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Behavior Interventions EDSP Presented by Michelle Antle, Simpson Co.; Marty Boman, WKU; Sandy Hackbarth, LifeSkills; Connie Miller, Warren Co..; & Debra.

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Presentation on theme: "Behavior Interventions EDSP Presented by Michelle Antle, Simpson Co.; Marty Boman, WKU; Sandy Hackbarth, LifeSkills; Connie Miller, Warren Co..; & Debra."— Presentation transcript:

1 Behavior Interventions EDSP Presented by Michelle Antle, Simpson Co.; Marty Boman, WKU; Sandy Hackbarth, LifeSkills; Connie Miller, Warren Co..; & Debra Myers, CESC. Prepared by KATC (2010)

2 Behavior Intervention & ASD If mechanisms for behavior change are applicable across individuals despite their unique characteristics (e.g., autism, learning disabilities, mental retardation), What is special about ASD? Prepared by KATC (2010)

3 Behavior Intervention It is important to consider that for many individuals with ASD, problem behavior is a result of a lack of knowledge of “what to do” to most effectively access reinforcement. What types of things do we attempt to access in our daily lives? Prepared by KATC (2010)

4 Behavior Intervention This module will place a heavy emphasis on reinforcement-based interventions. Recognition of behavior as communication and then teaching the “what to do.” Prepared by KATC (2010)

5 Preference-assessment Any effective behavior change program starts with the identification of possible reinforcers. Sometimes interventionists may take the view that a student did not respond to the delivered reinforcer, it might be more beneficial to take the alternative view that the interventionist may have failed to identify an effective reinforcer. Prepared by KATC (2010)

6 Getting Started: Review Prepared by KATC (2010)

7 A ntecedent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

8 A ntecedent Interventions Produce change through the arrangement of antecedent events to get the student in contact with reinforcement for desirable behavior. Prepared by KATC (2010)

9 A ntecedent Interventions Set clear behavioral expectations for all students. Consider the individualized needs of learners when delivering expectations. Prepared by KATC (2010)

10 A ntecedent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

11 A ntecedent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

12 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

13 A ntecedent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

14 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

15 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

16 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

17 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

18 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

19 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

20 A ntecedent Intervention- Activity Activity Prepared by KATC (2010)

21 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

22 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

23 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper et al., 2007)

24 A ntecedent Intervention Prepared by KATC (2010)

25 A ntecedent Intervention Increasing the effectiveness of NCR Conduct a FBA to determine reinforcers maintaining problem behavior. Identify powerful reinforcers Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper et al., 2007)

26 A ntecedent Intervention Increasing the effectiveness of NCR: By setting an effective schedule- Observation time Occurrences 3 hours( 180 min) 30 occurrences Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper et al., 2007) Set interval slightly below the quotient = 6 min = 4 min

27 A ntecedent Intervention Increasing the effectiveness of NCR Combine with extinction procedures. Withhold reinforcement briefly if interval ends at the same time as a problem occurs. Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

28 A ntecedent Intervention Arg, I can’t keep up this pace! Thinning the Schedule Increase the interval in response to student behavior change Constant time Proportional increase Session to session Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

29 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

30 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

31 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

32 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

33 C onsequent Interventions Using extinction effectively Withhold all reinforcers for the problem behavior Be consistent Consider using instructions (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) Prepared by KATC (2010)

34 C onsequent Interventions Using extinction effectively Prepare for the the burst. Increase the number of opportunities to use extinction Do not use for extreme behaviors (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) Prepared by KATC (2010)

35 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KATC (2010)

36 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

37 C onsequent Interventions Immediacy Schedule Amount Pairing Proximity Labeling Expressiveness Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

38 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

39 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

40 C onsequent Interventions Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

41 Differential Reinforcement Reinforcement is delivered contingent on the occurrence of a behavior other than the problem behavior or the behavior occurring at a reduced rate & Withholding reinforcement as much as possible for the problem behavior. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) Prepared by KATC (2010)

42 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & H ew ard, 2007)

43 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010)

44 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010)

45 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010)

46 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010)

47 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010)

48 Differential Reinforcement Using DRA/DRI effectively Selecting Behaviors to be Reinforced that: -Exist in the learner’s repertoire -Require equal or less effort than the problem behavior -Occur at a rate that will provide sufficient opportunities for reinforcement -Will be likely reinforced in the student’s natural environments Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

49 Differential Reinforcement Using DRA/DRI effectively Select reinforcers that are powerful and can be delivered consistently. Consider what is doable. Reinforce alternate response immediately and consistently! Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

50 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

51 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

52 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

53 Differential Reinforcement Using DRL effectively Use baseline data to select response limits Gradually thin the DRL schedule Provide feedback to the learners concerning their performance Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

54 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

55 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

56 Differential Reinforcement Interval DRO Reinforcement is delivered if NO occurrences of the behavior were observed during an entire time interval. If the behavior occurs during an interval the interval is re-set and delays the delivery of reinforcement. Prepared by KATC (2010)

57 Differential Reinforcement Example A third grade teacher determines a student’s response rate to be 6 times an hour; she sets her DRO interval at 5 min. If the student exhibits the response during the interval, the timer was re-set for another 5 minutes. If the student did not exhibit the response then the student earned 2 min of free play. Prepared by KATC (2010)

58 Differential Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

59 Differential Reinforcement Using DRO effectively Set intervals to assure frequent reinforcement. Avoid delivering reinforcement at the same time as other problem behaviors are occurring. Gradually increase DRO intervals Prepared by KATC (2010)

60 Making decisions based upon data- Let’s Practice! Determine current rate of behavior Decide on DR schedule to use Determine actual schedule based upon data on behavior

61 Goldilocks Rule of Reinforcement Reinforcement schedule needs to be “Just Right”. Opportunity to earn reinforcement needs to be available 2 times as often as challenging behavior. Does not mean will actually earn – reinforcement is contingent. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

62 Kicks Data: 16 hour day Day12345 Data Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

63 Noncompliance Data: one hour per day Day12345 Data Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

64 Number of Assignments Completed Data: one hour per day Day12345 Data58345 Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

65 Hits Data: Four hours in evening at group home Day12345 Data Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

66 Shirt Tearing Data: 6 hour day at school Day12345 Data20111 Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

67 Inappropriate Acts Data: two hours a day for 5 days (total) HitsKicksSpits Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

68 Delivering Reinforcement Primary/unconditioned reinforcers Secondary/Conditioned reinforcers Token economies Prepared by KATC (2010)

69 Token Economies Three components A list of target behaviors Tokens are delivered for emitting target behaviors. A menu of back up reinforcers Prepared by KATC (2010)

70 Token Economies Develop an understanding of cause and effect for behavior. Measure occurrence of appropriate behavior. Allow for visual feedback on progress for child. Reminds adults to reinforce appropriate behavior. Provides motivation for child to see his/her progress. Prepared by KATC (2010)

71 Token Economies Using token economies effectively Select durable tokens Consider student’s interests in token boards Deliver tokens immediately Use powerful reinforcers Prepared by KATC (2010)

72 Token Economies Using token economies effectively Teach the system Initially, deliver tokens on a dense schedule for low demand responses Gradually increase demands Prepared by KATC (2010)

73 Video Example NYFAC. Discrete trial teaching (1999). NYC: New York Families for Autistic Children. Token Economy

74 Delivering Reinforcement Implementing effectively Rule 1: Cannot tell whether something is a reinforce until try it and observe effect on the behavior. Rule 2: What is a reinforce for one person may not be for another. Individualized. Rule 3: To be effective, a reinforce must occur during or immediately after the behavior. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

75 Delivering Reinforcement Implementing effectively Rule 4: Limited Access Rule 5: Reinforcement must be contingent if it is to be effective. RE: First this, then that. Rule 6: When strengthening a new behavior, reinforce frequently. Rule 7: Size of SR+ is big enough to keep student motivated, but not to big for satiation Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

76 Functional Communication Training A special form of DRA FCT is a systematic practice to replace inappropriate behavior or subtle communicative acts with more appropriate and effective communicative behaviors. When using FCT, teachers/practitioners analyze the problem behavior to determine what the learner is trying to communicate. Prepared by KATC (2010) Franzone, E. (2009). Overview of functional communication training (FCT). Madison, WI: National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.

77 Functional Communication Training Why do you think FCT is such a powerful intervention for students with ASD? Prepared by KATC (2010)

78 Functional Communication Training What types of things do students with ASD communicate via problem behavior? ‘Hi, notice me” “I need help” “ I don’t want that” “What is that” “I want that one” “Something’s wrong” Prepared by KATC (2010)

79 Functional Communication Training Reinforce the student saying help, instead of screaming when the computer freezes. Reinforce handing a picture card to a peer requesting a toy instead of grabbing it. Prepared by KATC (2010)

80 Large Group Discussion Problem Behavior Replacement Gagging = DrinkPicture of a cup = Drink Biting = “I need a break””____________ = “I need a break” Spitting= “I want to play” ____________ = “I want to play” Screaming = “It is too loud”___________ = “It is too loud”

81 Functional Communication Training Advantages Dramatic decrease in challenging behavior Increases communication Social validity Gains that generalize Gains that last Disadvantages High rates of recruitment for reinforcement Request may occur at inconvenient times Extinction may produce undesirable effects Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

82 Functional Communication Training Implementing FCT effectively Complete an FBA Identify a replacement communicative response Teach the new response through prompting Prepared by KATC (2010)

83 Functional Communication Training IDENTIFY REPLACEMENT COMMUNICATIVE RESPONSE Consider form used in current repertoire Should be more effective and efficient than problem behavior Should be understood by others Your data will determine if the form that was selected is working Prepared by KATC (2010)

84 Functional Communication Training Forms Gestures Signs Words Picture systems Objects Technology Function Requests/mand Prepared by KATC (2010)

85 REMEMBER The FUNCTION of the communication stays the same, the FORM changes. More than one behavior may serve the SAME function. One behavior may have SEVERAL functions. Change the FORM of the behavior not the function. Prepared by KATC (2010) Functional Communication Training

86 Implementing FCT effectively Use a dense schedule of reinforcement. Limit your use of verbal prompts. Combine with other behavior reductive techniques. Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

87 Functional Communication Training Implementing FCT effectively Thinning Reinforcement Consider presenting reinforcement on an interval schedule during instruction. Once the communicative response is established, gradually increase the intervals. Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

88 Video Example of DRC YAI/New York League for Early Learning. (2003). Creating a classroom for children with autism and other disorders of relating and communication. New York: YAI/New York League for Early Learning. Snack Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

89 Communicative Function: Opportunity Creation Prepared by KATC (2010)

90 Expanded Communicative Functions Social convention Greeting others, responding to one’s name Attention to Self Getting the attention of others, showing off Reject/ Protest Rejecting non-preferred items, indicating no Request an object Requesting access to preferred objects or activities Request an action Requesting assistance with a task Prepared by KATC (2010)

91 Expanded Communicative Functions Request information Requesting the name of an object, requesting clarification Comment Alerting a communication partner to some relevant aspect of environment Choice making Choosing between two or more alternatives Answer Indicating yes or not to a question Imitation Imitating a head nod for yes or no Prepared by KATC (2010)

92 Punishment Procedures Using Punishment Procedures Punishment procedure should only be used when other methods have failed. (Iwata, 1988) Unfortunately, they are often the first intervention employed in some educational contexts. Prepared by KATC (2010)

93 Punishment Procedures Types of Punishment Procedures Reprimands Response Interruption/Redirection (RIR) Response blocking Time out Response cost Overcorrection Contingent exercise Prepared by KATC (2010)

94 Punishment Procedures Problems associated with punishment- based procedures –Social acceptability –Doesn’t teach appropriate responding –Collateral effects on responding Prepared by KATC (2010)

95 Punishment Procedures Problems associated with punishment- based procedures –Modeling of undesirable behavior –Aggressive responses to aversive events –Overuse of Punishment Prepared by KATC (2010)

96 Punishment Prior to implementing any punishment procedures, there must be data documenting attempts at behavior change using less intrusive procedures. The determination to use punishment procedures should be made by an intervention team involving input from parents. Procedural fidelity and student responses should be monitored using continuous data collection. Prepared by KATC (2010)

97 Reprimands The delivery of a reprimand immediately following a problem behavior “In spite of the widespread use of verbal reprimands in an effort to suppress problem behavior, surprisingly few studies have examined the effectiveness of reprimands as punishers” Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

98 Response blocking Physically intervening as soon as a person emits a problem behavior to prevent or block the completion of the response Often used to address chronic and automatically reinforced behaviors The response is blocked using the least intrusive prompt Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

99 Response Interruption/Redirection A procedure that combines Response blocking and Differential Reinforcement. Often used as a treatment for automatically reinforced behaviors. Prepared by KATC (2010)

100 Response Interruption/Redirection During the FBA, the target response to be blocked/interrupted is identified as well as an alternative response. Once the response block is provided, the participant is immediately prompted to engage in a competing response using a least to most prompting hierarchy. Prepared by KATC (2010) (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007: NPDCA. 2009)

101 Response Interruption/Redirection Verbal or physical blocking can be used. Example: Student engages in “video talk”. Teacher says” What color is your shirt?” Student says “Blue.” Teacher delivers praise. Prepared by KATC (2010)

102 Response Interruption/Redirection Verbal or physical blocking can be used Example: Student engages in “hand-mouthing.” Teacher blocks. Teacher prompts student to move to the cabinet and request for an edible. Prepared by KATC (2010)

103 Response Cost A loss of a specific amount of reinforcement occurs contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior. E.g. Fines Combined with Positive Reinforcement Prepared by KATC (2010)

104 Response Cost Benefits of using Response Cost combined with Positive Reinforcement Students do not have to lose all of their tokens. Students have opportunity to earn new tokens. (Ensuring a reinforcement reserve) Prepared by KATC (2010)

105 Time Out Time out from positive reinforcement The withdrawal of the opportunity to access reinforcement or the removal of a reinforcer for a specified time, contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior. Prepared by KATC (2010)

106 Time Out Though the use of time out with children seems prevalent in many contexts, the reality is that it is a punishment procedure and therefore, subject to the same cautions. In addition, if incorrectly applied (for escape maintained behaviors) it may strengthen problem behavior. Prepared by KATC (2010)

107 Time Out May be less appropriate for students with ASD Consider that many students with ASD may find academic demands challenging, sensory input overwhelming, and a lack of understanding social cues frustrating. These students may actually find a removal from educational contexts to be reinforcing. Prepared by KATC (2010)

108 Time Out In addition, some students with ASD may find time out an opportunity to engage in automatically reinforced behavior/stereotypy. Again, making time out reinforcing and possibly strengthening problem behavior. Prepared by KATC (2010)

109 Time Out For example: Mica walks into the gym with his class. He is overwhelmed by the loud noises and melts down. The teacher removes the student to the hallway for a brief 3 minute time out. The students learns quickly that the fastest way to get out of gym is to meltdown “Smart kid, huh” Prepared by KATC (2010)

110 Time Out So again Time out from reinforcement should be considered only after other interventions have failed (and the data show it). A thorough FBA should be conducted and positive reinforcement (attention, tangible) should be identified as well as the function. Parents should be involved in the decision to use time out. Prepared by KATC (2010)

111 Time Out Non-Exclusionary Individual is not physically removed from the time-in setting Planned ignoring Withdrawal of a specific reinforcer Contingent observation Prepared by KATC (2010)

112 Time Out Exclusionary Student is removed entirely from the environment for a specified period. Very difficult to implement accurately & effectively in school settings Prepared by KATC (2010)

113 Time Out Considerations The “time-in” environment must be reinforcing. All relevant parties must be informed of the behaviors leading to time out. Prepared by KATC (2010)

114 Time Out Considerations Keep time out periods brief (2 to 10 min). Clearly define exit criteria (exit should not be based solely on the passage of time but on an improved behavioral condition). Prepared by KATC (2010)

115 Time Out Considerations Obtain permission before using it. Apply it consistently. Evaluate effectiveness. Prepared by KATC (2010)

116 Time Out Again, only when less intrusive procedures have failed should time out be used. This should involve documentation of the previously conducted interventions. Prepared by KATC (2010)

117 Overcorrection Behavior reduction tactic in which contingent on the occurrence of problem behavior the student is required to engage in effortful behavior related to the problem. Restitutional repair the damage caused by the problem behavior and then some Positive practice repeated practice of correct response or response incompatible with problem behavior Prepared by KATC (2010)

118 Contingent Exercise Person is required to perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior. “Drop and give me 20.” Prepared by KATC (2010)

119 Putting it together! Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

120 Steps in Setting Up a Behavior Support Plan  1. Identify the challenging behavior that needs to be changed. Define the behavior in specific observable, measurable terms.  2. Measure the challenging behavior. Collect data as to when, with whom, how often, antecedent events/settings, precursor behaviors, etc. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

121 Steps in Setting Up a Behavior Support Plan  3. Complete a functional assessment. Develop a “hypothesis” (best guess) about the function of the behavior based upon the data and information collected.  4. Select behavior change strategies. The strategies are to “match” the function of the challenging behavior using a multi-element approach. Develop a Positive Behavior Support Plan and establish realistic IEP goals and objectives. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

122 Steps in Setting Up a Behavior Support Plan 5. Implement and monitor effectiveness. Continue to measure the challenging behavior in the manner as before/during the functional assessment. 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the PBS Plan based upon progress monitoring data. 7. Revise PBS Plan, as necessary. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

123 Tips for PBS Plans Keep in mind the function of the challenging behavior. The function of the challenging behavior may be different for different students or different behaviors of the same student. Write the plan in an outline format, keeping the plan to 2-3 pages. Use headings so that strategies may be found and read quickly for ease in implementation. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

124 Tips for PBS Plans Be specific in the directions so that all persons assisting with the student will understand and implement the plan in a consistent manner. Identify precursor behaviors and intervene early in the behavioral chain of challenging behavior. Precursor behaviors are the mild cues that the student may display that indicates that the more severe challenging behavior is likely to follow. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

125 Tips for PBS Plans Reward systems should match the rate of challenging behavior. Don’t expect a lot of behavior change for little reward. Use the Goldilocks Rule that suggests that the amount of reinforcement opportunities should be twice as much as the current rate of the challenging behavior. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

126 Tips for PBS Plans The rewards identified by the ARC must be ones that are important to the student for success. Those rewards only chosen for availability may not be powerful enough to motivate the student to change behavior. Make sure the student knows all rules and consequences. Be creative in reviewing the rules with students. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

127 Tips for PBS Plans Apply reinforcement and punishment consistently. Structure the environment. Plan ahead…Idle time invites problems. If unsure of strategies to use with a given student, assign ARC member to review literature for options or seek consultation from an outside source. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

128 Tips for PBS Plans The ARC may consider role playing strategies amongst those who will implement the plan to ensure consistency. Don’t specify strategies that the ARC members cannot or will not implement. PBS Plan is part of the IEP; therefore, a legal contract of services. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

129 Tips for PBS Plans Remember PBS Plans are not the same as a disciplinary plan. PBS Plans encourage and teach replacement behaviors. Disciplinary procedures may be only a small part of the plan. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

130 In Summary

131 Effective Interventions are… Multi-element approach Collaboratively designed Consistent Do-Able Based on setting the student up for success Clear & Concise: “If - then statements Based upon a 3:1 ratio of positive to negative comments. Prepared by KY Coop Network May 2010

132 Parting shots The success of any behavior change program is hinged on the accurate identification of reinforcers through FBA And careful monitoring via continuous data collection and the graphing of that data. Prepared by KATC (2010)

133 Parting shots How do I select a behavior intervention? Consider data from the FBA. Consider team and parent input. Consider interventions that teach new skills. Consider the least intrusive intervention for the student and teacher. Consider the difficulty in conducting the intervention. Prepared by KATC (2010)

134 A Review Prepared by KATC (2010)

135 "People don't shape the world, the world shapes them" (BF Skinner)

136 Reference List & Suggested Readings Alberto, P.A. & Troutman, A.C. (1995). Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers (Fourth Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall Publishers Bailey, J. & Burch, M. (2006). How to think like a behavior analyst. New York, NY: Psychology Press. Barbera, M.L. (2007). The verbal behavior approach: How to teach children with autism and related disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (Second Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall. Franzone, E. (2009). Overview of functional communication training (FCT). Madison, WI: National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.

137 Reference List & Suggested Readings Lee, D.L. & Axelrod, S. (2005). Behavior Modification: Basic Principles (Third Edition). Austin, TX : ProEd Publishers. Luce, S.C. & Smith, A.F. (2007). How to Support Children with Problem behaviors. Austin, TX : ProEd Publishers. NYFAC. Discrete trial teaching (1999). NYC: New York Families for Autistic Children. Vargas, J.S. (2009). Behavior Analysis for effective teaching. New York, NY: Routledge. YAI/New York League for Early Learning. (2003). Creating a classroom for children with autism and other disorders of relating and communication. New York: YAI/New York League for Early Learning.


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