate’s behavior through an appeal to a set of higher ideals or values (e.g., loyalty). Information DistortionInformation Distortion  Withholding or distorting information (which may create an unethical situation) to influence subordinates’ behavior. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–11

12 Management Challenge Question How would you rank the effectiveness of the forms of power that are used by managers when their subordinates are your age?How would you rank the effectiveness of the forms of power that are used by managers when their subordinates are your age?  Which type of power is most effective? Why?  Which type of power is the least effective? Why?  What does your ranking reveal about how the use of power by managers is changing (or must change) in today’s organization? © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–12

13 Generic Approaches to Leadership Leadership Traits ApproachLeadership Traits Approach  Assumed that a basic set of personal traits that differentiated leaders from nonleaders could be used to identify leaders and as a tool for predicting who would become leaders.  Was not unable to establish empirical relationships between traits and persons regarded as leaders. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–13

14 Investigation of Leadership Behaviors Job-centered behavior Employee-centered behavior Initiating-structure behavior Consideration behavior Leadership Behaviors Studies Michigan Studies Ohio State Studies © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–14

15 Leadership Behaviors Michigan Studies (Rensis Likert)Michigan Studies (Rensis Likert)  Identified two forms of leader behavior:  Job-centered leader behavior  Employee-centered leader behavior  These two forms of leader behaviors were considered to be at opposite ends of the same continuum and similar to (respectively) Likert’s System 1 and System 4 of organization design. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–15

16 Leadership Behaviors (cont’d) Ohio State StudiesOhio State Studies  Did not interpret leader behavior as being one- dimensional as did the Michigan State studies.  Initial research assumption: leaders who exhibit high levels of both behaviors would be most effective leaders.  Identified two basic leadership styles that can be exhibited independently and simultaneously:  Initiating-structure behavior  Consideration behavior © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–16

17 Leadership Behaviors (cont’d) Ohio State Studies (cont’d)Ohio State Studies (cont’d)  Subsequent research indicated that:  Employees of supervisors ranked high on initiating structure were high performers, but had low levels of satisfaction and had higher absenteeism.  Employees of supervisors ranked high on consideration had low- performance ratings, but had high levels of satisfaction and had less absenteeism.  Other situational variables make consistent leader behavior predictions difficult. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–17

18 Situational Approaches to Leadership Situational Models of Leader BehaviorSituational Models of Leader Behavior  Assume that:  Appropriate leader behavior depends on the situation.  Situational factors that determine appropriate leader behavior can be identified. Situational Leadership Theories:Situational Leadership Theories:  Leadership behavior continuum  Least preferred coworker theory  Path-goal theory  Decision tree approach  Leader-member exchange approach © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–18

19 Situational Approaches to Leadership Leadership Continuum (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)Leadership Continuum (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)  Continuum identifies a range of levels of leadership from boss-centered to subordinate-centered leadership  Variables influencing the decision-making continuum:  Leader’s characteristics  Subordinates’ characteristics  Situational characteristics © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–19

20 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17– Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum

21 Situational Approaches… (cont’d) Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Theory (Fiedler)Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Theory (Fiedler)  Assumed that leadership style is fixed and situation must be changed to favor the leader.  Appropriate leadership style varies with situational favorableness (from the leader’s viewpoint).  LPC scale asks leaders to describe the person with whom they are least able to work well.  High scale scores indicate a relationship orientation; low scores indicate a task orientation on the part of the leader.  Situational favorableness is determined by:  Quality of leader-member relations  Degree to which the structure of the group’s task is defined  Position power of the leader © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–21

22 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17– The Least-Preferred Coworker Theory of Leadership

23 Situational Approaches… (cont’d) Path-Goal Theory (Evans and House)Path-Goal Theory (Evans and House)  The primary functions of a leader are:  To make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace  To clarify for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that will lead to goal accomplishment or rewards  Leader Behaviors:  Directive leader behavior  Supportive leader behavior  Participative leader behavior  Achievement-oriented leader behavior 17–23 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

24 The Path-Goal Theory Situational Factors:Situational Factors: Work SituationLeadership StyleImpact on FollowersExpected Results Follower lacks self-confidence SupportiveIncreases self- confidence to complete task Increased effort. job satisfaction, and performance; fewer grievances Lack of job challenge Achievement- oriented Encourages setting high but attainable goals Improved performance and greater job satisfaction Improper procedures and poor decisions ParticipativeClarifies follower need for making suggestions and involvement Improved performance and greater satisfaction; less turnover Ambiguous jobDirectiveClarifies path to get rewards Improved performance and job satisfaction © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–24

25 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17– The Path-Goal Framework

26 Situational Approaches… (cont’d) Vroom’s Decision Tree ApproachVroom’s Decision Tree Approach  Attempts to prescribe a leadership style appropriate to a given situation.  Basic premises:  Subordinate participation in decision making depends on the characteristics of the situation.  No one decision-making process is best for all situations.  After evaluating problem attributes, a leader chooses a path on the decision trees that determines the decision style and specifies the amount of employee participation. –Decision significance –Decision timeliness © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–26

27 Situational Approaches… (cont’d) Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach (cont’d)Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach (cont’d) Decide (alone) Consult (individually) Consult (group) Facilitate Decision-Making Styles Delegate © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–27

28 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17– Vroom’s Time-driven Decision Tree

29 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17– Vroom’s Development- driven Decision Tree

30 Situational Approaches (cont’d) The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) ApproachThe Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Approach  Stresses the importance of variable relationships between supervisors and each of their subordinates.  Vertical dyads  Leaders form unique independent relationships with each subordinate (dyads) in which the subordinate becomes a member of the leader’s out-group or in-group. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–30

31 Leader Subordinate Out-Group In-Group © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17– The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model

32 Management Challenge Question Out of the loop? What effects does a dyadic relationship with a leader have on a subordinate’s participation in decision-making processes?Out of the loop? What effects does a dyadic relationship with a leader have on a subordinate’s participation in decision-making processes? © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–32

33 Related Approaches to Leadership Substitutes for LeadershipSubstitutes for Leadership  A concept that identifies situations in which leader behavior is neutralized or replaced by characteristics of subordinates, the task, and the organization. 17–33 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Subordinates Ability Experience Need for independence Professional orientation Indifference towards organizational goals Task Routineness The availability of feedback Intrinsic satisfaction Organization Formalization Group cohesion Inflexibility A rigid reward structure Characteristics that Substitute for Leadership

34 Charismatic Leadership (House) CharismaCharisma  Is an interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance  Is an individual characteristic of a leader. Charismatic persons are more successful than non-charismatic persons.Charismatic persons are more successful than non-charismatic persons. Charismatic leaders are:Charismatic leaders are:  Self-confident  Have a firm conviction in their belief and ideals  Possess a strong need to influence people © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–34

35 Related Approaches… (cont’d) Charismatic Leadership (cont’d)Charismatic Leadership (cont’d)  Charismatic leaders in organizations must be able to:  envision the future, set high expectations, and model behaviors consistent with expectations.  energize others through a demonstration of excitement, personal confidence, and patterns of success.  enable others by supporting them, by empathizing with them, and by expressing confidence in them. 17–35 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

36 Related Approaches… (cont’d) Transformational LeadershipTransformational Leadership  Goes beyond ordinary expectations by:  transmitting a sense of mission  stimulating learning  inspiring new ways of thinking © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–36

37 Keys to Successful Leadership Trusting in subordinates Keeping cool Being an expert Simplifying things Inviting dissent Encouraging risk Developing a vision Successful Leadership © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–37

38 Emerging Approaches to Leadership Strategic Leadership Cross-Cultural Leadership Ethical Leadership New Approaches to Leadership © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–38

39 Political Behavior in Organizations Political BehaviorPolitical Behavior  The activities carried out for the specific purpose of acquiring, developing, and using power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes. Inducement Creation of an obligation Coercion Impression management Persuasion Common Political Behaviors © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–39

40 Management Challenge Questions How could managers use impression management to increase their referent and expert powers?How could managers use impression management to increase their referent and expert powers? How could impression management conflict with ethical leadership?How could impression management conflict with ethical leadership? © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 17–40

41 Managing Political Behavior Be aware that even if actions are not politically motivated, others may assume that they are.Be aware that even if actions are not politically motivated, others may assume that they are. Provide subordinates with autonomy, responsibility, challenge, and feedback to reduce the likelihood of political behavior on their part.Provide subordinates with autonomy, responsibility, challenge, and feedback to reduce the likelihood of political behavior on their part. Avoid using power to avoid charges of political motivation.Avoid using power to avoid charges of political motivation. Get disagreements and conflicts out in the open so that subordinates have less opportunity to engage in political behavior.Get disagreements and conflicts out in the open so that subordinates have less opportunity to engage in political behavior. Avoid covert behaviors that give the impression of political intent even if none exists.Avoid covert behaviors that give the impression of political intent even if none exists. Clearly communicate the bases and processes for performance evaluation.Clearly communicate the bases and processes for performance evaluation. Tie rewards directly to performanceTie rewards directly to performance Minimize competition among managers for resources.Minimize competition among managers for resources. 17–41 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

42 KEY TERMS leadershipleadership leadersleaders powerpower legitimate powerlegitimate power reward powerreward power coercive powercoercive power referent powerreferent power expert powerexpert power job-centered leader behaviorjob-centered leader behavior employee-centered leader behavioremployee-centered leader behavior initiating-structure behaviorinitiating-structure behavior consideration behaviorconsideration behavior concern for productionconcern for production concern for peopleconcern for people least-preferred coworker (LPC) measureleast-preferred coworker (LPC) measure path-goal theorypath-goal theory Vroom’s decision tree approachVroom’s decision tree approach Leader-member exchange (LMX) modelLeader-member exchange (LMX) model Substitutes for leadershipSubstitutes for leadership charismatic leadershipcharismatic leadership charismacharisma transformational leadershiptransformational leadership strategic leadershipstrategic leadership political behaviorpolitical behavior impression managementimpression management 17–42 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.


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