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TIPS: Team Initiated Problem Solving 1. The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network The mission of the Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network.

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Presentation on theme: "TIPS: Team Initiated Problem Solving 1. The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network The mission of the Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network."— Presentation transcript:

1 TIPS: Team Initiated Problem Solving 1

2 The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network The mission of the Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network (PA PBS Network), through training and technical assistance, is to support schools and their family and community partners to create and sustain comprehensive, school-based behavioral health support systems in order to promote the academic, social and emotional well-being of all Pennsylvania’s students. The network’s goal is to ensure that all schools have the necessary technical assistance, collaborative opportunities, and evaluative tools needed to overcome non-academic barriers to learning and achieve competence and confidence in advancing academic, social, and emotional success for all students. 2

3 Objectives Provide an overview of the TIPS System Review effective meeting practices through the use of the TIPS Meeting Foundations Change primary statements into precision statements and identify a problem that includes precision elements critical for problem solving Review the use of data based decision making 3

4 Sharing Time 4

5 Why TIPS? Every school has teams Teams are being expected to do problem solving Get training and implement new ideas/programs Provide efficient leadership Teams need to report data to administration, district, state Teams NEED data to do good problem solving. Most teams are not skilled at running problem solving meetings and using data for decision-making 5

6 What do Teams Need? A clear model with steps for problem solving Access to the right information at the right time in the right format A formal process that a group of people can use to build and implement solutions. 6

7 TIPS Model Provides tools to define a system for effective meetings, roles, responsibilities, materials, accountability and procedures Steps for effective problem solving including a strategy for assessing, monitoring, and evaluating the implementation and results of solutions Can be used with other data sets 7

8 Collect and Use and UseData Review Status and Identify Problems Develop and Refine Hypotheses Discuss and Select Solutions Develop and Implement Action Plan Evaluate and Revise Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model 8

9 TIPS Model Team Meeting – Use of electronic meeting minute system – Formal roles – Specific expectations – Access and use of data – Projected meeting minutes 9

10 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff & Student Behavior and Decision Making Building Capacity and Sustainability OUTCOMES For Social Competence, Academic Achievement, and Safety SWIS or other data collection and reporting system Electronic Meeting Minutes Form *Meeting time *Support *Report to Faculty 10

11 Improving Decision-Making via Problem Solving Problem Solving Solution Information/ Data Action Planning & Evaluation 11

12 Problem-Solving Meeting Foundations Structure for efficiency & effectiveness 12

13 Meeting Minutes Documentation of – Logistics of meeting – Agenda items for today’s meeting and the next meeting – Discussion items, decisions made, tasks and timelines assigned – Problem statements, solutions/decisions/tasks, people assigned to implement with timelines assigned, and an evaluation plan to determine effect on student behavior 13

14 Meeting Minutes Review of Meeting Minutes Effective strategy for getting a snapshot of what happened at the previous meeting and what needs to be reviewed during the upcoming meeting – What was the issue/problem? – What were we going to do? – Who was going to do it and by when? – How are we measuring progress toward the goal? 14

15 Meeting Minutes Visual tracking of focus topics during/after the meeting – Prevents side conversations – Prevents repetition – Encourages completion of tasks 15

16 Organizing for an effective problem solving conversation Problem Solution Out of Time Use Data A key to collective problem solving is to provide a visual context that allows everyone to follow and contribute 16

17 Meeting Minutes Goal Utilize a system that is NOT person dependent Allow participation without previous history Fit into any role needed – Facilitator – Minute taker – Data analyst – Active team member 17

18 PBIS Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan Form Today’s Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker:Data Analyst: Next Meeting:Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker:Data Analyst: Team Members (bold are present today) Today’s Agenda Items Next Meeting Agenda Items Information for Team, or Issue for Team to Address Discussion/Decision/Task (if applicable)Who?By When? Administrative/General Information and Issues Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, based on review of data (What, When, Where, Who, Why) Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Safety) Who?By When? Goal, Timeline, Decision Rule, & Updates Problem-Solving Action Plan Our Rating YesSo-SoNo 1. Was today’s meeting a good use of our time? 2. In general, did we do a good job of tracking whether we’re completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings? 3. In general, have we done a good job of actually completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings? 4. In general, are the completed tasks having the desired effects on student behavior? Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an “X”) 18

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22 Collect and Use and UseData Review Status and Identify Problems Develop and Refine Hypotheses Discuss and Select Solutions Develop and Implement Action Plan Evaluate and Revise Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model 22

23 Meeting Foundations 23

24 Meeting Foundations Define purpose of team meeting – Decisions to be made; cycle of decision making; data sources to use Define roles and responsibilities Define team agreements about meeting processes – Inform facilitator of absence/tardy prior to meeting – Be prepared by completing assigned tasks – Avoid side bars and stay focused – Start and end on time – Be an active participant – Use electronic minutes 24

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26 Activity Complete the Foundations Checklist Use the PBIS team you know best How would you use the Foundations Checklist to help a school team that was preparing to adopt TIPS procedures? 26

27 Data Collection You will need: SWIS or another information system for gathering, entering, summarizing, reporting and using office discipline referral information A progress monitoring tool for improving the ability of school personnel to develop safe and effective learning environments 27

28 ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% 0-1 office discipline referral 6+ office discipline referrals 2-5 office discipline referrals Using office discipline referrals as a metric for universal screening of student social behavior 28

29 Using ODRs to Identify Problems Build a picture for the pattern of office referrals in your school. Compare the picture with a national average Compare the picture with previous years Compare the picture with social standards of faculty, families, students. 29

30 Goal 1.Identify problems empirically 2.Identify problems early 3.Identify problems in a manner that leads to problem solving not just whining 30

31 SWIS Summary National 31

32 New SWIS Graph Average Referrals Per Day Per Month (National data lines) 32

33 SWIS summary (Majors Only) 4,019 schools; 2,063,408 students; 1,622,229 ODRs Grade RangeNumber of Schools Mean Enrollment per school ODRs per 100 per school day K (Mean).32 (sd =.43) (Median) (Mean).69 (sd =.85) (Median) (Mean).95 (sd = 1.12) (Median).68 K-(8-12) (Mean).72 (sd = 1.63) (Median).42 33

34 N =

35 Using Data to Problem Solve Do we have a problem? Refine the description of the problem? What behavior, Who, Where, When, Why Test hypotheses “I think the problem on the playground is due to Eric” “ We think the lunch period is too long” “We believe the end of ‘block schedule” is used poorly” Define how to monitor if solution is effective 35

36 Using Data Do We Have a Problem? What data to monitor – ODR per day per month – OSS, ISS, Attendance, Teacher report – Team Implementation Checklist – Benchmarks of Quality What questions to ask of Level, Trend, Peaks – How do our data compare with last year? – How do our data compare with national/regional norms? – How do our data compare with our expectations? If a problem is identified, then ask – What are the data we need to make a good decision? 36

37 Using Data Refine the Problem Statement The statement of a problem is important for team-based problem solving. Everyone must be working on the same problem with the same assumptions. Problems often are framed in a “Primary” form, that creates concern, but that is not useful for problem-solving. Frame primary problems based on initial review of data Use more detailed review of data to build “Solvable Problem Statements.” 37

38 Solvable Problem Statements What are the data we need for a decision? Five core “W” questions. – What is problem, and how often is it happening – Where is it happening – Who is engaged in the behavior – When the problem is most likely – Why the problem is sustaining 38

39 What are the data you are most likely to need to move from a Primary to a Precise statement? What problem behaviors are most common? – ODR per Problem Behavior Where are problem behaviors most likely? – ODR per Location When are problem behaviors most likely? – ODR per time of day Who is engaged in problem behavior? – ODR per student Why are problem behaviors sustaining? – Motivation Graph 39

40 Primary versus Precise Statements Primary Statements – Too many referrals – September has more suspensions than last year – Gang behavior is increasing – The cafeteria is out of control – Student disrespect is out of control Precise Statements – There are more ODRs for aggression on the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment. 40

41 Precise Statements 5 Core “W” Questions What Where When Who Why Precise Statements There are more ODRs for aggression on the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment. 41

42 Precise or Primary Statement? ODRs during December are higher than in any other month. Minor disrespect and disruption are increasing over time, and are most likely during the last 15 minutes of our block periods when students are engaged in independent seat work. This pattern is most common in 7 th and 8 th grades, involves many students, and appears to be maintained by escape from work (but may also be maintained by peer attention… we are not sure). 42

43 Precise or Primary Statement? Children are using inappropriate language with a high frequency in the presence of both adults and other children. This is creating a sense of disrespect and incivility in the school James D. is hitting others in the cafeteria during lunch, and his hitting is maintained by peer attention. 43

44 Precise Statements Using your data, develop a precision statement that describes a problem behavior your data shows 44

45 Solutions – Generic Strategies Prevent – Remove or alter “trigger” for problem behavior Define & Teach – Define behavioral expectations; provide demonstration/instruction in expected behavior (alternative to problem behavior Reward/reinforce – The expected/alternative behavior when it occurs; prompt for it, as necessary Withhold reward/reinforcement – For the problem behavior, if possible (“Extinction”) Use non-rewarding/non-reinforcing corrective consequences – When problem behavior occurs Although not a “solution strategy,” Safety may need to be considered (i.e., procedures that may be required to decrease likelihood of injuries or property damage) 45

46 Prevent “Trigger” Define & Teach Reward/Reinforce Withhold Reward Corrective consequence Other Safety 46 Trevor Test Middle School Hypothesis:

47 Implementing Solutions Who is going to do it? When will they do it? Minute Taker writes this information down, facilitator follows up at next meeting on status of implementation 47

48 Evaluating Solutions Define the goal for solving the problem What will ‘it’ look like when you say it is not a problem Define how you will know that the solutions were implemented as planned (with fidelity)? How often will you conduct a status review? Define how you will know that the solutions had a positive effect on student achievement, social competence, and/or safety? How often will you monitor student progress? 48

49 Achieving a Precise Problem Statement for Fictional Trevor Test School Middle School – Grades 6, 7, & students 49

50 Trevor Test Middle School n= 565 grades 6-8 Is there a problem? Compare to national average, compare to last year, examine trend, examine peaks? 50 MEDIAN565/100 = 5.65; 5.65 X.50 = 2.8

51 Trevor Test Middle School Identified Problem Identified problem – for last 4 months, Major ODRs per day higher than national average – increasing trend across all 5 months 51

52 Trevor Test Middle School 11/01/2007 through 01/31/2008 (last 3 mos.) 52

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54 What information do we need? Who is involved in problem behavior in the cafeteria? ODRs in the Cafeteria 54

55 Main problem The sixth graders are disruptive & use inappropriate language in the cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM to get peer attention. 55

56 Trevor Test The sixth graders are disruptive & use inappropriate language in the cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM to get peer attention. 56

57 Prevent “Trigger”Change lunch schedule so fewer students are eating between 11:30 AM & 12:00 PM? Define & TeachFocus on 6 th graders; define cafeteria expectations; develop and post expectation signage in cafeteria; demonstrate/teach expectations in class periods occurring just prior to lunch Reward/ReinforceSet up “Friday 5” (extra 5 mins. of lunch time on Friday, if no ODRs occur in cafeteria during lunch time) Withhold RewardEnsure staff don’t argue back and forth with student if instance of disruption occurs (may be an inadvertent reward); remind students that paying attention to a disruptive student can mess up Friday 5 Corrective consequenceEnsure active supervision during lunch (add one supervisor between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM?); ensure quick corrective consequence, per our handbook OtherDetermine whether Behavior Support Program has been initiated for Student #10; if it has, make sure it includes focus on disruption in cafeteria Safety 57 Trevor Test Middle School Hypothesis - cafeteria overcrowded; 6th graders with insufficient instruction in cafeteria expectations; attention from adults and peers rewarding disruption

58 Trevor Test Solution Actions Choose the solutions that will create an environment that makes the problem irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective. Choose least amount of work that will have the biggest impact on decreasing the problem. Implementing the solution requires action and time lines Problems need goals so that we can measure progress and know when to move on. Use weekly 1-5 survey of cafeteria monitors to assess implementation of plan 58 Are we doing the plan? 1 ….. 2 …..3 ….. 4 ….. 5 No Yes

59 Trevor Test Solution Actions Choose the solutions that will create an environment that makes the problem irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective. Choose least amount of work that will have the biggest impact on decreasing the problem. Implementing the solution requires action and time lines Problems need goals so that we can measure progress and know when to move on. Use weekly 1-5 survey of cafeteria monitors to assess implementation of plan 59

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61 For additional information: Name:____________ Address:__________ TIPS: Team Initiated Problem Solving 61


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