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Presentation on theme: "Copy the following chart on thetop ten (10) linesPortfolio Copy the following chart on the top ten (10) lines of Portfolio p87 First Shots at Fort Sumter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copy the following chart on thetop ten (10) linesPortfolio Copy the following chart on the top ten (10) lines of Portfolio p87 First Shots at Fort Sumter Lincoln’s dilemma Lincoln’s decision Confederate response Outcome

2 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia Northern states’ response Southern states’ response Virginia’s importance Lee’s decision Copy the following chart on themiddle ten (10) linesPortfolio Copy the following chart on the middle ten (10) lines of Portfolio p87

3 Copy the following chart on thebottom ten (10) linesPortfolio Copy the following chart on the bottom ten (10) lines of Portfolio p87 Choosing Sides Importance of the border states Maryland Kentucky Virginia Missouri

4 Lesson 16.1a: War Erupts Today we will examine the decisions made by Lincoln in the early weeks of the Civil War.

5 Vocabulary examine – look at closely dilemma – a difficult problem with two equally undesirable solutions militia – group of volunteers who serve in their state’s military during emergencies border states – slave states that hadn’t seceded yet secession – withdrawal from the Union

6 What is a militia?

7 What is a border state?

8 What We Already Learned The election of 1860, which Abraham Lincoln won, showed how slavery had divided the country.

9 What We Already Learned “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.” In 1858, Lincoln himself had warned that slavery might fatally divided the Union.

10 Read aloud with me! What We Already Learned After Lincoln’s election, seven Southern states seceded and by February 1861 had formed the Confederate States of America.

11 What We Already Learned In his inaugural address, Lincoln reassured the South that he had no intention of interfering with slavery, but also spoke forcefully against secession.

12 What We Already Learned Lincoln wanted no invasion, but he would not abandon the government’s forts in the South. Most of these, including Fort Sumter in South Carolina, were still manned by Union troops. These forts would soon need to be resupplied. Lincoln wanted no invasion, but he would not abandon the government’s forts in the South. Most of these, including Fort Sumter in South Carolina, were still manned by Union troops. These forts would soon need to be resupplied.

13 1. How did the secession of the Southern states confirm the fears Lincoln had expressed in his “House Divided” speech? A.The powers of the House of Representatives would have to be increased. B.It demonstrated that Congress was too weak to deal with the nation's problems. C.It showed how the issue of slavery was threatening the Union. D.It meant slavery would have to be outlawed in the United States.

14 1. How did the secession of the Southern states confirm the fears Lincoln had expressed in his “House Divided” speech? A.The powers of the House of Representatives would have to be increased. B.It demonstrated that Congress was too weak to deal with the nation's problems. C.It showed how the issue of slavery was threatening the Union. D.It meant slavery would have to be outlawed in the United States.

15 Read aloud with me! First Shots at Fort Sumter Fort Sumter was running out of supplies.

16 First Shots at Fort Sumter Fort Sumter was running out of supplies. Lincoln decided to send supply ships to Fort Sumter. Fort Sumter was running out of supplies. Lincoln decided to send supply ships to Fort Sumter.

17 First Shots at Fort Sumter Fort Sumter was running out of supplies. Lincoln decided to send supply ships to Fort Sumter. Confederate commander P.G.T. Beauregard’s shore guns fired on the fort for 34 hours. Fort Sumter was running out of supplies. Lincoln decided to send supply ships to Fort Sumter. Confederate commander P.G.T. Beauregard’s shore guns fired on the fort for 34 hours.

18 First Shots at Fort Sumter Fort Sumter was running out of supplies. Lincoln decided to send supply ships to Fort Sumter. Confederate commander P.G.T. Beauregard's shore guns fired on the fort for 34 hours. The fort commander Major Robert Anderson was forced to surrender on April 14 th, 1861… Fort Sumter was running out of supplies. Lincoln decided to send supply ships to Fort Sumter. Confederate commander P.G.T. Beauregard's shore guns fired on the fort for 34 hours. The fort commander Major Robert Anderson was forced to surrender on April 14 th, 1861…

19 First Shots at Fort Sumter Two days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln asked the Union states to provide 75,000 militiamen for 90 days to put down the uprising in the South.

20 2. Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired? Fort Sumter was where the first shots of the Civil War were fired.

21 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia Lincoln’s call for 75,000 state militia troops for 90 days led to enthusiasm in the North.

22 In both North, and South, many responded with excitement, relief, or eagerness. Some feared the war would be over before they got a chance to fight. In both North, and South, many responded with excitement, relief, or eagerness. Some feared the war would be over before they got a chance to fight. Lincoln Calls Out the Militia

23 3. Which seven states were the first to secede to form the Confederacy? Which one is NOT included?

24 3. Which seven states were the first to secede to form the Confederacy? A.South Carolina B.Mississippi C.Kentucky D.Florida E.Alabama F.Georgia G.Louisiana H.Texas Which one is NOT included?

25 3. Which seven states were the first to secede to form the Confederacy? A.South Carolina B.Mississippi C.Kentucky D.Florida E.Alabama F.Georgia G.Louisiana H.Texas Which one is NOT included?

26 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia Southern states that had not yet seceded reacted with shock and anger to this decision. They thought Lincoln’s call for troops was evil and aggressive.

27 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas voted to join the Confederacy.

28 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia As in the North, Southern volunteers also rushed to enlist, with many fearing the war would be over before they could join the fight.

29 Virginia’s Secession With Virginia on its side, the Confed- eracy had a much better chance for victory. The Confederacy was strengthened by Virginia’s wealth, population, and prestige.

30 Virginia’s Secession In recognition of Virginia’s importance, the Confederacy moved its capital to Richmond.

31 Lee’s Decision Lincoln prepared for the war by offering command of all Union forces to the talented general, Robert E. Lee. Unwilling to fight against his home state, Lee resigned from the U.S. Army and offered his services to the Confederacy.

32 4. Why was Virginia important to the Confederacy? A.It was home to many important factories. B.It was a large and wealthy state. C.It was the home of the talented general, Robert E. Lee. D.Its mountains and valleys served as a protective barrier for the Confederate capital in Charleston. Choose all that are true!

33 4. Why was Virginia important to the Confederacy? A.It was home to many important factories. B.It was a large and wealthy state. C.It was the home of the talented general, Robert E. Lee. D.Its mountains and valleys served as a protective barrier for the Confederate capital in Charleston. Choose all that are true!

34 4. Why was Virginia important to the Confederacy? A.It was home to many important factories. B.It was a large and wealthy state. C.It was the home of the talented general, Robert E. Lee. D.Its mountains and valleys served as a protective barrier for the Confederate capital in Charleston. Choose all that are true!

35 5. Why did Robert E. Lee decide to fight for the Confederacy ? A.He did not support the idea of the Union. B.He hoped to serve in the Confederate government some day. C.He refused to fight against his home state. D.He wanted to keep using slaves on his plantation.

36 5. Why did Robert E. Lee decide to fight for the Confederacy ? A.He did not support the idea of the Union. B.He hoped to serve in the Confederate government some day. C.He refused to fight against his home state. D.He wanted to keep using slaves on his plantation.

37 Choosing Sides It was important to Lincoln that the border states did not secede. Border states were slave states that bordered the North and had not yet seceded.

38 Choosing Sides The location and resources of the border states made them pivotal in tipping the scales to one side or the other.

39 Choosing Sides Maryland was of great concern. If Maryland seceded, then Washington, D.C., would be cut off from the rest of the Union.

40 Choosing Sides Lincoln sent in troops and ordered the arrest of Maryland politicians who were sympathetic to the South. YOU’RE BUSTED!!

41 Choosing Sides Lincoln sent in troops and ordered the arrest of Maryland politicians who were sympathetic to the South. Because of Lincoln’s decisive actions, both Maryland and Delaware stayed in the Union.

42 Kentucky was deeply divided over secession. Its rivers could provide an invasion route into the South, or provide a barrier for the South. An 1861 invasion by Confederate troops convinced the state to stay in the Union. Kentucky was deeply divided over secession. Its rivers could provide an invasion route into the South, or provide a barrier for the South. An 1861 invasion by Confederate troops convinced the state to stay in the Union. Choosing Sides

43 Western Virginia, with the help of Union troops, broke away from Virginia and returned to the Union.

44 Choosing Sides In Missouri, Union troops and local unionists fought against secessionists.In Missouri, Union troops and local unionists fought against secessionists. In the end, Missouri also stayed in the Union.In the end, Missouri also stayed in the Union. In Missouri, Union troops and local unionists fought against secessionists.In Missouri, Union troops and local unionists fought against secessionists. In the end, Missouri also stayed in the Union.In the end, Missouri also stayed in the Union.

45 6. Why were the border states important to both sides?

46 A.Their location and resources made them pivotal in tipping the scales to one side or the other. B.They contained most of the people and wealth of the country. C.They believed in secession, but did not recognize slavery. D.Many European immigrants lived there, and could influence the support of European nations. A.Their location and resources made them pivotal in tipping the scales to one side or the other. B.They contained most of the people and wealth of the country. C.They believed in secession, but did not recognize slavery. D.Many European immigrants lived there, and could influence the support of European nations.

47 6. Why were the border states important to both sides? A.Their location and resources made them pivotal in tipping the scales to one side or the other. B.They contained most of the people and wealth of the country. C.They believed in secession, but did not recognize slavery. D.Many European immigrants lived there, and could influence the support of European nations. A.Their location and resources made them pivotal in tipping the scales to one side or the other. B.They contained most of the people and wealth of the country. C.They believed in secession, but did not recognize slavery. D.Many European immigrants lived there, and could influence the support of European nations.

48 7. Which border state was formed when it seceded from a Confederate state? A.North Carolina B.North Dakota C.West Virginia D.New Jersey E.Arkansas

49 7. Which border state was formed when it seceded from a Confederate state? A.North Carolina B.North Dakota C.West Virginia D.New Jersey E.Arkansas

50 7. Which border state was formed when it seceded from a Confederate state? A.North Carolina B.North Dakota C.West Virginia D.New Jersey E.Arkansas

51 Lesson 16.1b: Strengths and Strategies Today we will list the strengths and describe the strategies of each side at the beginning of the Civil War.

52 Vocabulary strength – a skill or an advantage strategy – long-term plan for success agrarian – having to do with agriculture or farming diplomat – one who is appointed by his government to maintain relations with another country

53 What is an agrarian economy? Noko shakai to wa nanidesu ka?

54 What is a strategy?

55 What We Already Learned Charleston, South Carolina’s shore guns fired on Fort Sumter until it was forced to surrender.

56 What We Already Learned Two days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln asked the Union states to provide 75,000 militiamen for 90 days to put down the uprising in the South.

57 What We Already Learned A.North Carolina B.North Dakota C.West Virginia D.New Jersey E.Arkansas Lincoln’s call for troops led four more states to join the Confederacy.

58 Strengths and Weaknesses

59 Industrial capacity About 85% of all factories were in the North. Factories: 110,000 to 18,000 Factory workers : 1,198,000 to 111,000 An industrial economy is invigorated by war, and an agrarian economy is devastated by war. About 85% of all factories were in the North. Factories: 110,000 to 18,000 Factory workers : 1,198,000 to 111,000 An industrial economy is invigorated by war, and an agrarian economy is devastated by war.

60 Farm acreage 65% in the North65% in the North 35% in the South35% in the South 65% in the North65% in the North 35% in the South35% in the South

61 Railroad system 21,847 miles in the North vs. 8,947 miles in the South21,847 miles in the North vs. 8,947 miles in the South (71% to 29%) Much of the southern rail lines had different gauges. 21,847 miles in the North vs. 8,947 miles in the South21,847 miles in the North vs. 8,947 miles in the South (71% to 29%) Much of the southern rail lines had different gauges.

62 Population Union population: 22 million (71%) Confederate population: 9 million (29%); 3.5 million were slaves Union population: 22 million (71%) Confederate population: 9 million (29%); 3.5 million were slaves

63 Public Support Public opinion was divided in the Union.Public opinion was divided in the Union. Some Northerners want to fight for union, others wanted to let the South go its own way.Some Northerners want to fight for union, others wanted to let the South go its own way. The South suffered from too much democracy.The South suffered from too much democracy. Southern citizens often refused to pay taxes, or provide slaves and supplies to the Confederate army.Southern citizens often refused to pay taxes, or provide slaves and supplies to the Confederate army. Some Southern states even threatened to secede from the Confederacy.Some Southern states even threatened to secede from the Confederacy. Public opinion was divided in the Union.Public opinion was divided in the Union. Some Northerners want to fight for union, others wanted to let the South go its own way.Some Northerners want to fight for union, others wanted to let the South go its own way. The South suffered from too much democracy.The South suffered from too much democracy. Southern citizens often refused to pay taxes, or provide slaves and supplies to the Confederate army.Southern citizens often refused to pay taxes, or provide slaves and supplies to the Confederate army. Some Southern states even threatened to secede from the Confederacy.Some Southern states even threatened to secede from the Confederacy.

64 Economic Policies Confederates didn’t exploit the Union blockade before it tightened.Confederates didn’t exploit the Union blockade before it tightened. Unwillingness to tax citizensUnwillingness to tax citizens Confederacy didn’t promote manufacturingConfederacy didn’t promote manufacturing Refused to free slaves for military serviceRefused to free slaves for military service Confederates didn’t exploit the Union blockade before it tightened.Confederates didn’t exploit the Union blockade before it tightened. Unwillingness to tax citizensUnwillingness to tax citizens Confederacy didn’t promote manufacturingConfederacy didn’t promote manufacturing Refused to free slaves for military serviceRefused to free slaves for military service

65 Wealth More people means more money. More manufacturing means more money ($1.7 billion in the North vs. $1.56 million in the South) Most banks were in the North.

66 Established government Confederacy began with neither a national government nor constitution Lincoln’s leadership Confederacy began with neither a national government nor constitution Lincoln’s leadership

67 Military tradition & leadership More of the most experienced and able commanders were from the South. Most Southern men could ride and shoot well. The South had always had a military school tradition. More of the most experienced and able commanders were from the South. Most Southern men could ride and shoot well. The South had always had a military school tradition.

68 An established navy Nearly all shipyards were in the North.Nearly all shipyards were in the North. Most naval officers were Northerners.Most naval officers were Northerners. The Union would be able to blockade the Confederate coastline.The Union would be able to blockade the Confederate coastline. Nearly all shipyards were in the North.Nearly all shipyards were in the North. Most naval officers were Northerners.Most naval officers were Northerners. The Union would be able to blockade the Confederate coastline.The Union would be able to blockade the Confederate coastline.

69 Diplomacy and Foreign Policy Union Secretary of State William Seward was an able diplomat. US-Britain relations were very good in 1861. The Union had many trade ties w/Britain. European countries were opposed to slavery.

70 Location Most battles would have to be fought in the South. Confederates would have knowledge of the land.Confederates would have knowledge of the land. Southerners would be close to their supply lines.Southerners would be close to their supply lines. Most battles would have to be fought in the South. Confederates would have knowledge of the land.Confederates would have knowledge of the land. Southerners would be close to their supply lines.Southerners would be close to their supply lines.

71 Motivation Northern reasons for fighting (preserving the Union) were indistinct. Southerners fought to defend their homes and way of life.

72 8. What were the strengths of the Union when the war began? A.More people and factories B.Talented generals C.Strong public support D.An established navy E.An established government F.Better motivation Choose ALL that are true!

73 8. What were the strengths of the Union when the war began? A.More people and factories B.Talented generals C.Strong public support D.An established navy E.An established government F.Better motivation Choose ALL that are true!

74 8. What were the strengths of the Union when the war began? A.More people and factories B.Talented generals C.Strong public support D.An established navy E.An established government F.Better motivation Choose ALL that are true!

75 8. What were the strengths of the Union when the war began? A.More people and factories B.Talented generals C.Strong public support D.An established navy E.An established government F.Better motivation Choose ALL that are true!

76 9. What were the Confederacy’s strengths at the beginning of the war ? A.An established navy B.Military tradition and leadership C.Defensive strategy D.More railroads E.Better motivation F.Good relations with foreign countries G.Presidential leadership Choose ALL that are true!

77 9. What were the Confederacy’s strengths at the beginning of the war ? A.An established navy B.Military tradition and leadership C.Defensive strategy D.More railroads E.Better motivation F.Good relations with foreign countries G.Presidential leadership Choose ALL that are true!

78 9. What were the Confederacy’s strengths at the beginning of the war ? A.An established navy B.Military tradition and leadership C.Defensive strategy D.More railroads E.Better motivation F.Good relations with foreign countries G.Presidential leadership Choose ALL that are true!

79 9. What were the Confederacy’s strengths at the beginning of the war ? A.An established navy B.Military tradition and leadership C.Defensive strategy D.More railroads E.Better motivation F.Good relations with foreign countries G.Presidential leadership Choose ALL that are true!

80 The Union Strategy General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan

81 The Union Strategy General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan A naval blockade of the South’s coastline General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan A naval blockade of the South’s coastline

82 The Union Strategy General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan A naval blockade of the South’s coastline Union to split the Confederacy in two by gaining control of the Mississippi River General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan A naval blockade of the South’s coastline Union to split the Confederacy in two by gaining control of the Mississippi River

83 The Union Strategy General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda PlanGeneral Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan A naval blockade of the South’s coastlineA naval blockade of the South’s coastline Union to split the Confederacy in two by gaining control of the Mississippi RiverUnion to split the Confederacy in two by gaining control of the Mississippi River Capture Richmond, the Confederate capitalCapture Richmond, the Confederate capital One drawback –it would take time to work.One drawback –it would take time to work. General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda PlanGeneral Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan A naval blockade of the South’s coastlineA naval blockade of the South’s coastline Union to split the Confederacy in two by gaining control of the Mississippi RiverUnion to split the Confederacy in two by gaining control of the Mississippi River Capture Richmond, the Confederate capitalCapture Richmond, the Confederate capital One drawback –it would take time to work.One drawback –it would take time to work.

84 The Confederate Strategy At first, a defensive strategy No need to invade or conquer your enemy: just survive until Northerners grew tired of the war and accept Southern independence At first, a defensive strategy No need to invade or conquer your enemy: just survive until Northerners grew tired of the war and accept Southern independence

85 The Confederate Strategy ‘King Cotton’ was withheld from the market as a way to win foreign support.

86 The Confederate Strategy King Cotton referred to cotton’s importance to the South and to the world’s economy.

87 The Confederate Strategy Unfortunately for the Confederacy, European nations had surplus cotton in their warehouses.

88 The Confederate Strategy Unfortunately for the Confederacy, European nations had surplus cotton in their warehouses. Most did not want to get involved in a foreign war.

89 The Confederate Strategy Unfortunately for the Confederacy, European nations had surplus cotton in their warehouses. Most did not want to get involved in a foreign war. Britain had begun cultivating cotton in its colonies in India.

90 The Confederate Strategy As the war went on, the South began to take the offensive, hoping to wreck Northern morale.

91 10. Why did the Confederates believe that they would be helped by Britain? A.They could increase cotton production as a form of bribery to foreign textile-producing nations. B.They portrayed themselves as victims of Northern aggression and brutality. C.They could withhold cotton from world markets, and force France and Britain to aid the Confederate cause. D.They were lending money to foreign governments in an attempt to buy their assistance.

92 10. Why did the Confederates believe that they would be helped by Britain? A.They could increase cotton production as a form of bribery to foreign textile-producing nations. B.They portrayed themselves as victims of Northern aggression and brutality. C.They could withhold cotton from world markets, and force France and Britain to aid the Confederate cause. D.They were lending money to foreign governments in an attempt to buy their assistance.

93 11. What were the three parts of the Union’s Anaconda Plan? A.Withhold factory goods from Britain until we have their help in the war B.Naval blockade of the South's coastline C.Capture of the Confederate capital city D.Union control of the Mississippi River E.Reliance upon European aid Choose ALL that are true!

94 11. What were the three parts of the Union’s Anaconda Plan? A.Withhold factory goods from Britain until we have their help in the war B.Naval blockade of the South's coastline C.Capture of the Confederate capital city D.Union control of the Mississippi River E.Reliance upon European aid Choose ALL that are true!

95 11. What were the three parts of the Union’s Anaconda Plan? A.Withhold factory goods from Britain until we have their help in the war B.Naval blockade of the South's coastline C.Capture of the Confederate capital city D.Union control of the Mississippi River E.Reliance upon European aid Choose ALL that are true!

96 11. What were the three parts of the Union’s Anaconda Plan? A.Withhold factory goods from Britain until we have their help in the war B.Naval blockade of the South's coastline C.Capture of the Confederate capital city D.Union control of the Mississippi River E.Reliance upon European aid Choose ALL that are true!

97 Battle of Bull Run To take Richmond, the railway center of Manassas, southwest of Washington, D.C., would have to be taken first. July 21, 1861, Union forces clashed with Confederate forces near a little creek called Bull Run.

98 Battle of Bull Run General Irvin McDowell General Irvin McDowell led Union forces against Confederates commanded by General Pierre Beauregard General Pierre Beauregard. General Irvin McDowell General Irvin McDowell led Union forces against Confederates commanded by General Pierre Beauregard General Pierre Beauregard.

99 Battle of Bull Run The battle was confusing, due to the smoke, the noise, and the similarities in flags and uniforms that day.

100 Battle of Bull Run At first, Union troops outnumbered the Confederates and had the upper hand.

101 Battle of Bull Run Fresh Confederate troops arrived by railroad, and the tide of battle began to turn.

102 Battle of Bull Run Eventually, the Union troops broke ranks and fled all the way back to Washington, D.C.

103 Battle of Bull Run The Confederate victory thrilled the South and many in the South thought the war was won. Lincoln sent the 90-day militias home and called for a real army of 500,000 volunteers for three years. It was beginning to look like it would be a long war.

104 12. How did Lincoln react after the Battle of Bull Run? A.He replaced General Meade with Ulysses S. Grant. B.He considered resigning from the presidency. C.He called for 500,000 volunteers to enlist for three years. D.He issued the Emancipation Proclamation.

105 12. How did Lincoln react after the Battle of Bull Run? A.He replaced General Meade with Ulysses S. Grant. B.He considered resigning from the presidency. C.He called for 500,000 volunteers to enlist for three years. D.He issued the Emancipation Proclamation.

106 Copy the following chart on thetop ten (10) linesPortfolio Copy the following chart on the top ten (10) lines of Portfolio p87 First Shots at Fort Sumter Lincoln’s dilemma He had to decide what to do with the Federal Forts within the Confederate States of America (CSA) borders... IF Lincoln attempted to resupply the Union forts, he risked starting a war with the CSA... Lincoln’s decision He informed South Carolina that he was sending supply ships to Fort Sumter... Confederate response Leaders of the Confederacy decided to prevent the Federal Government from holding on to Fort Sumter by attacking Fort Sumter... B.Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard commanded the CSA forces that were shelling Fort Sumter... Outcome After 34 hours of continuous shelling, Fort Sumter’s Commander, Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort to Confederate forces... This was the BEGINNING of the Civil War...

107 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia Northern states’ response President Lincoln asked Union States to provide 75,000 militiaman for 90 days to put down the Southern uprising... Northerners responded to Lincoln’s call with excitement and enthusiasm... Southern states’ response Southern leaders responded with anger to Lincoln’s call for troops: VA, NC, TN, AR all voted to join the Confederacy (CSA)... Southerners also responded with excitement and enthusiasm to go and fight against the Union... Virginia’s importance VA was a wealthy, prestigious & populous state... it was also the home to the CSA capital, Richmond, VA... Lee’s decision Robert E. Lee resigned from the U.S. Army and joined the CSA, even though he opposed slavery, and secession... He would not fight against his native home-state of Virginia (VA)... Copy the following chart on themiddle ten (10) linesPortfolio Copy the following chart on the middle ten (10) lines of Portfolio p87

108 Copy the following chart on thebottom ten (10) linesPortfolio Copy the following chart on the bottom ten (10) lines of Portfolio p87 Choosing Sides Importance of the border states Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri, all stayed within the Union... Their location & resources were very important to the Union. These states could ‘tip the scale’... Maryland Pro-Union leaders gained control of the Maryland legislature, and Maryland stayed with the Union... Kentucky Divided over secession, a CSA invasion in 1861 prompted Kentucky to stay in the Union... Virginia seceded from the Union, and joined the CSA... Counties in Western Virginia formed the state of West Virginia and stayed IN the Union... Missouri Missouri stayed in the Union, though Anti- Slavery forces still battled Pro-Slavery forces within the state... Missouri did stay in the Union...


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