Presentation on theme: "ADAM M, CHASE H, JASON S, JEN M, JORDAN L, JUSTIN B, KERRI R, KIRSTEN B, LEAH H, NICK P, NOLAN K, AND STEPH F MOTIVATION."— Presentation transcript:
ADAM M, CHASE H, JASON S, JEN M, JORDAN L, JUSTIN B, KERRI R, KIRSTEN B, LEAH H, NICK P, NOLAN K, AND STEPH F MOTIVATION
WHAT IS MOTIVATION? Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It accounts for the level, direction and persistence of effort expended at work. An extrinsic reward is a reward provided by someone else (ex CEO or manager) this usually works better for minimum wage jobs that people don’t work hard and need to be motivated (students jobs) doesn’t work in today’s society An intrinsic reward is a reward that occurs naturally during a job (personal motivation) usually higher paid jobs like an accountant works better (university)
EXAMPLES OF MOTIVATION Starbucks is what we know as one of the most popular “coffee houses” in the world. They offer great products and incentive to their consumers which is what makes them so popular. What most people don’t know is that they also offer get rewards to their employees. They have come up with a program called “bean stock”. This program gives employees stock options. If the company is successful the employee will gain from this. This program motivates employees to work hard for the company to benefit themselves.
NEEDS THEORIES Needs are shaped throughout our life by our different experiences and desires; an unfulfilled physiological or psychological desire. Content theories of motivation use individual needs to explain the behaviors and attitudes of people at work. There are 4 theories of needs, and 4 different theorists. The one we are going to be looking at today is the “Acquired Needs Theory” developed in the 1940’s.
THE ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY David McClelland identified that there were three needs that are central to his approach to motivation. Need for achievement, Need for Power, and Need for affiliation.
NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT People motivated by achievement need challenging, but not impossible, projects. People motivated by achievement work very effectively either alone or with other high achievers They thrive on overcoming difficult problems or situations, they must always be engaged.
NEED FOR AFFILIATION People motivated by affiliation work best in a group environment. They also don't like uncertainty or risk. People motivated by affiliation are motivated by appraisals that emphasize their good working relationship and the trust in them
NEED FOR POWER Those with a high need for power work best when they're in charge. People who are motivated by power like to behave in ways that have clear impact on other people and events. They enjoy being in control of the situation and enjoy being recognized for this responsibility.
EDWIN A. LOCKE American psychologist Professor in motivation and leadership Forerunner in the goal setting theory of motivation
TASK GOALS Mediated by our values Can be motivating if properly set up and managed. Provide direction, a frame of reference for task feedback and a foundation for behavioural self management Clarify performance expectations between: supervisors and subordinates, coworkers and subunits Enrich the overall performance of individuals and support job satisfaction
FACTORS AFFECTING THIS THEORY Time constraints Toxic employee interference External factors
PROPER EXECUTION OF TASKS Participation Trust in supervisors Externally imposed goals
GOAL SETTING RECOMMENDATIONS Sets specific goals Set challenging goals Build goal acceptance and commitment Clarify goal priorities Provide feedback on goal accomplishment Reward goal accomplishment
PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Management by objectives (MBO), is a personnel management technique where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor goals for a specific period of time. The process helps the employees to understand their duties at the workplace and are clear as to what is expected out of them. It leads to satisfied employees and eventually helps employees develop a feeling of loyalty towards the organization The technique was first seen in action by management expert Peter Drucker and became commonly used in the 1960s.
TEAM MEMBERS AND GOAL SETTING It helps strengthen certain work habits such as; Energizing - Inspiration to put out a certain amount of effort based upon the difficulty of achieving somebody 's goal. Task Persistence - The amount of time spent on the behavior to achieve a goal. Effective Strategies - In wanting to achieve a goal the individual seeks out different ways to achieve it.
TEAM GOAL SETTING CHALLENGES Difference in opinions Time consumption working in groups Non-participating group members (social loafing) Ineffective communication Domineering personalities Non-focused group members Tasks are not completed by the specific deadline
REINFORCEMENT THEORY OF MOTIVATION Views human behaviour as determined by its environmental consequences Focuses on external environment and the consequences it holds for the individual Rather than looking within an individual to explain motivation
LAW OF EFFECT Based on the basic premises of reinforcement theory created by E.L. Thorndike States that behaviour followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated Behaviour followed by unpleasant consequences is unlikely to be repeated
OPERANT CONDITIONING Theory developed by psychologist B.F. Skinner. Operant refers to any behavior that generates consequences. Why we exhibit our behaviors every day. This principle states that actions that are followed by desirable outcomes are likely to be repeated and those actions that are followed by undesirable outcomes are less likely to be repeated. Motivations can be explained by looking at external thoughts and actions instead of just focusing on the internal thoughts Situation outcomes that give us a positive feeling will most likely reoccur whereas those who don’t give us a positive feel or motive will most likely not occur again. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhI5h5JZi-U
THE FOUR REINFORCEMENT STRATEGIES 1. Positive Reinforcement: Involves giving a positive response to individuals who present quality work and a good behaviour. 2. Negative Reinforcement: Involves avoiding and removing an undesired condition. 3. Punishment: Involves discouraging a behaviour by removing positive consequence whilegenerating an unpleasant occurrence upon the behaviour. 4. Extinction: Involves lowering the occurrence of an undesired behaviour by removing rewards for an undesired consequence.
APPLYING THE REINFORCEMENT STRATEGIES Positive Reinforcement:(Meets production goals with zero defects) -Praising employees - Pay Increase Negative Reinforcement:(Meets production goals with zero defects) -Nagging employees -Present anger towards employees Punishment:(Meets production goals but with a high percentage of defects) - Reprimand employee - Make employee work late Extinction: (Meets production goals but with a high percentage of defects) - Withhold praise - Withhold reward
LAW OF IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK The more immediate the delivery of a reward after the event of a desirable behaviour, the greater the reinforcing value of the reward.
LAW OF CONTINGENT REINFORCEMENT Is a reward to have maximum value, it must be delivered only if the desired behaviour’s exhibited. It’s to enforce the notion that there is some type of consequences for both good and bad behaviour’s. The consequence is dependent on whether the person providing the reinforcement wants the behaviour to stop or to continue. Used at home, in classrooms and in the workforce. For example, in the classroom, say if the whole class passes a test, the teacher might offer a pizza party for everyone to reinforce their hard work and success. In the workforce, you may get praise from your bosses, raises or promotions. Negative reinforcement is seen in the threat of losing your jobs.
FEEDBACK REQUIREMENTS Positive Reinforcement Clearly identify desired work behaviors Maintain a diverse inventory of rewards Inform everyone of what must be done to get rewards Follow the laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement Punishment Tell the person what is being done wrong Tell the person what is being done right Make sure the punishment matches the behavior Administer the punishment in private Follow the laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement