2 Issues Understand common leadership models Understand the selection and training implications of each modelUnderstand your personal leadership style and its implicationsDevelop a model for organizational leadership effectivenessUnderstand and learn how to manage neutralizers and substitutes for leadershipCase: The Unique Bicycle Company (UBC)
3 LeadershipAn interpersonal process in which influence is exercised in a social system for the achievement of organizational goals by others
4 Leaders Influence Followers To achieve organizational and personal goalsTo become engaged in the organization & to develop commitment to the organizationTo be satisfied with the leadership processOther?
5 Content Analysis: Criteria Used to Evaluate Leaders InterpersonalStructuringFrequent personal contactMotivatorCommunicatorInterpersonal powerNurturingSupportiveCharismaChange RelatedPromoter of changeWillingness to changeThink outside the boxInnovativenessWillingness to take riskCont.
6 Content Analysis: Criteria Used to Evaluate Leaders(cont.) PersonalReality basedForward lookingEthicalSocially responsibleGoal orientedWilling to admit mistakesIntegrityCourageSelf-confidenceNo fearPatientAdaptableAbility to cope with pressureProactiveDecisiveManages escalation of commitmentTrusts othersDelivers on commitmentsCont.
7 Content Analysis: Criteria Used to Evaluate Leaders(cont.) StrategyVision settingIdentifies threats & opportunitiesOperational plans to serve strategic objectivesLong-term perspectiveAbility to executeWilling to adjustDoes researchOtherSets standardsManages cultureManages self & company imageCustomer focusTurnaround abilityEmotional & intellectual involvementCares about organization
8 ? ? For Discussion Good leaders are born Anyone can become a good leader?One “best kind” of leaderMatch leader to situation?
10 Universal Leadership Traits Model Assumption: It is possible to identify the person who has “the right stuff” to be a good leader in any situationSome Purported TraitsPhysical characteristicsSocial backgroundIntellectual abilityPersonalitySome Promising TraitsEnergy levelSelf-confidenceNeed for achievementNeed for power
11 Universal Leadership Behaviors Model Assumption: It is possible to identify the behaviors required to be a good leader in any situationThe degree to which a leader clarifies and defines roles for followersInitiating StructureConsideration BehaviorThe degree to which a leader attends to the welfare, comfort, needs, and satisfaction of followers
12 A Contemporary Leadership Trait Model TransactionalLeadersTransformationalLeadersFocus on development of trust, confidence, admiration, loyalty, and commitment. This is a charismatic leader.Focus on self-interest through exchange with the organization (the Path-Goal Model is an example)
13 Traits of Transformational Leaders High self-confidenceArticulate a visionAssume personal risk to pursue visionUse unconventional strategiesPerceive self as change agent
14 Transformational Leader Traits: An Example High self-confidenceArticulates a visionAssume personal risk to pursue visionUse unconventional strategiesPerceive self as change agentQuestion: Under what conditions is a transformational leader appropriate?
15 Situation-Contingent Leadership Behavior Model Assumption: Possible to create a match between the situation and the behaviors of the leaderLogicHelp followers perform effectively by providing directionMake rewards (thus, satisfaction) contingent on performanceBe perceived as instrumental in obtaining satisfactionExampleEvans & HousePath-Goal Model
16 Key Leader Behaviors Directive (initiating structure) Supportive (consideration)Achievement-oriented (creating and defining challenges and opportunities to succeed)Participative (involving followers in problem-solving and decision-making)
17 Research Results: Impact of Initiating Structure On satisfaction and other attitudes?Sometimes positive. When?Sometimes negative. When?Performance?Sometimes no effect. When?
18 Research Results: Impact of Consideration On satisfaction and other attitudes?Usually positive. Why?Performance?Sometimes positive. When?Sometimes no effect. When?
19 Research Results: Achievement-Oriented Behavior On satisfaction and other attitudes?Usually positive. Why?Sometimes negative. When?On Performance?Sometimes positive. When?Sometimes no effect. When?
20 Research Results: Participative-Oriented Behavior On satisfaction and other attitudes?Usually positive. Why?Sometimes negative. When?On Performance?Sometimes positive. When?
21 Situational Characteristics FollowersAuthoritarianismLocus of controlTask-related abilityNeed for achievementEnvironmentalNature of task (structuring? rewarding?)Formal authority (does leader have authority?)Primary work group (structuring? rewarding?)
22 Good Matches SITUATION BEHAVIOR Directive Supportive People with external locus of control, low task ability or working on ambiguous tasksPeople working on stressful, frustrating, or dissatisfying tasksPeople with need for achievement working on ambiguous, nonrepetitive tasksPeople with internal locus of control or ego-involved in ambiguous tasksOther good matches?DirectiveSupportiveAchievement-orientedParticipative
25 Leadership Trait Model Selection & Training ImplicationLeadership Trait ModelAssess critical situation characteristicsAssess traits of leadersPlace leaders into situations where traits will be effectiveOR(Re)Engineer situation so current leaders’ traits become effective
26 Situation-Contingent Behavior Model Selection & Training ImplicationSituation-Contingent Behavior ModelAssess characteristics of followers (e.g., personality)Assess characteristics of the environment (e.g., task structure, authority, group factors)Appoint leaders who behave appropriately for situationORTeach leaders how to behave for situationORChange situation to match behavior of leader
27 Potential Neutralizers of & Substitutes for Leadership Factors that reduce the ability of leaders to exert influenceFactors that reduce the necessity for leadershipLeader
28 Potential Neutralizers Indifference toward (or unavailability of) organizational rewardsLow leader position powerEnvironmental inflexibility (e.g., rigid rules & procedures)Limited interaction of leaders & followersOthers inside or outside the organization exert more influenceOther?Leader
29 Dealing With Potential Neutralizers How do we identify potential neutralizers?How do we prevent neutralization from occurring?How do we deal with neutralizing effects as they occur?Leader
30 Potential Substitutes Follower ability, training, and experienceProfessional orientation of followersTask structure (routine, unambiguous)Feedback from the task itselfIntrinsically satisfying tasksWork group cohesivenessFormalization (e.g., plans, goals, responsibilities)
31 Managing Substitutes What factors create a need for substitutes? How do we create, introduce, and manage substitutes?What are the major barriers to the effective use of substitutes?
32 Effective Leaders Influence Followers A REMINDERTo achieve organizational and personal goalsTo become engaged in the organization & develop commitment to the organizationTo be satisfied with the leadership processOther?
33 Leadership & Power: Comments on Power “Power is America’s last dirty word. It is easier to talk about money—and much easier to talk about sex—than it is to talk about power.” Kantor“…those who love laws and sausages should not watch either being made…. We honor leaders for what they achieve, but we often prefer to close our eyes to the way they achieve it.” Pfeffer“…the qualities required for leadership are not necessarily those that we would want our children to emulate—unless we wanted them to be leaders.” Pfeffer
34 Leadership & the Role of Interpersonal Power Definition: The ability to influence others and maintain control over your own fateQuestion: When is power an important component of leadership? Why?Question: How can the power of followers work for/against a leader?
35 Bases of PowerReferentCoerciveRewardExpertLegitimateResource
36 Legitimate PowerExists when one person believes that another person has the right to influence him or her (authority)
37 Reward PowerExists when one person believes another person can and is willing to provide or withhold rewards
38 Coercive PowerExists when one person believes another person can and is willing to provide or withhold punishment
39 Referent (Charismatic) Power Exists when one person finds another attractive and wants to be associated with or affiliated with that person
40 Expert PowerExists when one person believes another person has desired expertise and is willing to share or withhold it
41 Resource PowerExists when one person believes that another person has desired (nonexpert) resources and is willing to share or withhold them
42 Principles of Power Power is perception based Power is relative Power bases must be coordinatedPower is a double-edged sword (used and abused)
43 Organizational Power Management Empower to punish othersSelect charismatic individualEmpower to reward othersSelect & train for desired expertiseProvide resources to manageAssign to position of authority
44 Personal Power Management Use & make authority knownBe a nice personAcquire and make expertise knownShow ability to provide or with-hold rewardsAcquire and make resources knownShow ability to provide or with-hold punishment
45 Issues Understand common leadership models Understand the selection and training implications of each modelUnderstand your personal leadership style and its implicationsDevelop a model for organizational leadership effectivenessUnderstand and learn how to manage neutralizers and substitutes for leadershipCase: The Unique Bicycle Company (UBC)