2 Communicating in the Internet Age Chapter TwelveCommunicating in the Internet Age
3 Chapter Twelve Outline Basic Dimensions of the Communication ProcessA Perceptual Process Model of CommunicationCommunication Distortion Between Managers and EmployeesInterpersonal CommunicationAssertiveness, Aggressiveness, and NonassertivenessSources of Nonverbal CommunicationActive ListeningWomen and Men Communicate Differently
4 Chapter Twelve Outline (continued) 12-1bChapter Twelve Outline (continued)Communication in the Computerized Information AgeInternet/Intranet/ExtranetElectronic MailVideoconferencingCollaborative ComputingTelecommutingBarriers to Effective CommunicationProcess BarriersPersonal BarriersPhysical BarriersSemantic Barriers
5 A Perceptual Model of Communication 12-2Figure 12-1A Perceptual Model of CommunicationEncodingMessageTransmitted on mediumReceiver decodesSenderReceiver creates meaningNoiseSource decodesTransmitted on mediumMessageEncoding
6 Patterns of Distortion in Upward Communication Sources of Distortion in Upward Communication12-3Figure 12-2Situational AntecedentsPatterns of Distortion in Upward CommunicationSupervisor’s upward influenceLowHighIncreased distortion because employees send more favorable information and withhold useful information.LowHigh2. Supervisor’s powerIncreased distortion because employees screen out information detrimental to their welfare.LowHigh3. Subordinate’s aspiration for upward mobilityLess accuracy because employees tend to pass along information that helps their cause.LowHigh4. Subordinate’s trust in the supervisorConsiderable distortion because employees do not pass up all information they receive.
7 Communication Styles Assertive Table 12-1aCommunication Nonverbal Behavior Verbal BehaviorStyle Description Pattern PatternGood eye contact; Comfortable but firm posture; Strong, steady and audible voice; Facial expressions matched to message; Appropriately serious tone; Selective interruptions to ensure understanding.Direct and unambiguous language; No attributions or evaluations of others’ behavior; Use of “I” statements and cooperative “we” statements.Pushing hard without attacking; permits others to influence outcome; expressive and self-enhancing without intruding on others.Assertive
8 Communication Styles (continued) 12-4bTable 12-1bCommunication Nonverbal Behavior Verbal BehaviorStyle Description Pattern PatternGlaring eye contact; Moving or leaning too close; Threatening gestures (pointing finger; clenched fist); Loud Voice; Frequent interruptions.Swear words and abusive language; Attributions and evaluations of others’ behavior; Sexist or racists terms; Explicit threats or put-downs.Taking advantage of others; Expressive and self-enhancing at others’ expense.Aggressive
9 Communication Styles (continued) Table 12-1cCommunication Nonverbal Behavior Verbal BehaviorStyle Description Pattern PatternLittle eye contact; Downward glances; Slumped postures; Constantly shifting weight; Wringing hands; Weak or whiny voice.Qualifiers (“maybe,” “kind of” ); Fillers (“uh,” “you know,” “well”); Negaters (“it’s really not that important,” “I’m not sure”).Encouraging others to take advantage of us; Inhibited; Self-denying.Nonassertive
10 Skills and Best Practices: Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills Positive Nonverbal Actions Include:Maintain eye contact.Nod your head to convey that you are listening or that you agree.Smile and show interest.Lean forward to show the speaker you are interested.Use a tone of voice that matches your message
11 Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills (cont) Negative Nonverbal Actions Include:Avoiding eye contact and looking away from the speaker.Closing your eyes or tensing your facial muscles.Excessive yawning.Using body language that conveys indecisiveness or lack of confidence (e.g., slumped shoulders, head down, flat tones, inaudible voice)Speaking too fast or too slow.
12 12-7Listening StylesResults-style: Interested in the bottom line or result of a message.Reasons-style: Interested in hearing the rationale behind a message.Process-style: Likes to discuss issues in detail.
13 Assessing your Listening Skills 12-8Hands-on ExerciseAssessing your Listening SkillsHow would you evaluate your listening skills?Which statements from the survey gave you the most problems? Why do you think this occurred?Why is it hard to be a good listener?
14 Keys to Effective Listening The Keys to Effective Listening12-9aTable 12-2Keys to Effective ListeningThe Bad ListenerThe Good Listener1. Capitalize on thoughtspeedTends to daydreamStays with the speaker, mentally summarizes the speaker, weighs evidence, and listens between the lines2. Listen for ideasListens for factsListens for central or overall ideas3. Find an area of interestTunes out dry speakers or subjectsListens for any useful information4. Judge content, notdeliveryTunes out dry monotone speakersAssesses content by listening to entire message before making judgments5. Hold your fireGets too emotional or worked up by something said by the speaker and enters into an argumentWithholds judgment until comprehension is completeSources: Derived from N Skinner, “Communication Skills,” Selling Power, July/August 1999, pp 32-34; and G Manning, K Curtis, and S McMillen, Building the Human Side of Work Community (Cincinnati, OH: Thomson Executive Press, 1996), pp
15 Keys to Effective Listening The Keys to Effective Listening (cont)12-9bTable 12-2Keys to Effective ListeningThe Bad ListenerThe Good Listener6. Work at listeningDoes not expend energy on listeningGives the speaker full attention7. Resist DistractionsIs easily distractedFights distractions and concentrates on the speaker8. Hear what is saidShuts our or denies unfavorable informationListens to both favorable and unfavorable information9. Challenge yourselfResists listening to presentations of difficult subject mannerTreats complex presentations as exercises for the mind10. Use handouts, overheads,or other visual aidsDoes not take notes or pay attention to visual aidsTakes notes as required and uses visual aids to enhance understanding of the presentation
16 Key Terms Associated with Information Technology Organizations are increasingly using information technology to improve productivity and customer satisfaction.Internet: a global network of computer networksIntranet: an organization’s private internet that uses firewalls to block outside internet users from accessing confidential informationExtranet: an extended intranet that connects internal employees with customers, suppliers, and other strategic partnersElectronic Mail: uses the internet/intranet to send computer-generated text and documentsVideo Conferencing: uses video and audio links to connect people at different locations
17 Key Terms Associated with Information Technology (continued) 12-10bKey Terms Associated with Information Technology (continued)Collaborative Computing: uses computer software and hardware to link people across a room or across the globe - Collaborative applications include , calendar management, video conferencing, computer teleconferencing, and computer aided decision-makingsystemsTelecommuting: involves receiving and sending work from home to the office by using the phone and a computer linkFor class discussion: What are the managerial challenges associated with managing the growing number of employees who telecommute?
18 Barriers to Effective Communication 12-11Process Barriers: involve all components of the perceptual model of communicationPersonal Barriers: involve components of an individual’s communication competence and interpersonal dynamics between people communicatingPhysical Barriers: pertain to the physical distance between people communicatingSemantic Barriers: relate to the different understanding and interpretations of the words we use to communicateFor class discussion: Which of the barriers to effective communication is the most difficult to deal with? Explain.