Presentation on theme: "2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-1 7 7 Leadership 1 LeadershipLeadership 2 Sources of powerSources of power 3Leadership TheoryLeadership Theory 4Two pointsTwo."— Presentation transcript:
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-1 7 7 Leadership 1 LeadershipLeadership 2 Sources of powerSources of power 3Leadership TheoryLeadership Theory 4Two pointsTwo points
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-2 Leadership Leadership is the process where a person exerts influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve goals. Leader: The person exerting the influence.
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-3 Sources of Power Reward Power Power Legitimate Power Power Coercive Power Power Expert Power Power Referent Power Power Enable managers to be leaders & influence subordinates to achieve goals Enable managers to be leaders & influence subordinates to achieve goals
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-4 Legitimate Power Legitimate Power: manager’s authority resulting by their management position in the firm. Can be power to hire/fire workers, assign work.
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-5 Reward Power: based on the manager’s ability to give or withhold rewards. Pay raises, bonuses, verbal praise. Reward Power
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-6 Coercive Power Coercive Power: based in ability to punish others. Ranges from verbal reprimand to pay cuts to firing. Can have serious negative side effects.
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-7 Expert Power: based on special skills of leader. First & middle managers have most expert power. Often found in technical ability. Expert Power
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-8 Referent Power: results from personal characteristics of the leader which earn worker’s respect, loyalty and admiration. Usually held by likable managers who are concerned about their workers. Referent Power
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-9 Leadership Theories – Trait Model: sought to identify personal characteristics responsible for effective leadership. Trait Model – Behavioral Model: Identifies types of effective managerial behavior. Behavioral Model – Contingency Model: Leadership effectiveness depend on the situation Contingency Model
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-10 Theories isolating characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders. This theory is only useful to select leaders, because: – Many “traits” are the result of skills and knowledge. – Not all effective leaders possess all these traits. Trait Theories
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-11 Trait of Manager Drive Desire to lead Honesty and integrity Self-confidence Intelligence Job-relevant knowledge.
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-12 Behavioral Theories Theories identifying behaviors that differentiate effective from ineffective leaders. One behavioral theory: The Managerial Grid
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-13 The Managerial Grid Two types of leading styles Concern of Production Concern of People Five key positions: Impoverished 贫乏型管理 Task 任务型管理 Country club 乡村俱乐部型 Middle of the road 中庸之道型 Team 团队型管理
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-15 The Managerial Grid Conclusion : Managers perform best using a 9.9 style. Unfortunately the grid offers no answers to how makes a manager an effective leader.
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-16 Contingency Theories Out coming the idea: Leadership effectiveness depended on the situation and try to isolate those situational conditions Consider that the leader’s styles still cannot be changed. Fiedler contingency theory Path-goal theory
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-17 Fiedler Contingency Model One presume :the leader cannot change his leading style Two Leader’s types distinct by PLC scale: Task-oriented Relation-oriented
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-18 PLC questionnaire Think of all the co-worker they have ever had and to describe the one person they least enjoyed working with,then identify the leadership style. pleasant —— 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 —— unpleasant friendly —— 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 —— unfriendly helpful —— 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 —— frustrating cooperative —— 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 —— uncooperative self-assured —— 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 —— hesitant efficient —— 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 —— inefficient open —— 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 —— guarded
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-19 Three Factors involve in situation determination: Leader-member Relations Task Structure Position Power Fiedler Contingency Model
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-21 The leader’s job is assist his followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization. Path-Goal Theory
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-22 Presume that manager can change their leader’s style when it is need. Steps to Path-Goal Determine the outcomes. Reward subordinates. Clarify the paths. Path-Goal Theory
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-24 Motivating with Path-goal Path-goal identifies four behaviors leaders can use: 1) Directive behaviors: 2) Supportive behavior: 3) Participative behavior: 4) Achievement-oriented behavior: Which behavior should be used depends on the worker and the tasks.
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-25 Empowerment Process of giving workers at all levels authority to make decisions and the responsibility for their outcomes. Empowerment helps managers: Get workers involved in the decisions.
2000-1 王青 - 管理学院 - 上海交通大学 7-26 Gender and Leadership Stereotypes suggest women are supportive and concerned with interpersonal relations. Similarly, men are seen as task-focused. New research indicates that actually there is no gender-based difference in leadership effectiveness. However, women are seen to be more participative than men.