Presentation on theme: "End of Life Decisions: 2015 Evidence Based Update Steven Miles, MD; University of Minnesota 2/9/15."— Presentation transcript:
End of Life Decisions: 2015 Evidence Based Update Steven Miles, MD; University of Minnesota 2/9/15
Conflict of Interest Disclosure The speaker does not have any personal, institutional or financial relationship with any health care lobbying or industry organization. I do not take honorariums from or represent the position of such groups. We are all mortal. 1820 Chovin MERIAN - Memento Mori-Physician.
Terminal Care Hospice Palliative Care Euthanasia-Passive Withholding Treatment Resuscitation Orders Physician Patient Relations Attitude of Health Personnel Ethics, Medical or Nursing Population groups (race, ethnicity) Patient participation Informed consent Decision making Social Work Religion (all) English Studies/trials MetaAnalysis Adult Hypothetical Vignettes N <50 I favor N>200, multicenter, multivariate-corrected studies. Most studies more than 10 years are discarded. Usable studies 300 42,000 83,000
OVERVIEW Epidemiology of end of life decisions Physician Factors Patient Religion and Values Family Factors Clinician-patient-family communication Ethics Consultation Grief
What % of US deaths are preceded by withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment? 1. Less than 20% 2. Less than 40% 3. About half 4. 60 to 80% 5. More than 80%
How Common are Limited Treatment Plans at the End of Life? 2.4 Million US deaths/ year. ~2.1 Million deaths under health care. Excludes homicides, car accidents, etc. ~1.8 Million deaths/ year under a plan that includes decisions to withhold or withdraw life- sustaining treatment. Court involvement/legal risks are small. Since 1976: ~150 appellate court decisions, two criminal cases (excluding euthanasia).
The Moral and Legal Consensus on Choices about Life Supporting Treatments Patients have a right to refuse any medical treatment regardless of whether they are "terminal" or “curable.” There is no difference between stopping a treatment or not starting or using for a trial and then stopping it if is not not benefiting a patient. Decisionally incapable persons do not lose the right to have any treatment decision made. Tube feedings are a life-sustaining treatment.
A city that neglects hospices will have more hospital and ICU deaths and higher health care costs in the last year of life. J Pall Med 2010:14:215-220
Myth: Health Care Costs are High Because of ICU Care of Very Old. Last year of life 11% USA health $, 27% Medicare costs (flat x20y) Health Aff 2001;20:188-95.’ Age-specific disability is falling. Hospital costs drop 50% from 65 to 85 years old. Nursing home, home care, drugs) rise from 65-85 years old, more than offset fall in hospital costs. Overall no trend in costs vs age at death. Milbank Q 2007;85:213-57 JAMA 2001;2861349-55.
Medicare Site of Death. Average age of 286,000 decedents is 81.9. 42% enrolled in hospice. JAMA 2013;209:470
Myth: US Health Care Costs so Much Because Americans are Really Old! We are young! United Nations: 2011data
Per Capita Health Spending and % Elderly: A young US uniquely out of position to deal with an aging population. OECD 2012, US Census Dept % of population over 65
Hospital Practice Variation Standardized early DNR rates vary. Lower in Non-profit hospitals 8.6 v 14.6%. Lower in large hospitals 11.1 v 15%. Lower in teaching hosp 9.5 v 13.7%. Lower in urban hospitals 12 v 26%. Acad Emerg Med 2013;20:381-7. 367 hospitals, Califor, 9.5 million pts > 65, 2—2-2010. Multiple regression. The difference between High end-of-life intensity and Low end- of-life intensity hospitals is not due to more starting of life sustaining treatment but because Low intensity hospitals propose LST as a time- limited-trial with pre-identified clinical benchmark for withdrawing to ensure its accountability. Intensive Care Med 2012;38:1886-96. Two hospitals one high, one low treatment, 173 patients over 65, interviews of 4 attendings, staff and families
Hospital Practice Variation Post-stroke DNR: 3.5 fold! Stroke 2014;45:822-7. 2005-2011, >50 yo, 355 hospitals, 252,368 CVAs. DNR adjusted for severity of disease.
Practice variation: Blood cancer v solid tumors Cancer 2014;120;1572-8. 1 hosp, all pts dying of adv CA, 113 heme & 713 solid.
Clinician Death Anxiety & Terminal Care MDs with death anxiety: Treat more aggressively. Less tolerant of clinical uncertainty. Like elderly patients less. Greater interest in specialties. Psychol Rep 1998;83:123-8. 1/3 of MDs are uncomfortable discussing terminal care with patients 1/10 after discussing these issues with family. Arch Int Med 1990:150:653-58. See also CMAJ 2000;163:1255-9. Doctors, nurses, SWs with higher fear of death less likely to: Disclose prognosis P. <004 Assist in selecting proxy decisionmaker P<.000 Collaborate with team on advance planning P<.003 Death Studies 2007;31:563-72. N= 135, one institution. 1990 2007 1998 2011 A six day HCW course in how to face and cope with death anxiety, Decreased burnout. Decreased death anxiety. Improved job satisfaction, esp in relationships with eol patients. J Palll Care 20111;27:287-95.
Patient’ and Relative’ Agreement on P't’s Treatment Preferences Family more aggressive than patient. Family estimate of pt’s preference not improved by living will, improved by talk. Arch Int Med 2001;161:421- 30. J Pain & Sympt Manag 2005;30:498-509. What are the implications of doctors feeling more comfortable talking with family than with the patient?
Religion and Preferences for Life-Prolonging Care 88%: religion somewhat/very important. 47%: spiritual needs minimally/not at all supported by religious community 72%: spiritual needs minimally/not at all supported by medical system. Religiousness associated with wanting all measures to extend life (OR 2., 95% CI=1.1-3.6). J Clin Onc 2007;25:555-60. 230 CA pts. See also Palliat & Supportive Care 2006; 4:407-17.
Religious Coping* and Use of Life-Prolonging Care High religious coping associated with More use of respirators (11 vs 4%; P=.04). More intensive care during last week of life (14 vs 4%; P=.03). Same use of hospice (71 v 73%; P=.66). JAMA 2009;301:1140-7. Prospective multivariate analysis, 7 hospitals across US, 345 adults with advanced cancer followed to death, median survival 122 days. *Religious coping: I seek God’s love and care, etc.
How Does Spiritual Care From Medical Team Affect Medical Care Received and EOL Quality Of Life. Patients whose spiritual needs were supported by medical team received 3.5 X more hospice care compared to those not supported (P =.003). High religious coping patients whose spiritual needs were supported were 5X more likely to receive hospice (P =.004) and a fifth as likely to receive aggressive care (P =.02) in comparison with those not supported. Spiritual support from the medical team associated with higher QOL near death (20.0 v 17.3, P =.007). Spiritual support from pastoral care visits associated with higher QOL near death (20 v 18, P =.003). J Clin Onc 2010;28:445-52. Prospective, multisite, multivariate regression study of 343 patients with advanced cancer. Median 116 days to death. Patient-rated support of spiritual needs by the medical team. Measured receipt of pastoral care services. J Clin Onc 2007;25:555-60 and J Pall Med 2006;9:646-57 have similar finding on QoL.
Religious Support and Intensive Care Deaths Patients saying that religious/spiritual needs were inadequately supported less likely to receive a week or more of hospice (54% vs 73%; P =.01) more likely to die in an ICU (5.1% vs 1.0%, P =.03). Among minorities and high religious coping patients, those reporting poorly supported religious/spiritual needs received more ICU care (11.3% vs 1.2%, P =.03; 13.1% vs 1.6%, P =.02, less likely to have > 1 week of hospice (43.% vs 75.3%, P =.01; 45.3% vs 73.1%, P =.007) increased ICU deaths (11.2% vs 1.2%, P =.03 and 7.7% vs 0.6%, P =.009). EOL costs higher when patients said their spiritual needs were inadequately supported ($4947 vs $2833, P =.03), particularly among minorities ($6533 vs $2276, P =.02) and high religious copers ($6344 vs $2431, P =.005). Cancer 2011;117:5383-91. Prospective, multisite, 339 advanced CA patients accrued from outpatient setting and followed until death. Spiritual care measured by patients' reports that health team supported their spiritual needs.
An Answer? Patients with high spiritual support from religious communities Less hospice AOR 0.37; P=.002 More aggressive EoL treatment AOR 2.62; P=.02 More ICU deaths AOR 5.22; P=.004. Among patients supported by religious communities AND receiving spiritual support from medical team. More hospice use AOR 2.37; P =.04 Less aggressive interventions AOR 0.23; P=.02 Fewer ICU deaths AOR 0.19; P=.02 JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jun 24;173(12):1109-17.
Who should offer religious support? The patients own spiritual community is most effective! JAMA Inter Med 2013;173:1109017. J Pastoral Care & Counseling. 2013; 67(3- 4):3-. 233 consecutive hospitalized pts received a proposal of spiritual support randomly by chaplain or by nurses by random assignment. One hospital, single variable.
Family ICU Distress 2001-~2005 A Focus on Milieu More anxiety when: Acute illness Lack of regular MD-RN meetings Lack of room reserved for meetings with relatives. Crit Care Med 2001;29:1893-7. Prosp study, 43 French ICUs (6 peds), 637 pts, 920 relatives. Similar data in US, see. Crit Care Med 2008;36:1722-8. 46% Conflict with med staff (complaints of disregarding primary caregiver in tx discussions, miscommunication, unprofessional behavior). 48%: Valued clergy. 27%: Wanted better space for meetings. 48%: Preferred attending MD as info source. Crit Care Med 2001;29:197-201. 6 AHC ICUs. Tape audit. See also Chest 2005;127:1775-83. 20012005
Family ICU Distress 2005 - 2009 A Shift to Focus on Caregiver Psychiatry 35% depressed 69% relatives had symptoms of anxiety. (Caregivers who saw loved one with delirium 2X as likely to have generalized anxiety.) (p < 0.04 after multivariate adjust). J Pall Med 2007 ;10:1083-92. 200 caregivers of patients with terminal CA.). 2007 2005 Patients with Advanced CA with Children ↑ panic disorder (OR=5.41) ↑ desire for aggressive tx vs palliative care (OR=1.77) ↓ advance care planning (e.g., DNR) (OR,=0.44) ↓ quality of life in the last week of life (P=.007). Spousal caregivers with dependent children had more major depression (OR 4.5) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR= 4). Cancer 2009 ;115:399-409, 6 hospitals, prosp, 668 pts 4.5%Major Depression27% 3.5General Anxiety10 8Panic10 4Complicated Grief/PTSD5 J Clin Onc 2005 ;23:6899- 907. 200 caregivers of advanced CA pts. Crit Care Med 2008;36:1722-8. 1 AHC, 41 caregivers. 2008 2009
Family ICU Distress in ICUs 2010 2010 PTSD: 10-19%. Depression: 14-24% Correlates of above Knowing patient for shorter time PTSD, P =.003 Depression, P =.04 Discord between fam' DM prefs v their DM roles PTSD, P=.005 Depression, P=.05 Chest 2010;137:280-7. Prosp, multivar, 226 families 57% mod to severe traumatic stress 80% borderline anxiety 70% borderline depression. >80% mod to severe fatigue, sadness, fear More severe symptoms: Younger age, female, and non-white relative. Young patient was only variable associated with symptom severity. Despite symptoms, most relatives coping at and functioning at high levels during the ICU experience. Crit Care Med 2010;38:1078-85. Prospective, cross-sectional study, 3 ICUs at 1 AHC. 74 relatives 74 patients at high risk for dying after ICU stay >72 hrs on vent.
The Troubled ICU Milieu. Conflicts seen by 72% (5,268) of ICU staff. (2/3 are severe). Personal animosity, mistrust, and mis/missing communication. During end-of-life care: Lack of psychological support, Absence of staff meetings Problems with decision-making. Pre/postmortem care within the last week, Symptom control not ensured jointly by physicians and nurses Am J Resp & Crit Care Med 2009;180:853-60. One- day cross-sectional survey of ICU clinicians. 7,498 ICU staff members (323 ICUs in 24 countries). Our conflicts are sensed and echoed by patients and families.
Shifting from Milieu to Clinical Psychiatry Diminishes Milieu Factors. Clinician Factors (comm style, death anxiety, accessibility Institutional issues (rooms, privacy, lack of attendings, conflicts between staff) The social patient ($ hardship, caregiver burden) Social Psychology (race dyads) Psychiatry of pt & relatives
Clinician-patient-family communication Disclosing Prognosis Family Meetings
MDs Readily Provide Qualitative Terminal News; Withhold Quantitative Data Qualitative info. Is it bad, doc? 80% want 66% ask. 88% given 20% do not want. 22% ask for it. 61% given!! Quantitative info. How long will I live? 53% want 66% ask for it 55% given. 46% do not want 2% ask for it. 4% given. Health Comm 2002;14;221-241. N=351 (a 24% return to a single mailing of pts registered with Mich Am Can Soc. Oversamples breast cancer.) Educated, sicker, fearful, and acceptance of death want more information.
Quantitative Data for CPR decisions Of patients who undergo inpatient CPR, 4 in 10 will have a return of spontaneous circulation, 1 in 10 will survive to hospital dismissal. Of patients who are successfully resuscitated and discharged, 1 in 4 survive more than 5 years. (More favorable for healthy baseline status, younger age, witnessed arrest, initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation, CPR <10 minutes). The American Journal of Medicine 2010; 123:4–9. See also New Engl J Med 2009;361:22-31
The “Chicago Hope” Effect: Deformed Consent All Chicago Hope, ER, and Rescue CPRs 94-95: 67% survive to discharge. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1578-82. Patient’s/surrogates’ prediction of survival following in- hospital cardiac arrest with CPR averaged 72% The higher the prediction of survival, the greater the frequency of preference for full code status (P =.012). Chest 2011;139:802-9. Interviews of 100 patients or their surrogates in an MICU. 19% of pts knew prognosis after CPR. When informed of prognosis, 37% of living wills were changed. J Crit Care 2005;20:26-34. A 325-bed hospital 82 pts with living wills on admission.
Awareness of terminal illness, discussions with MDs and treatment plans and outcomes. Being aware of terminal illness: 1.6 X as likely to get preferred tx. Discussing EOL wishes with MD: 2 X as likely to get preferred tx. Being aware & discuss with MD: 3.5 X as likely to get preferred tx. (44% of pts who knew they were terminally ill had no talk with MD!) J Clin Onc 2010;28:1203-8. 7 hospitals. 325 pts with advanced cancer. Preferences assessed a median of 125 days before death. Multivariate analysis (function, survival time, demographics, discussions, awareness of term condition).003 of Terminal Condition
Dr: This asymptomatic pt has 4-6 months to live. When would you discuss hospice? 65%: discuss prognosis now. 44%: discuss DNR (Most would wait for sx/no more tx to offer. 26%: discuss hospice. 21%: discuss site of death. Non-cancer Mds more likely than cancer MDs to discuss DNR status, hospice, and preferred site of death now (all P <.001). Cancer 2010;998-1006. Nat survey 4074 MDs txing CA pt. Multi var. But oncologists say refusal of pall care to accept chemo pts is a barrier to referrals, so they wait. J Clin Onc 2012;30:4380-6
Patient with less than 6 months to live: What have you been told? 53% had discussed hospice with MD. Patients with more severe pain, dyspnea or a greater desire for palliative care were no more likely to have discussed hospice than those with less severe symptoms (23 v 19% p=.31) Arch Int Med 2009;169:954-62. 1517 pt with stage IV (metastatic) lung CA, multicenter, multivar.
What happens when a terminally ill patient comes to a family conference? Patient presence was associated with More discussions of goals of care (P=0.009) Less communication of prognosis (P=0.004) and symptoms dying patients may have (P<0.001). Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2013;46:536-45. Data collected right after 140 consecutive family conferences. 91%: solid tumors, median age: 59 yo. Patients participated in 49% of FCs.
Accepting Terminal Prognosis Younger P. 0000 More education P.<05 Smaller social networks P.<05 46% depressive or anxiety disorder (v 22% p<.01) 37% Hopelessness (v 9% P.000) 9% Difficult talk with friends (v 1% P.<05) J Clin Onc 2009;27:5757-62. Canadian 8 hospital prospective survey, 381 pts with advanced CA, who knew they were terminally ill, had estimated survival of < 6 months and receiving palliative care. This is a rich paper.
Early support to help pts think about palliative care goals 283 pts with Small Cell CA Standard Care18 wks: Goal: “Cure my cancer” 32% IV Chemo last 60 days of life: 35% Early Palliative Care +/- Chemo 18 wks: Goal:“Cure my cancer” 17%IV Chemo last 60 days of life: 17% J Clin Onc 2011;29:2319.
Treatment, discussions and acceptance of death Number of Aggress Interventions Family and pts having end of life discussions vs those not having discussions Accept terminal (53 v 29% P<.001) Value comfort over life extension (84 v 74% p<.001) Against ICU death (63 v 28% P<.001) JAMA 2008;300:1665-73.
End of Life Treatment Discussions and Last Week Costs, Quality of Death, Quality of Bereavement End of life discussions: ↓ Ventilation (1.6 v 11.0%) ↓ CPR (.8 v 6.7%) ↓ ICU admit (4.1 v 12.4%) ↓ 46% Last week $ tx. (P=.002). No higher depression or worry. Earlier hospice enrollment. More Aggressive Care ↓ Quality of life (6.4 v 4.6) ↑ Depression in bereaved caregivers JAMA 2008;300:1665-73. Arch Int Med 2009;169:480-8. US. 6-hosp prosp, longit cohort multivar. Pts with advanced CA and their caregivers (n = 332 dyads), 2002- 2008. Patients followed from to death, (median 4.4 months, caregivers 6.5 months p death). A third had EOL discussions..
How does patient being present change eol care planning conferences? More likely discussed Pts goals for tx 97 v 83%.009 Less likely discussed Prognosis 83 v 61%.004 Nutrition/hydration 62 v 47.06 Terminal sx 44 v 16%.0003 Pain Sympt management 2013;46:536-45. 140 consecutive conf
What is Hope-Full Disclosure? i.e., Addressing the Paradox of ‘How do we Faithfully Be with a Loved One who is Dying?” Patients want doctors to Be knowledgeable and realistic, Offer up to date treatment (90%) (goals, continuity, not illusions, abandonment and do-nots) Say that pain will be controlled (87%). Provide an opportunity to ask questions Patients lose hope if Doctor appears nervous or uncomfortable (91%) Gives prognosis to family before the patient (87%) Uses euphemisms (82%) J Clin Onc 2005;23:1278-1288. 126 pts with metastatic cancer seeing 30 oncologists. Focus on finding consensus on patient’s values rather than on most empowered family member’s preference. J Crit Care 2006;21: 294-304. 51 clinician-family ICU conferences from 4 hospitals
Family Satisfaction with EoL Conferences Family spoke 30%, MDs 70% % Family speaking time correlated with Perceived quality of MD information, MD listening, MD understanding of issues, Meeting needs, and Conflict resolution. Crit Care Med 2004;32:1284-88. Tapes of 51 meetings with 51 families, 214 relatives, 4 hospitals, 36 MDs. 111 potential meetings, 36 families excluded because of MD pref. 46% of approached families consented to taping. Mean meeting time 32 min SD=15 min. See also Arch Int Med 2004;164:1999-2004. So, LISTEN UP!
Family meeting tips Accommodate extended families. Include family clergy in preference to hospital chaplains (consider pre-contact with clergy). Minimize staff in room. Sit down. Take time. Private space. Give a business card with your cell phone on it when the situation is close to death.
The intergenerational gift between dying persons and their caregivers. A dying person shows caregiver how to face death. The caregivers learn how to face death & teach the next generation how to care for a dying loved one. The next generation learns how to care for a dying person. On death
Two-thirds of med school seniors dread dealing with the distress of families. Half find this kind of care depressing. Half of these had done it once. Rarely the primary discussant. J Pall Med 2010;13: 319-26. Survey of 1455 senior med students at 62 schools, 62% response rate. Only clinical experience providing end-of-life care was associated with self-perceived competence (P=.015). Acad 2009;84:1533-9. 74 Med, 2 AHCs, multivariate regression for many demographic variables. Housestaff: If we won’t teach...... they won’t learn. See also: Crit Care Med 2002;30:290-6. J Pall Care 2005;8:363-71. J Crit Care 2005;20:20-5. Pall Med 2006;20:579-84. Acad Med 2006;81:1008-12
Admission ICU Goal/Prognosis Meetings Multidiscip conf to discuss goals, expectations, milestones, & time frames for ICU tx. F/u to discuss palliative care when goals not met. Reduced LOS from (2 to 11) days to (2 to 6) days, P>.01 [interquartile range]. Earlier access to palliative care No increased ICU mortality. Amer J Med 2000;109:469-75. 530 consecutive adult med ICU AHC pts. See also Eur J Cancer 2007;43:316-22.
Mid-Course ICU Ethics Consults RNs could unilaterally ask for ethics consults if they saw unaddressed ethics issues Hospital days (-2.95, P =.01) ICU days (-1.44, P =.03) Vent days (-1.7 days, P =.03) Mortality: no difference. Consultations regarded favorably Prosp, RCT, adult ICUs, 7 hospitals, N=551. JAMA 2003;290:1166- 72. Same as Peds/Adult ICU study Crit Care Med 2000; 28:3920- 4.
Mid-Course ICU Ethics Consults Mandatory ethics consultation after 96 hours of respirator treatment (v historical control or optional ethics consults) More decisions to forgo life-support and reduced LOS. Crit Care Med 1998;26:252-9. Prospective, controlled study, N=99. Recent historical control. Standard prompts on decisions and communication. Action strategies suggested.
Let the RNs into the Process RNs less likely than MDs to say Families well informed about advantages and limitations of further therapy (89% vs. 99%; p <.003) Ethics issues discussed well in the team (59% vs. 92%; p <.0003) Ethical issues discussed well with family (79% vs. 91%; p <.0002) Crit Care Med 2001;29:658-64. Cross-section survey; 31 US peds hosp. See also Chest 2005;127:1775-83.
Summary on ICU Ethics Consults Mandatory or routine interventions better. Lead to more effective use of palliative care plans without increasing mortality. Financial impact: Some cost savings but primary value-added effect is by increasing available ICU bed days by decreasing ICU use for people who will not survive. Health Affairs 2005;24:961-71.
Hospice Reduces Deaths of Caregivers During First 18 months of Widowhood Short hospice stays (<3 days) associated with more depression in caregivers if the caregiver: has previous depression (p<.01) spouse of decedent (p<.01) overwhelming caregiver burdens (p<.04) Am J Geriatr Psych 2006;14:264-9. 3 yr longit. 175 family caregivers of patients with terminal cancer who enrolled in 1 hospice 1999-2001. 13 months follow-up. Soc Sci & Medicine 2003;57:465-75. Risk adjusted, retro 30,838 in hospice matched to 30,838 couples without hospice care drawn from 200,000 sample. OR.9 OR.95 Late Hospice Enrollment
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